Caring For The Environment - Making getenv() Scale

Although a relatively minor contributor to OpenSolaris I still have the satisfaction of knowing that every Solaris 10 process is using my code. But who in their right mind needs getenv(3C) to scale? Of course if you don't care about thread safety (as is currently the case with glibc version 2.3.5 -- and hence with Linux) your implementation might scale very nicely thankyou!

Sun on the other hand does care about thread safety (and we've been doing so for a long time). However we had rather assumed that no one in their right mind would need getenv() to scale, so our implemetation was made thread safe by putting a dirty great mutex lock around every piece of code which manipulates environ. After all, as our very own Roger Faulkner is so fond of saying: "Correctness is a contraint; performance is a goal". And who cares about getenv() performance anyway?

But Who Really Cares?

Well it turns out that there are some significant applications which depend on getenv() scalability (and which scale wonderfully on Linux ... where thread safety is often ignored ... they are just very lucky that no one seems to be updating environ whilst anyone else is reading it). So Bart Smaalders filed bug 4991763 getenv doesn't scale and said he thought it was an excellent opportunity for my first putback. Thanks Bart!

For some time I've been saying: "If Linux is faster, it's a Solaris bug!" but somehow 4991763 didn't quite fit the bill. Firstly, I think an application which depends on getenv() scalability is broken. Secondly, Linux is just feeling lucky, punk. However, I do firmly believe that we should do all we can to ensure that Solaris runs applications well -- even those which really need some tuning of their own. I had also been itching for an chance to explore opportunities for lockless optimisations in libc, so all in all 4991763 was an opportunity not to be missed!

A Complete Rewrite

The existing implementation of getenv(), putenv(), setenv(), and unsetenv() was split across three files (getenv.c, putenv.c and nlspath_checks.c) with the global mutex _libc_environ_lock being defined elsewhere. Things had become fairly messy and inefficient so I decided on a complete rewrite.

NLSPATH security checks had introduced yet another global variable and a rather inefficient dance involving a mutex on every {get,put,set,unset}env() call just to ensure that clean_env() was called the first time in. In this instance it was an easy matter to remove the mutex from the fast path by doing a lazy check thus:

static mutex_t                  update_lock = DEFAULTMUTEX;
static int                      initenv_done = 0;

char \*getenv(const char \*name)
{
        char                    \*value;
        if (!initenv_done)

        if (findenv(environ, name, 1, &value) != NULL)
                return (value);

        return (NULL);
}

The test was then repeated under the protection of the mutex in initenv() thus:

extern void                     clean_env();

static void
initenv()
{
        lmutex_lock(&update_lock);
        if (!initenv_done || ... ) {
                /\* Call the NLSPATH janitor in. \*/
                clean_env();
                .
                .
                .
                initenv_done = 1;
        }
        lmutex_unlock(&update_lock);
}

By rolling putenv.c into getenv.c I was able to eliminate the use of globals altogether, which in turn allowed the compiler to produce better optimised code.

Look, No Locks!

But the biggest part of the rewrite was to make the fast path of getenv() entirely lockless. What is not apparent above is that findenv() is entirely lockless.

Various standards define the global environment list pointer:

extern char \*\*environ;

This has to be kept as a consistent NULL terminated array of pointers to NULL terminated strings. However, the standards say nothing about how updates are to be synchronised. More recent standards forbid direct updates to environ itself if getenv() and friends are being used.

Yet the requirement that environ is kept consistent is precisely what we need to implement a lockless findenv(). The big issue is that whenever the environ list is updated, anyone else in the process of scanning it must not see an old value which has been removed, or miss a value which has not been removed.

The traditional approach is to allocate an array of pointers, with environ pointing to the first element. When someone needs to a new value to the environment list we simply add it to the end of the list. But how do we go about deleting values? And what if we need to add a new value when the allocated array is already full? If you care about threads, it's not long before you need to introduce some locking!

The new implementation contains two "smarts" which meets these challenges without introducing locks into the getenv() path ...

Double It And Drop The Old One On The Floor

When the new implementation needs a bigger environ list, it simply allocates a new one which is twice as large and copies the old list into it. The old list is never reused -- it is left intact for the benefit of anyone else who might happen to be still traversing it.

This may sound wasteful, but the environment list rarely needs to be resized. The wastage is also bounded -- it is quite easy to prove mathematically that this strategy never consumes more than 3x the space required by an array of optimal size.

However, one teeny weeny issue with the "drop it on the floor" approach is that leak detectors can get a tad upset if they find allocated memory which is not referenced by anyone. With a view to keeping me on the straight and narrow -- but mostly to avert high customer support call volumes -- Chris Gerhard recommended that I keep a linked list of all internally dropped memory (just to keep those goody-goody leak detectors happy).

I first met Chris in 1989. He was on my interview panel when I joined Sun. I do hope he feels he did a good job that day!

Overwrite With The First Entry And Increment

I was bouncing some other getenv() ideas around with Chris when he also gave me just what I needed for deletes. The old code just grabbed the global lock, found the element to be deleted, shifted the rest of the list down one slot (overwriting the victim), and then released the lock.

Chris had the bright idea of copying the first element in the list over the victim, and then incrementing the environ pointer itself. The worst case would be that the same element might be seen twice by another thread, but this is not a correctness issue.

This led to two further changes:

  1. New values are now added at the bottom of the environment list (with the environ pointer being decremented once the new value is in place).
  2. When a new doube-sized environment list needs to allocated, the old one is copied into the top of the new one (instead of the bottom) so that the list can then be grown downwards.

OK, Not Entirely Lockless

Obviously mutex lock protection is still needed to serialise all updates to the environment list. The new implementation has a lock for all seasons: update_lock (e.g. for updating initenv_done and for protecting environ itself). However the new getenv() is entirely lockless (i.e. once clean_env() has been called once).

Another important issue is that it is considered bad practice for system libraries to hold a lock while calling malloc(). For this reason the first two thirds of addtoenv() are inside a for(;;) loop. If it is necessary to allocate a larger environment array addtoenv() needs to drop update_lock temporarily. However this opens a window for another thread to modify environ in such a way that means we must retry. This loop is controlled by a simple generation number environ_gen (also protected by update_lock).

Guaranteeing Consistency

That's almost all there is to it. However in multiprocessor systems we still have to make sure that memory writes on one CPU happen in such a way that they don't appear out of sequence on another CPU. Of course this is taken care of automatically when we use mutex locks.

Consider the following code fragment to insert a new item:

        environ[-1] = string;
        environ--;

It is vitally important the two memory writes implied by this are seen in the same order to every CPU in the system. On SPARC today this doesn't matter since all ABI compliant binaries run in Total Store Order mode (i.e. stores are guarantted to be visible in the order in which they are submitted). But is it possible that future systems will used a more relaxed memory model.

However, this is not just a hardware issue, it is also a compiler issue. Without extra care the compiler might reorder the two stores, since the C language cares nothing for threads. I had quite a long discussion with a number of folk concerning "sequence points" and the use of volatile in C.

The eventual solution was this:

        environ[-1] = string;
        membar_producer();
        environ--;

First, the function membar_producer() serves as a sequence point, guaranteeing that the C compiler will preserve the order of the preceding and following statements. Secondly, it provides any store barriers needed by the underlying guarantee the same effect as Total Store Order for the preceding and following instructions.

A Spirit Of Generousity

My new implementation was integrated into s10_67 yet despite my own extensive testing it caused a number of test suites to fail in later testing. This was tracked down to common test suite library code which updated environ directly. Yuck! Although this kind of thing is very much frowned on by the more recent standards it was felt that if our own test cases did it there was a good chance that some real applications did it too. So with some reluctance I filed 6183277 getenv should be more gracious to broken apps.

If someone else if going to mess with environ under your nose there's not a lot you can do about it. However it is fairly easy to detect the majority of cases (except for a few really nasty data races) by keeping a private copy my_environ which can be compared with the actual value of environ. If these two values are ever found to differ we just go back to square one and try again.

So the above fragment for adding an item now looks more like this:

        if (my_environ != environ || ...)
                initenv();
        .
        .
        .
        my_environ[-1] = string;
        membar_producer();
        my_environ--;
        environ = my_environ;

Conclusion

My second putback integrated into s10_71. Following this I had to fight off one other challenge from Rod Evans who filed 6178667 ldd list unexpected (file not found) in x86 environment. However this turned out to be not my fault, but a latent buffer overrun in ldd(1) exposed by different heap usage patterns. Of course, the engineer who introduced this heinous bug (back in January 2001) will remain anonymous (sort of). Still, he did buy me a beer!

Of course, the serious point is that when you change something which is used by everyone, it is possible that you expose problems elsewhere. It is to be expected that the thing last changed will get the blame. Such changes are not for the faint-hearted, but they can be a whole lot of fun!

My first experience of modifying Solaris actually resulted in two putbacks into the Solaris gate, but I learnt a great deal along the way. Dizzy with my success, I am now actively seeking other opportunities for lockless optimisations in libc!

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Comments:

Your comment about having to check environ against my_environ to see if anyone has played with environ directly - are you talking about code actually moving the environ pointer, or just the strings being updated without using putenv? I'd have thought the former was pretty rare, the latter less so.

Of course the latter is fairly slow to trap so I'm assuming you meant the former.

Go on, blind us with your brilliance - how does the performance compare with the old version?

Posted by Philip Beevers on June 15, 2005 at 06:24 PM PDT #

Yes, I'm talking about code moving environ.

For example, such a thing might happen if someone implements their own local putenv(). However, by the time they call their putenv() my initenv() will probably have already been called due to process setup activity elsewhere.

One can assume that the first call to any putenv() implementation <em>must</em> result in a new environment list being allocated (because you have to assume the existing list is already full).

So if an application calls its own local putenv() and then calls my libc implementation (e.g. due to some library dependency), environ will have moved since I last saw it.

I, too, thought this would be rare. However, I fell foul of three Solaris test suites (all of which used the same broken support library ... and yes, I did file bugs against them)! But if we have code which is does this, it is farily likely that there are applications out there which are similarly broken.

To detect this case in a singlethreaded environment is trivial ... which is what I now do. However, all bets are off for multithreaded processes ... which was always the case with the old libc implementation.

Performance?

Well, my new getenv() scales linearly on multiprocessor hardware (the old version had zero scalability). It was also gratifying to find that the new implementation was slightly faster on Opteron in the singlethreaded case.

There are a few singlethreaded cases which are <em>marginally</em> slower on some SPARC platforms. However both SPARC ánd Opteron multithread scalability are dramatically improved (both for updates as well as reads).

Posted by Phil Harman on June 16, 2005 at 09:38 PM PDT #

http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/009695399/functions/getenv.html ,,The getenv() function need not be reentrant. A function that is not required to be reentrant is not required to be thread-safe.''

Posted by guest on August 14, 2005 at 10:21 PM PDT #

Any code that relies upon getenv() being thread-safe is inherently non-portable. As the previous commenter points out, the POSIX and the UNIX standards specifications call out getenv() as not guaranteed to be reentrant. While this feature of your getenv() may have benefits, it's not usable in a portable environment.

Posted by Mark Brown on August 15, 2005 at 02:20 AM PDT #

In reply to Mark and the anonymous 83.28.66.114 ...

Well of course that's all very nice, except that some care about more than just POSIX.

The "MT-Safe" putback to the Solaris libc was made on 92/05/06 (according to the SCCS history). We didn't ship a user-level threads library until 1993, which means Solaris has always provided a thread safe getenv().

The Pthreads specification wasn't even ratified until 1995 (Solaris 2.5 was shipped with support for Pthreads in November 1995).

When I came to tune getenv(), dropping thread safety simply wasn't an option. We could argue until the proverbial cows come home about the relative merits of getenv() thread safety. But that's not the point. We said we were for it. We have always shipped it. We must assume there are people who depend on it.

So, quote whatever standards you will! Our getenv() has always been thread safe, but it is now also fast! What's the problem? It's certainly not a problem for Solaris! If people need getenv() to be thread safe, they know where to come; if they don't, I think we've shown that we're here to compete.

Posted by Phil Harman on August 15, 2005 at 06:20 AM PDT #

The last comment is well said. I really hate that someone will want the behaviour broken whenever some Standard says it is undefined. I remember in one case someone changed the gettimeofday code in some library so that the second timezone parameter would be ignored (the code had been doing the reasonable behaviour to get the timezone information if the second argument was non-NULL), because the POSIX standard said the behaviour was undefined if the second argument to gettimeofday was not NULL!

Posted by Wu Yongwei on August 24, 2005 at 12:14 PM PDT #

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