Monday Feb 09, 2015

How to lock every account in a LDAP subtree with OUD

Let's assume a customer would like to lock every LDAP account in a given LDAP subtree stored in Oracle Unified Directory.
An account can be locked by setting the ds-pwp-account-disabled operational to true in the accounts to lock. More about account lockout and password mpolicy is available at Managing password policies

It is possible to assign the ds-pwp-account-disabled attribute to a set of accounts using virtual attributes.Virtual attributes are attribues whose values do not exist in persistent storage but are dynamically generated in some way.

OUD Collective attribute is a mean to manage virtual attributes. More about collective attributes at using-collective-attributes '

To lock every account in the oud=people,dc=example,dc=com subtree, create the following collective attribute:

dn: cn=myattr,dc=example,dc=com
objectclass: top
objectClass: subentry
objectClass: collectiveAttributeSubentry
objectClass: extensibleObject
ds-pwp-account-disabled;collective: true
subtreespecification: {base "ou=people", minimum 1}
collectiveConflictBehavior: virtual-overrides-real

Thursday Jan 22, 2015

ODSEE bundle patch available for download

ODSEE Bundle Patch has been Released for Directory Server and Directory Proxy Server. (Doc ID 1962875.1)

Search for Doc ID 1962875.1 in My Oracle Support for instructions.

Wednesday Jan 21, 2015

How to get OUD to start on Linux/UNIX boot

To simplify integration of OUD with the target OS, you can use the create-rc-script command  to generate a shell script to start, stop, and restart the directory server. You can update the resulting script to suit the needs of your directory service. This command is available for UNIX or Linux systems.

So you can use this command to create RC scripts e.g. run  sudo create-rc-script -f /etc/init.d/oud -u oud.

Then run this script when the appropriate run level change on the target distribution. For instance, on OEL, run sudo chkconfig --level 3 oud on

Make sure you use the -u userName option unless you really want to run OUD as root. 

Wednesday Jan 14, 2015

Configuring OUD to Support Multiple Enterprise User Security Domains

Configuring OUD to Support Multiple Enterprise User Security Domains

If your users and groups are stored in multiple domains, you must configure OUD to support multiple EUS domains. For example, a single OUD instance contains two EUS domains. One EUS domain stores users entries in Active Directory below cn=users,dc=ad1,dc=com. A second EUS domain stores user entries in a different Active Directory instance below cn=users,dc=ad2,dc=com. You must configure OUD to support each EUS domain.

To configure OUD to support multiple EUS domains:

  1. Configure OUD as if the primary domain is the single domain containing all your users and groups.

    In this example, the primary domain is dc=ad1,dc=com.

    Complete the tasks in 28.4 Oracle Unified Directory Used as a Proxy Server for an External LDAP Directory with Enterprise User Security

  2. Configure the secondary domain.

    In this example, the secondary domain is dc=ad2,dc=com.

    For this secondary domain, complete the steps in User Identities in Microsoft Active Directory

  3. Create a new naming context for the EUS domain, which is dc=ad2,dc=com in this example.

    Complete the steps in to configure Enterprise User Security for an existing Oracle Unified Directory Proxy Server instance.

  4. Update the Oracle context with the new naming context.

    1. Create an LDIF file.

      In the following myconfig.ldif example, make the following substitutions:

      • Replace dc=ad1,dc=com with the DN of your first domain.

      • Replace orclcommonusersearchbase with the users location in the secondary domain.

      • orclcommongroupsearchbase with the groups location in the secondary domain.

      dn: cn=Common,cn=Products,cn=OracleContext,dc=ad1,dc=com
      changetype: modify
      add: orclcommonusersearchbase
      orclcommonusersearchbase: cn=users,dc=ad2,dc=com
      orclcommongroupsearchbase: cn=groups,dc=ad2,dc=com
    2. Update OUD configuration using the LDIF file you created in step 4a.

      ldapmodify -h oudhost -p 1389 -D "cn=directory manager" 
      -w password -f myconfig.ldif

Wednesday Oct 22, 2014

OUD and Referral Management with AD

Oracle Unified Directory(OUD) can be configured as a proxy to Active Directory (AD).
For instance, it is possible to define a Remote LDAP Extension in OUD pointging to Root Catalog of AD 2008.

Searches to AD would return referrals, so the appropriate OUD Network group can to be modified to  follow referrals automatically with the command below:

/dsconfig -h localhost -p 4444 -D "cn=directory manager" -j ~/.pwd  -X -n set-network-group-qos-policy-prop --group-name network-group --policy-type referral --set referral-policy:follow

In some cases, a ldapsearch with a basedn which is not local to the root catalog still returns referrals to another AD Server. 
OUD reports the following error: 

SEARCH operation failed
Result Code:  1 (Operations Error)
Additional Information:  Unable to process the operation because a referral leading to an unknown or disabled ldap-server was received

This error is specific to AD because AD builds referrals as follow: ldap://,DC=example,DC=com. does not systematically correspond to a LDAP host declared in the OUD proxy configuration. For security reasons, OUD follows referrals to hosts explicitely declared as LDAP server extensions in the OUD proxy configuration.

To make sure OUD is able to chase referrals, define a new ldap-server-extension with remote-ldap-server-address property set to and remote-ldap-server-port set to 389. In this case, creation of a proxy workflow element is not required for this ldap-server-extension. More on ldap-server extensions at

Friday Oct 17, 2014

Troubleshooting OUD/EUS integration: Invalid username/password; logon denied

Oracle's Enterprise User Security (EUS) enables you to store user identities in LDAP-compliant directory service for Oracle Database authentication.

Enterprise User Security enables you to centrally manage database users across the enterprise. Enterprise users are created in LDAP-compliant directory service, and can be assigned roles and privileges across various enterprise databases registered with the directory.

Users connect to Oracle Database by providing credentials that are stored in Oracle Unified Directory. The database executes LDAP search operations to query user specific authentication and authorization information.

Here are steps to troubleshoot EUS when the "Invalid username/password; login denied" is reported to DB users by EUS:

First, this error is reported in 2 cases:

  • the DB is not able to find a LDAP user that corresponds to the provided name on the DB side, 
  • the user password is invalid.
Assuming the password is correct, follow the procedure below to identify the root cause:

#1 Check EUS configuration

The database reads its configuration from the entry cn=common,cn=products,cn=oraclecontext,$BASEDN:

  • The location of users and groups is configured in the attributes orclcommonusersearchbase and orclusercommongroupsearchbase. They are referred to as users and groups containers.
  • The username supplied to sqlplus must correspond to the value of orclcommonnicknameattribute in the user entry. For instance, if I connect to sqlplus using sqlplus joe/password, and orclcommonnicknameattribute=uid, then the database will look for an entry containing the attribute uid=joe.
  • The user entry DN must start with orclcommonnamingattribute. For instance, if orclcommonnamingattribute=cn, the user entry must be cn=joeuser,<orclcommonusersearchbase>.

You can read the configuration using the following command:

$ OracleUnifiedDirectory/bin/ldapsearch -h $LDAPSERVER -p $PORT -b cn=common,cn=products,cn=oraclecontext,$BASEDN  "(objectclass=*)" orclcommonusersearchbase orclcommongroupsearchbase orclcommonnicknameattribute orclcommonnamingattribute
dn: cn=Common,cn=Products,cn=OracleContext,dc=eusovd,dc=com
orclcommonusersearchbase: ou=people,dc=eusovd,dc=com
orclcommongroupsearchbase: ou=groups,dc=eusovd,dc=com
orclcommonnicknameattribute: uid
orclcommonnamingattribute: cn

#2 Check the User Entry

You  must ensure that there is an LDAP entry in the user container that matches the username supplied by SQL+. Target LDAP entry must be an instance of inetorgperson and contain the attribute defined in orclcommonnicknameattribute:

$ OracleUnifiedDirectory/bin/ldapsearch -h $LDAPSERVER -p $PORT -D $DN -w $PWD -b ou=people,$BASEDN  "(uid=joe)"                         
dn: cn=joe,ou=people,dc=eusovd,dc=com
userPassword: {SSHA}DdW5je5GCUnT2jVTeMdfPR9NWwkBt40FwWImpA==
objectclass: person
objectclass: organizationalPerson
objectclass: inetorgperson
objectclass: top
uid: joe
cn: joe
sn: joe

#3 Check the User-schema mappings

If the user entry exists and can be read by the database entry, the problem can be that there is no user-schema mapping. EUS maps the LDAP user entry to a database schema following a mapping rule that is defined in Enterprise Manager console. The mapping associates either a user DN to a schema or all users of a subtree to a schema. It can be defined at the domain level or at the database level.

#4 Check the global schema associated with the user

If there is a user-schema mapping, ensure that the schema has the CONNECT privilege.

The global schema was defined using the following commands:

SQL> CREATE USER global_ident_schema_user IDENTIFIED GLOBALLY;
User created.
SQL> GRANT CONNECT TO global_ident_schema_user;

Monday Oct 06, 2014

Data Adaptation again

Yet another common usage of OUD Transformations to transparently adapt some values during provisioning:

In this real use case, ODIP (Oracle Directory Integration Platform) is used to synchronize some SQL tables with OUD.
The country every user is living in is stored in an Oracle DB and is synchronized by DIP into the LDAP country attribute.
Unfortunatelly, the country name format expected by the applications on the Directory side differ from the one used on the DB side.

In this case, country name is stored in full in the DB (e.g. USA, FRANCE, ITALY) when apps that contact OUD expect standard country short form e.g. US, FR, IT.  For administrative and political reasons within the enterprise, it is not possible to create a additional mapping table in the RDBMS that could be used by a SQL JOIN to return the correct values.

OUD Tranformation Framework can be used to address that integration problem: a so-called add inbound tranformation is invoked when a new entry is created and value mapping is applied on the incoming add request before it is processed by the OUD database engine. For sake of peformance, this transformation can be configured to trigger on udates originated from DIP only, using the network group mechanism.

To create a transformation that maps USA to US and France to FR, do the following:

First create the transformation with the appropriate mappings:

dsconfig create-transformation \
--set source-attribute:country=%country%(US,USA)(FR,France)(IT,Italy) \
--type add-inbound-attribute \
--transformation-name mapCountry \
--set conflict-behavior:virtual-overrides-real 

Then stash this transformation to a Transformation Workflow element to be inserted ahead of local DB (userRoot):

dsconfig create-workflow-element \
          --set enabled:true \
          --set next-workflow-element:userRoot \
          --set transformation:mapCountry \
          --type transformations \
          --element-name mapCountry

Then put the Transformation Workflow Element to the appropriate workflow so  that it can be invoked:

dsconfig set-workflow-prop \
          --workflow-name userRoot1 \
          --set workflow-element:mapCountry

 At that stage, appropriate values are automatically stored in OUD.

Thursday Oct 02, 2014

Using OUD Transformations to expose Operational attributes as Regular ones

Some (badly written) LDAP client applications expect to get operational attributes along with regular attributes when they search the directory w/o specifying attributes explicitely. The LDAP standards specify that operation attributes have to be explicitely requested in the search request. Alternatively, the special character + can be used to retrieve all the operational attributes w/o specifying explictely one by one.

OUD adheres to the LDAP standard, so operational attributes must be explicitely specified in a search request.
A specific option to facilitate migration from other directories can be used to expose schema related attributes (objectclasses, attributeTypes) as regular attributes. This option is described in one of my posts at

However, others operational attributes are not exposed. Don't worry, OUD transformations framework can help you to solve this specific integration problem:

Say you have an client application that expects the (operational)  pwdChangedTime attribute to be returned systematically as a user attribute.

First, setup a OUD proxy. The client application in question will point to that proxy, but others applications will not be subject to the (non-standard) directory server behaviour.

Then create a Add Outbound Transformation as below:

dsconfig create-transformation \
          --set client-attribute:pwdChangedTime=%pwdChangedTime% \
          --type add-outbound-attribute \
          --transformation-name Mymap \ 

Then put that transformation to a transformation workflow element:

dsconfig create-workflow-element \
          --set enabled:true \
          --set next-workflow-element:userRoot\
          --set transformation:myMap \
          --type transformations \
          --element-name myTransfo \ 

Insert your transformation workflow element to the appropriate workflow:

dsconfig set-workflow-prop \
          --workflow-name workflow1 \
  --set workflow-element:myTransfo \ 

Update the OUD Proxy schema, so that the pwdChangedTime is no longer declared as Operational. All you need to do is remove the  Usage DirectoryOperation and the NO-USER-MODICATION flag. Either modify the schema via LDAP or use the procedure below:

stop the OUD proxy
copy default schema
cp <OUD_HOME>/config/schema/01-pwpolicy.ldif <OUD_PROXY_INSTANCE>/OUD/config/schema
edit <OUD_PROXY_INSTANCE>/OUD/config/schema and change the pwdChangedTime definition as below:

 attributeTypes: ( NAME 'pwdChangedTime'
  DESC 'The time the password was last changed' EQUALITY generalizedTimeMatch
  ORDERING generalizedTimeOrderingMatch SYNTAX
  X-ORIGIN 'draft-behera-ldap-password-policy' )

restart the OUD proxy

At that stage, pwdChangedTime will be returned by a LDAP search with attribute list set to * or empty. 

Wednesday Jul 23, 2014

OUD R2PS2 Bundle Patch available

The first bundle patch for OUD 11gR2PS2 ( is available for download from My Oracle Support.

Search for the support note 1905631.1 (Doc ID 1905631.1 : Information And Bug Listing of Oracle Unified Directory Bundle Patches: (11gR2PS2))  that describes its content and download instructions (patch 18662903)

Thursday Jul 10, 2014

ODSM Silent Install

If you plan to manage Oracle Unified Directory (OUD) with Oracle Directory Services Manager (ODSM), you must install and configure it as described in the Installation Guide. The installation process described rely on a Graphical User Interface. 

Here is the equivalent procedure in silent mode so that you can incorporate it in a script or automated procedure:
To make it short, you need to install OUD as described in this post, configure an application server (WebLogic), then install the ADF framework, install ODSM and add it to a weblogic domain then start WebLogic.

#1 Weblogic installation 

- download weblogic 10.3.6 from
- locate wls1036_generic.jar in the delivery
- create a input file (WEBLOGIC_silent.xml) for Weblogic install (properties in bold to be customized, assuming that you install the middleware components in /local/myinstall)

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<data-value name="BEAHOME" value="/local/myinstall" />
<data-value name="USER_INSTALL_DIR"  value="/local/myinstall" />
<data-value name="INSTALL_NODE_MANAGER_SERVICE"   value="no" />
<data-value name="COMPONENT_PATHS" value="WebLogic Server/Core Application Server|WebLogic Server/Administration Console|WebLogic 
Server/Configuration Wizard and Upgrade Framework|WebLogic Server/Web 2.0 HTTP Pub-Sub Server|WebLogic Server/WebLogic JDBC Drivers|WebLogic 
Server/Third Party JDBC Drivers|WebLogic Server/WebLogic Server Clients|WebLogic Server/WebLogic Web Server Plugins|WebLogic Server/UDDI 
and Xquery Support|WebLogic Server/Server Examples" />
<data-value name="LOCAL_JVMS" value="/usr/lang/JAVA/jdk7_u45/linux-x64"/>
- run
    wls1036_generic.jar -mode=silent -silent_xml=./WEBLOGIC_silent.xml

#2 Install ADF

- download the Oracle Application Development Framework from Oracle Technology Network (OTN) at the following location:
- locate and unzip to target directory e.g. /local/myinstall/appdev_unzip
- create an input file (oui_install.rsp ) to install appdev (properties in bold to be customized)

Response File Version=
#Set this to true if you wish to specify a directory where latest 
updates are downloaded. This option would use the software updates from 
the specified directory
#If the Software updates are already downloaded and available on your 
local system, then specify the path to the directory where these patches 
are available and set SPECIFY_DOWNLOAD_LOCATION to true
#Provide the Oracle Home location. The location has to be the immediate 
child under the specified Middleware Home location. The Oracle Home 
directory name may only contain alphanumeric , hyphen (-) , dot (.) and 
underscore (_) characters, and it must begin with an alphanumeric 
character. The total length has to be less than or equal to 128 
characters. The location has to be an empty directory or a valid SOA 
Oracle Home.
#Provide existing Middleware Home location.

- install appdev (path in bold to be customized)
/local/myinstall/appdev_unzip/appdev/Disk1/runInstaller -silent -response ./oui_install.rsp -invPtrLoc /local/myinstall/appdev_unzip/oraInst.loc  -jreLoc /usr/lang/JAVA/jdk7_u45/linux-x64 -waitforcompletion

#3 Create Weblogic domain for ODSM

- Create template file (e.g and customize the properties in bold.

import os, sys

- Run the following command to create the ODSM domain:

/local/myinstall/oracle_common/common/bin/ /local/myinstall/

#4 Configure ODSM

- create template file (e.g and customize properties in bold


import os, sys


- Run the following command:

/local/myinstall/oracle_common/common/bin/ /local/myinstall/

#5 Start Weblogic domain


Thursday Apr 17, 2014

Provisioning to OUD using the OIM connector for OUD

OIM provides an extensive list of connectors, including a connector to Oracle Unified Directory (OUD). OIM Connector for OUD is described at

The Lookup.LDAP.UM.ProvAttrMap lookup definition maps process form fields with OUD target system attributes. This lookup definition is used for performing user provisioning operations.

For the default user fields that you can specify or modify values during provisioning operations , see Section, "User Fields for Provisioning an OUD Target System."

For example, the Process Form Field "Common Name" is mapped on cn on the OUD side.

Some specific Process Form Fields are mapped differently. For instance the "Login Disabled" Process Form Field is mapped to the __ENABLED__ keyword in the default mapping file. __ENABLED__ does not directly correspond to any OUD attribute. It is a keyword that is associated with an effective OUD attribute in the OUD Connector configuration, as described in The OUD attribute used to store account state is specified  by the enabledAttribute. By default, it is set to ds-pwp-account-disabled.

The same indirection mechanism apply to the NsuniqueID and Password Process Form Fields mapped to __UID__ and __PASSWORD__ that are provisionned to the OUD attributes defined by uidAttribute and passwordAttribute (entryUUID and userPassword by default).

Tuesday Apr 15, 2014

An additional log file for OUD: server.out

The server.out file stored in <OUD_Instance>/OUD/logs may contain useful pieces of information logged very early in the OUD bootstrap process, e.g. before the logging subsystem is initialized.

This file is overriden at each restart.

The start-ds output is sent to standard output as well.  You are welcome to re-direct that output to
any log that you like overwriting the existing one or appending if you prefer.  For instance, you can redirect logs like these into their own date and time specific output file so that you can  examine each start and stop output independently.

Tuesday Apr 08, 2014

OUD External change log and rootDSE search

Some LDAP client applications perform subtree searches with search base set to the rootDSE (empty DN).
Oracle Unified Directory (OUD) nicely routes the search to every top level suffix automatically.

When the replication is enabled, OUD automatically publicizes all changes that have occurred in a directory server database in the cn=changelog suffix. This is particularly useful for synchronizing the LDAP directory with other subsystems.  The cn=changelog suffix may contains millions of changes depending on the modification rate on the replication topology and the change retention policy (purge delay).

Subtree searches with search base set to the rootDSE are routed to the cn=changelog suffix as well as long as the replication is enabled. In general, this is not a problem in testing/stagging area, because the changelog is almost empty. However, in production, this may have big impact on performances as this suffix may contain many entries. Furthermore, custom  indexes corresponding to client access pattern do not exist on that suffix, so they can't be used to speed up entry processing.

In order to address that problem, you can disable the so-called external changelog, without disabling the underlying replication changelog used by the replication. To do so, run the following command on the OUD servers for each user suffixes:

dsconfig -h <hostname> -p <admin port>  -D "cn=directory manager" -w <admin password> -n \
  set-external-changelog-domain-prop \
  --provider-name "Multimaster Synchronization" --domain-name <your suffix>  \
  --set enabled:false

Note: some provisoning apps may require the external changelog to synchronize with external systems. If so, keep the external changelog enabled on a couple of OUD servers and reserve them for these apps.

Friday Feb 28, 2014

Oracle Unified Directory (OUD) Forum on OTN

Friendly reminder, feel free to post OUD-related questions on the OUD Forum available at


I am Sylvain Duloutre, I work as a Software Architect in the Oracle Directory Integration Team, the customer-facing part of Directory Services & Identity Management Product Development, working on Technical Field Enablement.

The views expressed on this blog are my own and do not necessarily reflect the views of Oracle.


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