Monday Oct 10, 2011

Leadership, Motivation and Performance

Last week I attended a webcast on the science of motivation, led by Dan Pink, author of Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. The webinar was really interesting in that Pink addresses motivation as an intrinsic need, comprised of autonomy, mastery and purpose. What really caught my attention was the comment that disengagement in the workplaces costs about $300 Billion per year.

In talking about autonomy, Pink claims that “management” is an 1850’s technique and that engagement occurs through self-direction rather than by being managed. Example of autonomy in the business world include “Fed Ex Days” at Atlassian where employees are given a day to be creative and then present to a “board” the next day – called “Fed Ex Days” because they have to deliver something overnight. At Google, “20% Time” is where employees are given 20% of their time to work on things outside of their area of responsibility. In both cases, the deliverables from these activities often become parts of the corporate portfolio.

As part of the webinar, we took an “Autonomy Audit” that consisted of four questions, rated from 1 (low) to 10 (high). Pink suggests that managers try the Autonomy Audit with their teams and predict the average score. The four questions are:

  1. How much autonomy do you have over your time at work – for instance, when you leave, when you arrive, and how you allocate your hours each day
  2. How much autonomy do you have over your tasks at work – your main responsibilities and what you do in a given day?
  3. How much autonomy do you have over your team at work – that is, to what extent are you able to choose the people with whom you typically collaborate
  4. How much autonomy do you have over your technique at work – how you actually perform the main responsibilities of your job.

Greater than 34, you’re probably in the right spot; fewer than 27 or so could indicate a problem. Pink did make the point that the distribution of the points may matter more than the actual total.

The second component of motivation was described as mastery – the desire to get better at stuff and make progress in one’s work. And the only way to know if you’re getting better at something is to solicit feedback. Whether it’s asked for or not, it’s always a good idea to set out your own learning and performance goals – specify what you want to achieve, and check in with yourself once a month. Determine where you’re achieving, where you’re falling behind, any tools you need to achieve goals, etc.

Pink shared an interesting tool called “iDoneThis.” It’s basically an email-based productivity log. Each night you receive an email asking what you accomplished for the day. Your response to the email creates a calendar entry for your accomplishments. In our email-based world, this might be a great way to track your accomplishments for performance review time, your monthly check-in on progress, etc. I’ve only used it for a short time, but I find I don’t like to disappoint my calendar by not having anything to enter.

The third component of motivation was purpose. Not surprisingly, when people are reminded of the purpose of their job (or even that their job has purpose), they are more likely to engage in doing that job well. Most often, people think that leading is about the how – that is, getting the job done. As a leader, however, it’s more important to focus on the why - people do better when they know why they’re doing something.

So, what did I get out of the webinar that I think is worth passing on to you? Two things – one from a leadership perspective; the other from an individual perspective.

First - as a leader, if you feel that your team could be performing better, take a look at autonomy, mastery and purpose, and determine if those needs are being met for all your team members. If not, determine what steps you can take to improve each area. Maybe it’s as simple as explaining the “why” of a particular project; maybe you need to provide more latitude in how a deliverable gets accomplished.

Second, as an individual, do your own self-audit with regard to autonomy, mastery and purpose. If you feel like you’re lacking in autonomy, have a conversation with your manager to see what might change. If you’re lacking in motivation, do self-reviews each week to give yourself a sense of accomplishment within your job. If purpose is lacking, spend some time contemplating “why” you’re doing your job and if that fits with your intrinsic needs.

Overall, I think the webinar provided attendees with the opportunity to think outside of the “financial rewards box” when looking at ways to improve performance and motivation amongst team members. If you’d like to hear more about motivation from Daniel Pink, check out the TED talk that he gave at TEDGlobal 2009.

Monday Sep 12, 2011

You're a Manager...Now What?

You shone as an individual contributor.  You completed assignments that were thought impossible.  Your reward?  You were given a team and told "Congratulations.  You're a manager."  Gulp!  Now what do you do?

You refer to this blog for resources that can help you shine as a manager, too!  Plenty of resources exist to help you in your transition to management, but I think the resources below are some really good ones for people new to a management role:

  • www.12manage.com  - when you're in a meeting and someone mentions the Theory of Reasoned Action or a PEST analysis and acts like everyone should know what it is, head to this site.  12manage defines over 2000 management theories across 12 disciplines, including areas like strategy, decision-making, leadership and communications.
  • www.managementhelp.org  - also called the Free Management Library, this site provides overview and in-depth information on over 650 topics managers deal with, including coaching, crisis management, social networking and finances.
  • www.businessballs.com  - started as a "free ethical learning and development resource," the site has over 200 topics across 10 categories, all designed to help you be a better employee ad leader.
  • iTunes University has some great channels and podcasts on improving your management skills.  What Great Bosses Knowincludes titles like " Tips for New Managers," "The Power of Questions," "The Myth of the Open Door" and "Secrets of Great Coaching."  The HBR Idea Cast channel has titles like "Can Introverts Lead?," "What's Holding You Back?" and "Learn from Failure."  Another channel that looks interesting (but I haven't had time to explore) is The Look and Sound of Leadership.
  • www.mindtools.com  - MindTools (TM) provides a variety of resources to help you become exceptionally effective at management and leadership skills.  Although parts of the site are fee-based, the content offered for free is worth checking out.
  • YouTube has a variety of interesting channels to which you can subscribe.  When you subscribe, new videos for that channel are added to your YouTube home page, and you can elect to receive an email for new postings as well.  Harvard Business Review is a great channel, and a list of educational channels can be found here - click the "Most Subscribed" tab to see the most popular education channels.
  • EBSCHost - provides articles from a large database of magazines, journals and other resources, including Fast Company, Harvard Business Review and MIT Sloan Management review.  EBSCO also provides Business Book Summaries - short overviews of current business books.  Oracle employees can access EBSCO here.  Outside of Oracle, you can likely access EBSCO through you public library.

So, how can you actually use this information?  Let's say that you are a new manager, and you have a development conversation with your manager.  Yes, I used the term "development conversation" because those are important, and you should have them if you want to improve you capabilities!  Anyway, you determine that you need to improve your decision-making skills.  Here's what I would recommend:

  • Review "decision-making" at the Free Management Library and at businessballs.com.  Use the information you find there to further define the aspects of decision-making that you need to improve.
  • Take the quiz "How Good is Your Decision-Making?"at MindTools (TM).  Use this information to further refine your goals for improvement and to brainstorm some specific examples of things you might do.
  • Browse YouTube and iTunes to see if there are any videos or podcasts that you can watch about decision-making (put the term in the search box).  As you watch, take notes on things that you might or might not do and determine what you might discuss with your manager or present to your teammates.  Some videos that might be of interest include:
    • The Future of Decision Making - presented by John Rymer, Vice President and Principal Analyst at Forrester, addressing business' need to make smarter, faster decisions to reduce risk and stay profitable.
    • How Companies Can Make Better Decisions - a Harvard Business Review interview with Marcia Blenko, leader of Bain & Company's Global Organization Practice, on integrating effective decision making into your business.
  • Search EBSCOHost to find relevant articles or book summaries on decision-making.  Remember, if your company doesn't subscribe to EBSCHost, you can probably access the database through your public library.
  • From your research, determine one or two things about your decision-making skills that you want to change.  On your development plan, record those things with specific expectations.  Review this with your manager.
  • Check in with yourself, your manager, your direct reports, or your peers on a regular basis to determine if your skills are improving.  You may decide to check in with a few people on a monthly basis, your staff on a quarterly basis, etc.  If you need a tool to track your progress, consider the Stop-Keep-Start concept.  Basically, define your role and area for improvement and then ask what behaviors your should stop, keep and start.  An example might look like this:

Role: Manager

Intended Change: Improve Decision Making Skills

Behaviors to Stop

Behaviors to Keep

Behaviors to Start

· Making decisions without team input

· Make decisions quickly

· Balance pros/cons of decisions

· Gain input from team on product release decisions

If you have others complete a Stop-Keep-Start analysis for you, ask them to be specific in their feedback, and you'll have a great mechanism for deciding specific actions you can take to improve your skills.

  • At your goal point, discuss with your manager your awareness of new decision-making skills, your implementation of those skills, and your next steps for improvement.

Remember, being a manager is different from being an individual contributor - you have more than one person to look out for, and your work in now focused on a bigger picture.  Transitioning into this role is a process, and, as such, it will take both time and effort on your part.  Your best approach is to work with your manager, be open to suggestions for improvement, and remember that you got to this position because you are successful.

If you have additional transition tips or helpful resources, please feel free to leave a comment so that others might learn from your experiences.

Happy managing!

About

Sandy's ideas about learning, organizational & personal improvement and other stuff.

I work on Oracle's Leadership Development team, but all thoughts and opinions expressed here are solely my own!

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