Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database has always had very low latency, now it also has extreme scalability. TimesTen 126.96.36.199.0 has a new scale-out feature called TimesTen Scaleout that enables linear scalability via a shared nothing architecture. TimesTen Scaleout is a SQL RDBMS that supports ACID transactions and persists its data to disk.
The above chart shows a benchmark that achieved 144 million transactions per second using the TPTBM workload with 80% SQL selects and 20% SQL updates.
The above chart shows a benchmark that achieved 1.2 billion transactions per second using the TPTBM workload with 100% SQL selects. The rest of this blog goes into the details of what this means and how it was achieved.
These benchmarks were run for several hours to obtain the 'steady state' behavior and avoid any short term 'caching effects'.
The Telecom Provider Transaction Bench Mark [TPTBM] workload models a simple transactional workload used by some telecommunications providers. The TPTBM workload uses a single table:
CREATE TABLE vpn_users( vpn_id TT_INT NOT NULL, vpn_nb TT_INT NOT NULL, directory_nb CHAR(10) NOT NULL, last_calling_party CHAR(10) NOT NULL, descr CHAR(100) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (vpn_id, vpn_nb) );
This table was populated with 640 million rows.
The SQL select statement used a primary key lookup with randomly generated values for the bind variables :
select directory_nb, last_calling_party, descr from vpn_users where vpn_id = ? and vpn_nb = ?;
The update statement updates the 'last_calling_party' column via the primary key with randomly generated values for the bind variables :
update /*+ TT_CommitDMLOnSuccess(1) */ vpn_users set last_calling_party = ? where vpn_id = ? and vpn_nb = ?;
These two benchmarks were run on the same hardware in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.
64 BM.HighIO1.36 bare metal compute instances were used:
TimesTen Scaleout is a distributed SQL RDBMS database with a shared nothing architecture.
A TimesTen Scaleout database has a single database image. That means that each user sees a single database schema with tables, indexes, sequences, views and materialized views.
As the benchmarks use 64 compute servers in the Oracle Cloud, logically the TimesTen Scaleout database looked like this:
The single VPN_USERS table was accessible on each of the 64 machines. The data was automatically distributed across the 64 machines using a consistent hash on the primary key (the VPN_ID and VPN_NB columns). Each machine contained about 10 million rows and there were 640 million unique rows in the VPN_USERS table. As the SQL Select and Update statements used random values for the primary key bind values, this means that each transaction could occur on any of the 64 machines.
The Oracle TimesTen Scaleout 188.8.131.52.0 software was used with the following database configuration:
[tptbm] PermSize=40000 TempSize=8192 CkptLogVolume=4096 LogBufMB=4096 LogFileSize=4096 LogBufParallelism=16 Connections=10000 LockWait=3600 DatabaseCharacterSet=US7ASCII ConnectionCharacterSet=US7ASCII Datastore=/u10/instances/tptbm/tptbm LogDir=/u10/instances/logs PrivateCommands=1 PLSQL_MEMORY_SIZE=1024
The following techniques were used to make the TPTBM workload scale to millions of transactions per second:
Disclaimer: these are my personal thoughts and do not represent Oracle's official viewpoint in any way, shape, or form.