Expanding Google's InnoDB Synchronization Improvements to Solaris
By Tim Cook on Apr 21, 2009
There is much excitement today at the launch of MySQL 5.4, so I will relate my story about a project I contributed to this new version.
When we started looking at performance improvements for MySQL, we were interested in "low hanging fruit", or fixes and changes that could reap measurable benefits for users in the short term.
An obvious candidate at that time was the now well-known Google SMP patch. I had seen Mark Callaghan present on this at the MySQL User Conference in 2008, and was interested to investigate.
I was pretty new to InnoDB at that time, and was soon to discover that InnoDB was possibly experiencing poor scalability around its mutexes and read-write locks because InnoDB had a private implementation of adaptive mutexes and read-write locks, and this was probably not the best implementation on all or even most platforms MySQL is available on.
Now InnoDB's "private" mutexes and rw-locks were a good way to get spin-locks on all platforms, which may be a win in many cases, but as the Google team had demonstrated, it could be improved on. Indeed, I knew that adaptive spin-locks are available on Solaris, and they offer an extra advantage - if the holder of a lock is found to be off CPU, we don't bother spinning, but instead put the thread wanting the lock straight to sleep.
So, I decided to undertake a couple of performance studies of InnoDB's locking, being:
- Apply the Google SMP patch to MySQL 5.1 and test
- Modify InnoDB in 5.1 to use POSIX mutexes and RW-locks and test
The second step turned out to be quite complicated. I could not even change all of InnoDB's RW-locks to POSIX ones, as the InnoDB sychronization objects offer functionality not available via POSIX. It also meant we would be diverging more significantly from the InnoDB in 5.1, so this option - although looking promising - was shelved.
This left the Google SMP patch. It also looked promising. It was a less dramatic change, and offered scaling benefits in all the testing I did.
There was one last snag though - the mutex and RW-lock improvments in the Google SMP patch would only be applied if you were building on x86/x64 with GCC 4.1 or later, as they relied on GCC's atomic built-ins.
You can consider that we have a two-dimensional matrix of platforms that MySQL supports, being a compiler, then an Operating System. To make a feature portable across this matrix, you need to find a portable API, write code that is portable, or write code that uses a choice of different portable API's depending on what is available.
Now we definitely wanted to get a similar benefit for InnoDB on SPARC, and not necessarily just with GCC. In any case, GCC did not offer all of the built-in atomics for SPARC at the time. Happily, there are atomic functions available in Solaris that fit the job fine. MySQL 5.4 uses the functions if you build on Solaris without a version of GCC that supports built-in atomics.
Just so you understand though, here is (a simplified version of) what happens when you build MySQL 5.4 on your chosen platform with your chosen compiler:
- IF (compiler has GCC built-in atomics)
use GCC built-in atomics
- ELSE IF (OS has atomic functions)
use atomic functions
use traditional InnoDB synchronization objects, based on pthread_mutex\*.
As Neel points out in his blog, it was an exercise we learnt something from, even if we did develop functionality that will not be used. The important thing is we know we have improved the performance of MySQL, by extending the Google SMP improvements to all Solaris users, regardless of chosen compiler.