Nothing can destroy your email marketing performance quite like email deliverability problems. Whether it’s the slow slip of inbox placement due to diminishing engagement or the sudden collapse due to a block or blacklisting, it’s always devastating and usually a shock.
But, honestly, email deliverability problems are rarely a surprise if you know what to look out for. During my nearly 10 years focused on deliverability, I’ve noticed a number of events that often precede email deliverability problems:
This is perhaps the biggest change you can make to your email program. Changing providers is essentially starting from scratch—you have new IP addresses and a new sending subdomain, neither of which have a reputation associated with them. You also need to worry about things like importing the suppression list from your old provider, so that you don’t start off on the wrong foot by mailing to a bunch of bad addresses.
It’s wise to have a deliverability consultant monitoring your inbox placement closely during the ramp up phase, which generally takes 4-6 weeks. Speaking of the warming up process...
If you change the IP address that you send emails from or add a new one, you can’t just start sending tons of emails from the new IP address on day 1. That’s what spammers do, as they jump around from one IP address to another to try to avoid detection. This behavior will get your emails blocked.
Instead, you need to gradually ramp up email volume from a new IP address in a methodical way to give mailbox providers a chance to see that their users are responding positively to it. There’s an ever-changing formula for warming up an IP address properly, and it takes a watchful eye to know when to dial volume back to give the process more time.
Your sending subdomain (i.e., email.brand.com) is just as important as your IP address. Mailbox providers watch both of these closely, which is why you can’t simply change your IP address to run away from a poor sender reputation. Even if you change your sending subdomain, that poor reputation can be tied back to your main domain, which no legitimate business can abandon.
Brands should be even more careful when warming up a new sending subdomain, because the sender reputation associated with it is even stickier than the one associated with your IP address.
With so much business riding on your performance during your peak seasons, it’s the worst time to have email deliverability problems. But your peak seasons are also the peak seasons for your competitors and peers, which often means a spike in emails at mailbox providers, putting them on their guard.
If you’ve experienced deliverability issues in the past during your highest volume seasons, then your risk of problems in the future is even higher. It’s important for senders to prepare in advance for an increase in volume during peak season. We help our clients employ strategies like ramping up in advance and running a reactivation program to bring more people back into their active file long before the pressure is on to send more.
There are two types of bounces to be concerned about:
Hard bounces, which are invalid addresses, either because the address has never been active or because the address was abandoned and then retired by the mailbox provider
Soft bounces, which are temporary blocks by mailbox providers that can be related to things like reputation or volume
The most common reason that emails hard bounce is that the email address you’re trying to send email to doesn’t exist. Spammers often have high bounce rates, because their lists generally have lots of expired and guessed email addresses, since they try to reach the largest audience possible. So, when you send to a lot of bad addresses and your hard bounce rate is high, mailbox providers take this as a sign that you might be a spammer—or at least that you’re being reckless with your subscriber acquisition processes. If your hard bounce rates ever rise above 5% in any given month, it’s a good idea to seek professional help to find the source of the problem that’s causing so many invalid email addresses to get onto your list.
For any large sender, some amount of soft bouncing is normal due to deferrals from smaller mailbox providers that can only accept so much mail at a certain time. However, if you see a soft bounce rate upwards of 3%, especially at the top providers like Gmail and Outlook.com, then you may be getting blocked due to reputation issues. A deliverability consultant can help you identify the root cause, make a plan for improvement, and (in some cases) get the block removed on your behalf.
Each of your subscriber acquisition sources has a different value-risk mix because they attract subscribers who have different goals, different levels of familiarity with your brand, different expectations, and so on.
For instance, people who opt in during checkout are familiar with your brand and have made at least one purchase. The chances of their email address bouncing are lower, because they want their email receipt, and the likelihood of them being disappointed with your email content is low because they’ve already shown an affinity for your brand by making a purchase and raising their hand to receive your emails.
At the other end of the spectrum are people who are getting onto your email list through, for instance, a sweepstakes or co-registration. People who opt in via a sweepstakes may only be interested in winning a prize and not interested in receiving your emails. And people who opt in via a co-registration form may not be familiar with your brand or may be confusing it with another brand. In either case, these subscribers are a high risk of spam complaints and unsubscribes.
Because of the different value-risk mix of every subscriber acquisition source, you should watch your deliverability closely when adding a new one.
Track your list size and understand what your baseline list growth is so you can identify any unexpected jumps in list size. This is important because a spike may be a sign of bot signups that could harm your sender reputation and deliverability.
To make seeing aberrant behavior easier to spot, consider tracking individual subscriber acquisition sources. For instance, track the new subscribers you get from your checkout opt-in separately from those you get from the signup form on your homepage. This will help you see potential problems sooner and investigate them more easily.
Most brands are able to keep their complaint rates well below 0.2%, so exceeding this level is a serious sign of trouble. It’s important to remember that overall complaint rates can be misleading, since Gmail and many smaller mailbox providers do not offer a feedback loop that redirects complaints back to you, skewing this metric to the low side. Complaints should be monitored by recipient domain and by campaign. This metric can also be leveraged to monitor the performance for new signup sources.
Just like tracking new subscribers by acquisition source allows you to see trends more clearly, the same is true of tracking email performance by mailbox provider. This can let you see issues that you might have with a particular provider like Gmail, for example.
If your engagement metrics seriously dip at one mailbox provider, then that’s likely a sign of being blocked there or having been added to a blacklist that the provider uses to inform their blocking decisions. Very low open rates (in the 1-2% range) can also be a sign of spam folder placement. Deliverability experts know how to read engagement rates to determine if you are trending in the wrong direction or already in trouble.
In addition to big dips in engagement, you want to be on alert for your open rates becoming too low. That’s because mailbox providers use user engagement as a major factor in their filter algorithms. If very few of their users are engaging with your emails, that is a signal to the mailbox provider that you are not targeting intelligently and are mailing to a lot of inactive subscribers. This can result in your mail being flagged as undesirable and sent to spam.
Experiencing any of those events could and probably should prompt you to reach out for some help from a deliverability expert. Better safe than sorry is the name of the game when it comes to deliverability, given the costs associated with email deliverability problems.
For example, before becoming a client of ours, a national retailer was having problems at just Yahoo and AOL and it was costing them $100,000 a week in lost email sales. If your brand has suffered deliverability issues in the past that have led to this level of lost revenue, or if your brand generates millions of dollars from email marketing every year, then my answer for when to seek expert deliverability help is different for you:
You should have deliverability help all the time.
Brands with smaller financial risks can manage their deliverability reactively, calling in help when problems arise. But for you, the potential losses associated with deliverability problems are simply so high that they must be managed proactively.
At a minimum, someone in your organization should be reviewing the key deliverability performance metrics and they should understand when to take action. However, we often find that even if a brand has a resident deliverability expert, it’s not a full solution. Because these employees often serve other roles and have other responsibilities in addition to deliverability, they likely need external support.
So whether you have a deliverability expert on your email team or not, you should ideally have an ongoing partnership with a deliverability consultant to help you build a sustainable strategy that allows you to reach the optimal number of subscribers, while protecting your email reputation and performance.
The last thing you need is for all of your hard work to be thwarted by spam folder placement or an all-out block at a mailbox provider. Unfortunately, if you’re not watching it all the time for trouble, it doesn’t take long to ruin your deliverability. And once your reputation is damaged, it can take a long time to rehabilitate it.
It boils down to the simple fact that without good deliverability, nothing else matters, because your subscribers aren’t seeing your emails.
The on-going review and assessment of your email program from a deliverability perspective is smart insurance for all the money you’re investing in email marketing. It gives you the peace of mind that your key performance indicators are in the green, and that you are trending in the right direction month-over-month, and year-over-year. If an issue crops up because of one of the 11 issues listed above, you will know there is someone to help you minimize the damage as quickly as possible.
Need help with your email deliverability? Oracle Marketing Cloud Consulting has more than 500 of the leading marketing minds ready to help you to achieve more with the leading marketing cloud, including a dedicated email deliverability practice within our Strategic Services Group.