Friday Aug 16, 2013

Understanding Workflow Errors - Part 2

This post is a follow up to Understanding Workflow Errors - Part 1 that deals with some of the most common errors raised when some of the Workflow Engine APIs are used. 

The way to trap and continue processing upon finding these errors is the same: evaluate the content of global variable WF_CORE.error_name.

Error message: 3103 Attribute 'ATTRIBUTE' does not exist for item 'TYPE/KEY'

Error code: WFENG_ITEM_ATTR

The most likely reason for this to happen is a change in the Workflow definition. For instance, an attribute is added to the definition while there are open workflows  not having it. Then you attempt to set a value for it and notice new processes have no issues but the ones created before the change will fail.

Whenever possible these regressions should be foreseen and addressed in the design of the Workflow definition. A possible workaround is to add the supporting plsql code to check for the exception:

...
EXCEPTION
  WHEN OTHERS THEN
    if WF_CORE.error_name='WFENG_ITEM_ATTR' then
      wf_engine.additemattr(...);
    end if;
END;

Error message: 3120 Activity 'TYPE/ACTID' has no performer

Error code WFENG_NOTIFICATION_PERFORMER   

All performers of notification activities are taken from view WF_ROLES. The most typical reason for this error is the originally assigned user/role has been expired. While the correct fix is to unexpire the performer and let the workflow complete, there are two possible ways to go around:

1. Change the value to the attribute holding the name of the performer. For instance, if there is an item attribute RECIPIENT pointing to expired user JSMITH then change it to an active user/role, say JHOPKINS. You will need to call this from a SQL*Plus session:

   WF_ENGINE.SetItemAttrText(<type>, <key>, 'RECIPIENT', 'JHOPKINS');

2. The other alternative is to change all references in ALL the workflow runtime tables to change anything related to JSMITH and change it to the taking over user JHOPKINS:

declare
  l_attributes wf_parameter_list_t;
begin
  WF_EVENT.AddParameterToList('OLD_USER_NAME', 'JSMITH', l_attributes);
  WF_EVENT.AddParameterToList('USER_NAME', 'JHOPKINS', l_attributes);
  WF_LOCAL_SYNCH.Propagate_Role(p_orig_system    => <orig system>, --for instance, 'FND_USR' or 'PER'
                                p_orig_system_id => l_orig_system_id, --for instance, 29984
                                p_attributes     => l_attributes);
end;

As always, use care and try these APIs on a test environment before using them in production

Error message: 3133 Activity instance 'NAME' is not a notified activity for item 'TYPE/KEY'.

Error code: WFENG_NOT_NOTIFIED

When it is needed that the processing of a workflow stops to wait for something to happen a BLOCK function can be used. When the block function runs the activity goes into NOTIFIED status. Then, to resume the processing, an explicit call to WF_ENGINE.CompleteActivity must be made. But if the activity is not in notified status then the API will raise WFENG_NOT_NOTIFIED.

There is no straightforward action to deal with this error. Rather, troubleshooting must be made to see why the activity did not go into NOTIFIED status. Sometimes the reason is that the workflow process continued to the next activity, leaving it complete or did not even reach it. A good way to understand what the workflow process has done is to run the seeded script wfstat.sql. Check the output and follow the execution path.

Friday Apr 12, 2013

Understanding Workflow Errors - Part 1

Workflow Engine and other public APIs throw a variety of user-defined exceptions to indicate specific Engine conditions. It is important that Workflow Developers and Administrators understand the meaning of these errors and know how to deal with them. In this post, we will cover some of the important Workflow Engine related errors and understand how to deal with them.

Engine Errors

3122: Duplicate item 'ITEM_TYPE/ITEM_KEY' could not be created

Error Code: WFENG_ITEM_UNIQUE

Cause: This error may be thrown from WF_ENGINE.CreateProcess when you attempt to create a new instance of a workflow item. This error indicates that the Item Type and Item Key combination you have used to launch a new workflow instance already exists.

Fix: Use an unique item key for that item type

3136: Item 'ITEM_TYPE/ITEM_KEY' cannot be accessed while synchronous process in progress.

Error Code: WFENG_SYNCH_ITEM

Cause: This error may be thrown from WF_ENGINE.CreateProcess when attempt to create a new synchronous workflow instance while another synchronous workflow  instance is already running in the same session. All synchronous workflow instances are created with item key #SYNCH to make sure the workflow instances starts and completes in the same session.

Fix: Wait till the existing synchronous workflow instance completes before creating another one.

3146: Commit happened in activity/function 'ACTIVITY/FUNCTION'

Error Code: WFENG_COMMIT_INSIDE

Cause: While a workflow instance was executing, a commit was issued inside a PLSQL procedure associated to a workflow function activity before or after an error occurred in that PLSQL procedure. The Workflow Engine traps errors produced by function activities by setting a savepoint before each function activity. If an activity produces an unhandled exception, the engine performs a rollback to the savepoint, and sets the activity to the ERROR status. 

Fix: You should never commit within the PL/SQL procedure of a function activity. The Workflow Engine never issues a commit as it is the responsibility of the calling application to commit.

How to Catch these Errors?

Each error above is associated to an Error Code. Within your PLSQL code, you should following method to capture the specific error based on the error code to act on it.

 begin
   Wf_Engine.CreateProcess('ITEM_TYPE', 'ITEM_KEY', 'PROCESS_NAME');
 exception
    when others then
if (wf_core.error_name = 'WFENG_ITEM_UNIQUE') then
        -- Item already exists, use a unique item key
        Wf_Engine.CreateProcess('ITEM_TYPE', 'ITEM_KEY', 'PROCESS_NAME');
      end if;
 end

Thursday Jan 17, 2013

Oracle Workflow - E-Business Suite vs Standalone

Oracle Workflow has following components that together provide business process management capabilities.

  • Workflow Builder - Windows desktop tool to create and customize workflow processes
  • Workflow Loader - Commandline tool to load workflow definition to database
  • Workflow Engine - PLSQL engine to execute workflow processes definitions
  • Workflow Notification Mailer - Background program to send e-mail notifications
  • Workflow Business Event System - PLSQL and Java based engine to process business events
  • Workflow Agent Listeners - Background program to process business events

Oracle Workflow has been available in two flavors until about 2007.

  1. Workflow Embedded in E-Business Suite
  2. Workflow Standalone

This post is aimed at clarifying how Oracle Workflow in E-Business Suite and Standalone were versioned and the current status of these two flavors.

Workflow Embedded in E-Business Suite

In E-Business Suite, Oracle Workflow is an integral part of foundation modules (FND) alongside Profiles, Concurrent Programs, OA Framework and so on and is shipped in ATG patchsets. For example, Workflow's Java classes are available under $JAVA_TOP like any other FND module, it's PLSQL packages are compiled into APPS schema, datamodel is available under APPLSYS schema and so on. This flavor is also called Embedded Workflow, meaning it was embedded in E-Business Suite.

Versions

Embedded Workflow's packaging, release, installation and configuration follows standard E-Business suite's processes. Embedded Workflow is  not identified with it's own version in E-Business Suite, instead it's codelevel is always identified using the current ATG Patchset level.

For example, if a Customer is on E-Business Suite Release 12.1.3, then their Workflow codelevel is R12.ATG_PF.B.Delta.3 (in addition to any Workflow specific one-offs that may have applied on the baseline) which is a standard way of identifying any FND module.

Current Status

Oracle Workflow embedded in E-Business Suite has the same lifetime as the ATG Patchset in that Oracle E-Business Suite. For example, if a Customer is on Oracle E-Business Suite 12.1.3, the workflow module being integral part of Oracle E-Business Suite installation, has no different lifetime or support policy than the R12.ATG_PF.B Patchset. When looking at Oracle Workflow module from E-Business Suite standpoint, it should not be viewed as a separate product rather at the ATG Patchset level.

For more information please refer to 

Workflow Standalone

All of Oracle Workflow's sub-components and the underlying data model were packaged, released, installed and configured completely independent of E-Business Suite until about late 2007.  A Workflow Standalone installation results in a special database schema like OWF_MGR specific to workflow alone unlike the standard APPS and APPLSYS schemas of E-Business Suite.

Oracle Workflow Standalone however was not shipped on it's own but using following release vehicles.

  • Oracle Database - Upto 10gR2
  • Oracle iAS - Upto 10.1.2
  • Oracle Warehouse Builder - Still packaged with OWB 11g

Oracle Workflow standalone product was available as part of above product offerings which helped non-E-Business Suite Customers to have Workflow (Business Process Management) capabilities such as implementing custom approval flows, document approval routing, sending notifications and so on.

Versions

Workflow Standalone had it's own versioning mechanism that was completely unrelated to E-Business Suite's. For example, following were some of the recent verisons.

  • Oracle Database 10gR2 - Oracle Workflow 2.6.4
  • Oracle iAS 10.1.2 - Oracle Workflow 2.6.3.5
  • Oracle iAS 9.0.4 - Oracle Workflow 2.6.3

Current Status

With the advent of better Business Process Execution standards and tools, Oracle Workflow was ceased to be shipped with Oracle Database and Oracle iAS. Oracle BPEL Process Manager (in Oracle SOA Suite 10g) and Oracle SOA Suite 11g are the recommended technologies to be considered by Customers who were using Oracle Workflow Standalone to implement their business processes.

To this effect, MOS Doc 391546.1 was published to announce obsolescence of Workflow Standalone with Oracle Database 10gR2 as the terminal release vehicle for the product. This note applies only to Workflow as a standalone product and does not affect Workflow embedded in E-Business Suite.

Workflow Standalone Obsolescence Notice

MOS Doc 391546.1 clarifies that Workflow as a standalone product will not be shipped in Oracle Database 11g and above. Since Oracle Database 10gR2 is the last release Workflow Standalone was shipped in, existing Oracle Database 10gR2 Customers who also use Workflow Standalone will continue to receive support as per Oracle Database 10gR2 support policies. This obsolescence notice should not be confused with support for Workflow embedded in E-Business Suite.

Summary

Oracle Workflow embedded in E-Business Suite is being actively maintained and enhancements implemented based on Customer requirements. We have some exciting days ahead of us for Oracle Workflow embedded in E-Business Suite.

Friday Nov 16, 2012

New Worklist features on 12.1.3

Following new Worklist features are available on E-Business Suite 12.1.3 via Patch 13646173.

Ability to view comments on top of a notification

If an action is performed on a notification such as Reassign, Request for Information or Provide Information, the recipient of the notification will see who performed the last action and the associated comment on top of the notification.

Reassigning a request for information notification

If an approver requests more information on a notification from it's submitter, the submitter now has two options

  1. Answer Request for More Information
  2. Transfer Request for More Information

If the submitter thinks the requested information can be provided by another user, he/she can transfer the request to the other user. Please note that only Transfer is supported for Request for More Information. Once transferred, the submitter cannot access the notification and provide the requested information.

Use actual sent date when reassigning a notification

The Sent field in notification header always showed the date on which the notification was first created. If the notification was later reassigned, the Sent date was not updated to show the last action date. This caused problems in following scenario

  1. Approval notification was sent to JACK on 01-JAN-2012
  2. JACK waited for 10 days before reassigning to JILL on 10-JAN-2012
  3. JILL does not see the notification as sent on 10-JAN-2012, instead sees it as sent on 01-JAN-2012
  4. Although the notification was originally created on 01-JAN-2012, it was sent to JILL only on 10-JAN-2012

The enhancement now shows the correct sent date in Worklist and Notification Details page.

Figure 1 - Depicts all the above 3 features

Related Action History for response required notification

So far it was possible to embed Action History of an response-required notification into another FYI notification using #RELATED_HISTORY attribute (Please refer to Workflow Developer Guide for details about this attribute). The enhancement now enables developers to embed Action History of one response-required notification into another response-required notification.

To embed Action History of one response-required notification into another, create message attribute #RELATED_HISTORY. To this attribute set a value during run-time in the following format.

{TITLE}[ITEM_TYPE:ITEM_KEY]PROCESS_NAME:ACTIVITY_LABEL_NAME

The TITLE, ITEM_TYPE and ITEM_KEY are optional values.

  1. TITLE is used as Related Action History header title. If TITLE is not present, then a default title "Related Action History" is shown.
  2. If ITEM_TYPE is present and ITEM_KEY is not, For Example: {TITLE}[ITEM_TYPE]PROCESS_NAME:ACTIVITY_LABEL_NAME , the Related Action History is populated from parent item type of the current item.
  3. If both ITEM_TYPE and ITEM_KEY is present, For Example: {TITLE}[ITEM_TYPE:ITEM_KEY]PROCESS_NAME:ACTIVITY_LABEL_NAME , the Related Action History is populated from that specific instance activity.

Figure 2 - Depicts Related Action History feature

Tuesday Nov 13, 2012

Using GMail's SMTP and IMAP servers in Notification Mailer

Overview

GMail offers free, reliable, popular SMTP and IMAP services, because of which many people are interested to use it. GMail can be used when there are no in-house SMTP/IMAP servers for testing or debugging purposes. This blog explains how to install GMail SSL certificate in Concurrent Tier, testing the connection using a standalone program, running Mailer diagnostics and configuring GMail IMAP and SMTP servers for Workflow Notification Mailer Inbound and Outbound connections.

GMail servers configuration

SMTP server

Host Name  smtp.gmail.com
SSL Port  465
TLS/SSL required  Yes
User Name  Your full email address (including @gmail.com or @your_domain.com)
Password  Your gmail password

 IMAP server

 Host Name
imap.gmail.com
 SSL Port
993
TLS/SSL Required
Yes
 User Name
 Your full email address (including @gmail.com or @your_domain.com)
 Password Your gmail password

GMail SSL Certificate Installation

The following is the procedure to install the GMail SSL certificate

  • Copy the below GMail SSL certificate in to a file eg: gmail.cer

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----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=
-----END CERTIFICATE-----

  • Install the SSL certificate into the default JRE location or any other location using below command
  • Installing into a dfeault JRE location in EBS instance
        # keytool -import -trustcacerts -keystore $AF_JRE_TOP/lib/security/cacerts  -storepass changeit -alias gmail-lnx_chainnedcert -file gmail.cer
  • Install into a custom location

        # keytool -import -trustcacerts -keystore <customLocation>  -storepass changeit -alias gmail-lnx_chainnedcert -file gmail.cer
       <customLocation> -- directory in instance where the certificate need to be installed

  • After running the above command you can see the following response

        Trust this certificate? [no]:  yes
        Certificate was added to keystore

Running Mailer Command Line Diagnostics

  • Run Mailer command line diagnostics from conccurrent tier where Mailer is running, to check the IMAP connection using the below command

$AFJVAPRG -classpath $AF_CLASSPATH -Dprotocol=imap -Ddbcfile=$FND_SECURE/$TWO_TASK.dbc -Dserver=imap.gmail.com -Dport=993 -Dssl=Y -Dtruststore=$AF_JRE_TOP/lib/security/cacerts -Daccount=<gmail username> -Dpassword=<password> -Dconnect_timeout=120 -Ddebug=Y -Dlogfile=GmailImapTest.log -DdebugMailSession=Y oracle.apps.fnd.wf.mailer.Mailer

  • Run Mailer command line diagnostics from concurrent tier where Mailer is running, to check the SMTP connection using the below command 

 $AFJVAPRG -classpath $AF_CLASSPATH -Dprotocol=smtp -Ddbcfile=$FND_SECURE/$TWO_TASK.dbc -Dserver=smtp.gmail.com -Dport=465 -Dssl=Y -Dtruststore=$AF_JRE_TOP/lib/security/cacerts -Daccount=<gmail username> -Dpassword=<password> -Dconnect_timeout=120 -Ddebug=Y -Dlogfile=GmailSmtpTest.log -DdebugMailSession=Y oracle.apps.fnd.wf.mailer.Mailer

Standalone program to verify the IMAP connection

Run the below standalone program from the concurrent tier node where Mailer is running to verify the connection with GMail IMAP server. It connects to the GMail IMAP server with the given GMail user name and password and lists all the folders that exist in that account. If the GMail IMAP server is not working for the  Mailer check whether the PROCESSED and DISCARD folders exist for the GMail account, if not create manually by logging into GMail account.

Sample program to test GMail IMAP connection

 The standalone program can be run as below

 $java GmailIMAPTest GMailUsername GMailUserPassword           

Standalone program to verify the SMTP connection

Run the below standalone program from the concurrent tier node where Mailer is running to verify the connection with GMail SMTP server. It connects to the GMail SMTP server by authenticating with the given user name and password  and sends a test email message to the give recipient user email address.

Sample program to test GMail SMTP connection

The standalone program can be run as below

 $java GmailSMTPTest GMailUsername GMailPassword recipientEmailAddress   

Warnings

  • As gmail.com is an external domain, the Mailer concurrent tier should allow the connection with GMail server
  • Please keep in mind when using it for corporate facilities, that the e-mail data would be stored outside the corporate network

Thursday Aug 30, 2012

Implementing a post-notification function to perform custom validation

Introduction

Oracle Workflow Notification System can be extended to perform extra validation or processing via PLSQL procedures when the notification is being responded to. These PLSQL procedures are called post-notification functions since they are executed after a notification action such as Approve, Reject, Reassign or Request Information is performed. The standard signature for the post-notification function is

    procedure <procedure_name> (itemtype  in varchar2,
                                itemkey   in varchar2,
                                actid     in varchar2,
                                funcmode  in varchar2,
                                resultout in out nocopy varchar2);

Modes

The post-notification function provides the parameter 'funcmode' which will have the following values:

  • 'RESPOND', 'VALIDATE, and 'RUN' for a notification is responded to (Approve, Reject, etc)
  • 'FORWARD' for a notification being forwarded to another user
  • 'TRANSFER' for a notification being transferred to another user
  • 'QUESTION' for a request of more information from one user to another
  • 'QUESTION' for a response to a request of more information
  • 'TIMEOUT' for a timed-out notification
  • 'CANCEL' when the notification is being re-executed in a loop.

Context Variables

Oracle Workflow provides different context information that corresponds to the current notification being acted upon to the post-notification function.

WF_ENGINE.context_nid - The notification ID 

WF_ENGINE.context_new_role - The new role to which the action on the notification is directed

WF_ENGINE.context_user_comment - Comments appended to the notification 

 WF_ENGINE.context_user - The user who is responsible for taking the action that updated the notification's state

WF_ENGINE.context_recipient_role - The role currently designated as the recipient of the notification. This value may be the same as the value of WF_ENGINE.context_user variable, or it may be a group role of which the context user is a member.

WF_ENGINE.context_original_recipient - The role that has ownership of and responsibility for the notification. This value may differ from the value of the WF_ENGINE.context_recipient_role variable if the notification has previously been reassigned. 

Example

Let us assume there is an EBS transaction that can only be approved by a certain people thus any attempt to transfer or delegate such notification should be allowed only to users SPIERSON or CBAKER. The way to implement this functionality would be as follows:

  • Edit the corresponding workflow definition in Workflow Builder and open the notification.
  • In the Function Name enter the name of the procedure where the custom code is handled, for instance, TEST_PACKAGE.Post_Notification
  • In PLSQL create the corresponding package TEST_PACKAGE with a procedure named Post_Notification, as follows:

    procedure Post_Notification (itemtype  in varchar2,
                                 itemkey   in varchar2,
                                 actid     in varchar2,
                                 funcmode  in varchar2,
                                 resultout in out nocopy varchar2) is
      l_count number;
    begin
      if funcmode in ('TRANSFER','FORWARD') then
        select count(1) into l_count
        from WF_ROLES
        where WF_ENGINE.context_new_role in ('SPIERSON','CBAKER');
              --and/or any other conditions
        if l_count<1 then
          WF_CORE.TOKEN('ROLE', WF_ENGINE.context_new_role);
          WF_CORE.RAISE('WFNTF_TRANSFER_FAIL');
        end if;
      end if;
    end Post_Notification;
  • Launch the workflow process with the changed notification and attempt to reassign or transfer it. When trying to reassign the notification to user CBROWN the screen would like like below:

Notification transfer error

Check the Workflow API Reference Guide, section Post-Notification Functions, to see all the standard, seeded WF_ENGINE variables available for extending notifications processing. 

Tuesday Jun 19, 2012

E-Business Suite Proactive Support - Workflow Analyzer

Overview

The Workflow Analyzer is a standalone, easy to run tool created to read, validate and troubleshoot Workflow components configuration as well as runtime. It identifies areas where potential problems may arise and based on set of best practices suggests the Workflow System Administrator what to do when such potential problems are found. This tool represents a proactive way to verify Workflow configuration and runtime data to prevent issues ahead of time before they may become of more considerable impact on a production environment.

Installation

Since it is standalone there are no pre-requisites and runs on Oracle E-Business applications from 11.5.10 onwards. It is installed in the back-end server and can be run directly from SQL*Plus.

The output of this tool is written in a HTML file friendly formatted containing the following on both workflow Components configuration and Workflow Runtime data:
  • Workflow-related database initialization parameters
  • Relevant Oracle E-Business profile option values
  • Workflow-owned concurrent programs schedule and Workflow components status
  • Workflow notification mailer configuration and throughput via related queues and table
  • Workflow-relevant recommended and critical one-off patches as well as current code level
  • Workflow database footprint by reading Workflow run-time tables to identify aged processes not being purged. It also checks for large open and closed processes or unhealthy looping conditions in a workflow process, among other checks.

See a sample of Workflow Analyzer's output here

Besides performing the validations listed above, the Workflow Analyzer provides clarification on the issues it finds and refers the reader to specific Oracle MOS documents to address the findings or explains the condition for the reader to take proper action.

How to get it?

The Workflow Analyzer can be obtained from Oracle MOS Workflow Analyzer script for E-Business Suite Workflow Monitoring and Maintenance (Doc ID 1369938.1) and the supplemental note How to run EBS Workflow Analyzer Tool as a Concurrent Request (Doc ID 1425053.1) explains how to register and run this tool as a concurrent program. This way the report from the Workflow Analyzer can be submitted from the Application and its output can be seen from the application as well.

Tuesday May 29, 2012

Asynchronous Business Event Subscriptions - Troubleshooting Tips

Overview

This blog is intended as an example to help trace an asynchronous business event through it's execution within the Workflow Business Event System. This blog should also help clarify the myth among Oracle Workflow developers and administrators that all business events can be traced through Business Event System AQs.

As a reader of this blog post, it is expected that you understand following steps already.

  • Create a business event using Workflow Administrator Web Applications responsibility
  • Create subscriptions to business events
    • Synchronous subscriptions with phase <= 99
    • Asynchronous subscriptions with phase >100
    • Understand "On Error" subscription attributes such as "Stop and Rollback" and "Skip to Next"

It is strongly recommended that all business events and/or groups that has at least one LOCAL or EXTERNAL subscription should also have one ERROR subscription that launches following seeded error workflow process.

  • Workflow Type - WFERROR
  • Workflow Process - DEFAULT_EVENT_ERROR

If an error subscription is not created event subscription failures may go unnoticed. Create the error subscription as follows.

Subscription2.jpg

Subscription2Details.jpg

Sample Local Subscription

For testing purposes, let us assume following PLSQL rule function (in package XXX_PACKAGE) used in a LOCAL event subscription with phase > 99. This will cause the event to be enqueued to WF_DEFERRED queue and Workflow Agent Listener process to execute it in the background. This function inserts records into a temporary table.

    create table temp_table (key_value varchar2(50), result varchar2(20));
    create or replace package xxx_package is
      function subscription1 (p_subscription_guid in raw,
                              p_event in out nocopy wf_event_t) return varchar2;
    end xxx_package;
    /
    create or replace package body xxx_package is
      function subscription1(p_subscription_guid in raw,
                           p_event in out nocopy wf_event_t) return varchar2 is
        l_result varchar2(20);   
      begin
        --processing...
        l_result := p_event.GetValueForParameter('OUTCOME');
        if l_result='GOOD' then
          insert into temp_table values (p_event.getEventKey(), l_result);
          return 'SUCCESS';
        else
          insert into temp_table values (p_event.getEventKey(), l_result);
          wf_core.context('xxx_package','function subscription1', p_event.getEventName(), p_event.getEventKey());
          wf_event.setErrorInfo(p_event, 'ERROR');
          return 'ERROR';
        end if;
      exception
        when others then
          wf_core.context('xxx_package','function subscription1', p_event.getEventName(), p_event.getEventKey());
          wf_event.setErrorInfo(p_event, 'ERROR');
          return 'ERROR';
      end subscription1;
    end xxx_package;
    /
IMPORTANT NOTE: Return value should be in UPPERCASE, otherwise the Business Event System will not recognize the result.

Test the business event

Write a PLSQL procedure to create and set the event parameters and then raise it. 

     declare
      l_event_name varchar2(50) := 'oracle.apps.fnd.wfds.user.userUpdated';
      l_event_key varchar2(50) := to_char(sysdate, 'DD-MM-RRRR HH:MI:SS');
      l_attributes wf_parameter_list_t;
    begin
      --Add the logic to be executed when the event occurs. In this case the
      -- creation of a user was signaled.
      -- ...
      --Add all the parameters to the list:
      --WF_EVENT.AddParameterToList('OUTCOME', 'WRONG', l_attributes);
      WF_EVENT.AddParameterToList('OUTCOME', 'GOOD', l_attributes);
      -- Raise the event
      WF_EVENT.Raise(p_event_name => l_event_name,
                     p_event_key => l_event_key,
                     p_parameters => l_attributes);
      commit;
    end;
    /

When this block runs with parameter OUTCOME set to 'GOOD', a record is inserted into TEMP_TABLE by the LOCAL subscription's rule function. When a different value is used the function returns ERROR and a record is insert into the temporary table. But since the result is ERROR, the transaction is rolled back and error subscription is executed. The Business Event System uses the error subscription to launch WFERROR:DEFAULT_EVENT_ERROR process to send error notification to SYSADMIN with the details of the exception. These error details shown on the notification are as a result of the calls to WF_EVENT.SetErrorInfo and WF_CORE.Context in the subscription rule function.

SysadminNotification.jpg

Troubleshooting Tips

  • Only Busienss Events with asynchronous subscriptions are enqueued to WF_DEFERRED or WF_JAVA_DeFERRED queues based on whether the subscription is PLSQL based or Java based. All events with synchronous subscriptions are executed in the same thread they are raised in and not enqueued to any AQs.
    NOTE: The event's synchronous subscriptions themselves may enqueue the events to some Out Agents such as WF_JMS_OUT or WF_WS_JMS_OUT and so on which is purely specific to subscription's implementation and not related to core Business Event processing.
  • From Workflow Manager, ensure the Workflow Deferred Agent Listener and the Workflow Java Deferred Agent Listener components are running
  • Ensure an ERROR subscription is created for the business event
  • To trace a business event with Asynchronous Subscription from Raise to Dispatch to Error
    • Ensure an error subscription was created as in the sample above
    • Stop Workflow Deferred Agent Listener and Workflow Error Agent Listener
    • Raise the event
    • Verify the event is enqueued to WF_DEFERRED using below SQL. Assuming the event key is unique across all occurences, it should return 1
      select count(1) from applsys.aq$wf_deferred a where a.user_data.event_name = '&eventName' and a.user_data.event_key = '&eventKey' and a.msg_state = 'READY';
    • Start Workflow Deferred Agent Listener and after few minutes verify the event is processed successfully using above SQL. The count should be 0
    • If the event was not dispatched successfully, check if the event is enqueued to WF_ERROR queue using SQL. If the event errored, it should be in error queue. If this SQL returns 0, the subscription was executed successfully. select count(1) from applsys.aq$wf_error a where a.user_data.event_name = '&eventName'and a.user_data.event_key = '&eventkey'and a.msg_state = 'READY'
    • Start Workflow Error Agent Listener. If there was a record in WF_ERROR queue, after few minutes verify the event is processed successfully using above SQL
    • Now check SYSADMIN's worklist for error notification with details of the error.
  • To obtain E-Business Debug Log messages for business event processing
    • Enable Log profile options for the E-Business Suite user whose session triggers the business event.
      FND: Debug Log Enabled=YES
      FND: Debug Log Level=STATEMENT
      FND: Debug Log Module=wf.plsql%
    • In the case where the event is raised from a PLSQL block you can add the following at begining of the procedure to identify the session and to activate the debug profile options.
      declare

      ...

      begin

        fnd_global.apps_initialize(user_id=>0, resp_id=>24240, resp_appl_id=>1);

        --...

      end;

      fnd_global.apps_initialize will enable the profile options for this PLSQL block for user SYSADMIN, application 'System Administration' and responsibility 'System Administrator'
    • Then query table APPLSYS.FND_LOG_MESSAGES where column MODULE like 'wf.plsql%' to see the debug messages
      sqlplus apps/***** @$FND_TOP/patch/115/sql/wfdbgprnt wf.plsql%

References

Oracle Workflow API Reference, section 'Event Subscription Rule Function APIs'

Oracle Workflow Developer's Guide, section 'Error Handling for Event Subscription Processing'


Wednesday May 09, 2012

Oracle E-Busienss Suite RCD - Applications Technology Releases 12.1 and 12.2

Oracle E-Business Suite Release Content Documents for Releases 12.1 and 12.2 are available on MOS. The Release Content Documents (RCDs) communicate information about new or changed functionality introduced in Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12.1 and in subsequent Release Update Packs (RUPs) and off-cycle patches, as well as planned enhancements for the upcoming Release 12.2. For your convenience, they also include new or changed functionality introduced in the RUPs for Release 12, including 12.0.2 through 12.0.7.

Release Content Document - Applications Technology Releases 12.1 and 12.2

Oracle Workflow introduces following new features in Releases 12.1 and 12.2

Release 12.1.1

  • Worklist - Bulk Notification Response and Bulk Notification Close
  • Hijrah/Thai Calendar Support

Release 12.1.3

  • Notification Mailer - SMTP Authentication

Release 12.2

  • E-mail Character Encoding Configuration 
  • Deferring Worklist Response Processing
  • Oracle RAC Affinity for Workflows
  • Worklist Usability Enhancements 

Tuesday Apr 17, 2012

SMTP Authentication Feature in R12.1.3

Overview

Oracle E-Business Suite Workflow Notification Mailer leverages the functionality of SMTP and IMAP services to send and receive notification and alert emails respectively. Until E-Business Suite Release 12.1.3, Workflow Notification Mailer supports authentication for only IMAP server connections. Starting Release 12.1.3, Workflow Notification Mailer supports authentication for SMTP servers.

Main reasons to support authentication for SMTP servers are,

  1. An attacker could hijack the SMTP connection either pretending the server does not support the Authentication extension or causing all AUTH commands to fail.
  2. A SMTP server accessible over public domain could be misused by spammers to hide their identify and send spam e-mails.

How to configure

  • Go to Workflow Manager Screen and navigate to Workflow Notification Mailer page.
  • Edit the Workflow Mailer configuration, update "SMTP user" and "SMTP Password" parameters, SAVE and bounce the Workflow Service Container.

Authentication Mechanisms

    Workflow Mailer supports PLAIN, LOGIN and CRAM-MD5 mechanisms with JavaMail version 1.4.

How to check

On a non-SSL enabled SMTP server, it can be checked easily: 

$ - telnet smtp.host.com 25
Trying 10.11.12.13...
Connected to smtp.host.com (10.11.12.13).
Escape character is '^]'.
220 smtp.host.com ESMTP Sendmail 8.13.8/8.13.8; Tue, 17 Apr 2012 10:11:36 -0400
EHLO smtp.host.com
250-smtp.host.com Hello my.desktop.com [12.13.14.15], pleased to meet you
250-ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES
250-PIPELINING
250-8BITMIME
250-SIZE
250-DSN
250-ETRN
250-AUTH LOGIN PLAIN
250-STARTTLS
250-DELIVERBY
250 HELP

Wednesday Aug 04, 2010

Configurable User LOV in Worklist UI

User LOV is a UI component that exposes Workflow Directory Services to end-users in Worklfow pages to select a user or a role while performing actions on a notification such as Reassign, Request Information or setting up rules such as Vacation Rules or Worklist Access. By default the User LOV has always provided complete access to all the users and roles in the Directory Services to the end-users regardless of where they belong.

userlov.png

Oracle Workflow has now released a new feature that uses AOL's Data Security features to provide an option for Customers to configure the User LOV to stripe the data as per current user context. This allows certain users to see only certain group of users in the User LOV while accessing workflow notification pages. More information about how to use this feature is available in below My Oracle Support document.

Configuring the Oracle Workflow User List of Values, Release 12.0.6 and Release 12.1.1

Tuesday Aug 03, 2010

Oracle Business Event and Subsciptions Execution Flow

This blog post contributed by Shivdas Tomar.

Please read earlier post about Workflow Business Event System.

We will see the exact execution flow when an event is raised using a PLSQL API and a Java API.

Event raised using PLSQL API


As soon as event is deferred to WF_DEFERRED or WF_JAVA_DEFERRED, control is returned back to calling program. Workflow Deferred Agent Listener and Workflow Java Deferred Agent Listener continues execution of the subscriptions respectively from these queues. If there is any error during subscription or generate function execution, event will be enqueued to WF_ERROR or WF_JAVA_ERROR queue respectively. The Error Agent Listeners then execute error subscriptions associated to the event.

plsql_raise.JPG


Event raised using Java API

Once event enqueued to WF_JAVA_DEFERRED queue, further execution will be resumed from the deferred subscription, by Workflow Deferred Java Agent Listener. If any error occurs during processing of a subscription by the Deferred Java Agent Listener, event is enqueued to WF_JAVA_ERROR queue.

java_raise.JPG

 


Understanding AQs in Workflow

This blog post contributed by Shivdas Tomar.

In Oracle Workflow, Advanced Queues are used for inter-process communication, background processing, sending messages to external agents and so on. Many times the messages may not be dequeued by the consumers such as Workflow Agent Listeners or Workflow Background Engines.

Symptoms

  • Workflow Agent Listeners or Background engines are not able to dequeue messages in READY state.
  • Messages continue to be in WAIT state even after passing the "delay" interval
  • Processed messages are not purged after passing the "retention" interval
  • Queue propagation is not happening

Checks

Always check AQ view (AQ$<Queue_Table_Name> for message state and not the under lying table directly.

  • If messages are in READY state but consumers such as Workflow Agent Listeners and Workflow Background Engines are not able to dequeue, then there might be issues with message recipients or AQ subscribers. Check the CONSUMER_NAME and ADDRESS columns value in that AQ and then the subscriber rule sets.
  • If event messages are not moving from one state to another, check AQ_TM_PROCESSES parameter's value to be greater than 0.
Note: In 10gR1 or later database releases, the AQ time management and many other background processes are automatically controlled by a coordinator-slave architecture called Queue Monitor Coordinator (QMNC). QMNC dynamically spawns slaves named qXXX depending on the system load.
If you want to disable the Queue Monitor Coordinator, then you must set AQ_TM_PROCESSES = 0 in your pfile or spfile. Oracle strongly recommends that you DO NOT set AQ_TM_PROCESSES = 0. If you are using Oracle Streams, setting this parameter to zero (which Oracle Database respects no matter what) can cause serious problems. So either remove AQ_TM_PROCESSES parameter or do not set its value as zero.
  • Check if processes, named like 'qmnc' or 'ora_qxxx' are running at the OS level. If there are no such process(es) running then bounce the Oracle Database after removing AQ_TM_PROCESSES or changing its value to a non-zero value as recommended in Oracle Applications setup documentation.

  • If Queue propagation is not happening, job_queue_processes parameter's value should be checked.
Note: In 11gR1 or later database releases, the init.ora parameter JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES does not need to be set for AQ propagations. AQ propagation is now handled by DBMS_SCHEDULER jobs rather than DBMS_JOBS.
Propagation takes advantage of the event based scheduling features of DBMS_SCHEDULER for better scalability. If the value of the JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES database initialization parameter is zero, then that parameter does not influence the number of Oracle Scheduler jobs that can run concurrently. However, if the value is non-zero, it effectively becomes the maximum number of scheduler jobs and job queue jobs that can run concurrently. If a non-zero value is set, it should be large enough to accommodate a scheduler job for each Messaging Gateway agent to be started.

SSL in Oracle Workflow

Introduction

This topic is created to give better understanding of how Oracle Workflow uses SSL in different modules and if in case of an issue how to troubleshoot it.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

SSL is a technology that defines the essential functions of mutual authentication, data encryption, and data integrity for secure transactions. Exchange of data between the client and server in such secure transactions is said to use the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). SSL uses 2 types of Certificates:

  • User certificates - These are Certificates issued to servers or users to prove their identity in a public key/private key exchange.
  • Trusted certificates - These are Certificates representing entities whom you trust - such as certificate authorities who sign the user certificates they issue.

Read more information in MOS Doc Enabling SSL in Oracle Applications Release 12.

Oracle Workflow as SSL Client

Oracle Workflow modules act as a HTTP/SSL client in different scenarios connecting to the EBS or non-EBS SSL servers. For SSL/TLS connection, the Workflow's client process should have access to the following.

  • Necessary SSL libraries (mostly available)
  • Trusted certificates (ca.crt) used to validate if the server certificate is valid.
  • Client certificates (if client authentication required).

The Key/Trust Store accessible to the Workflow process should have the correct certificates for the client code to participate in SSL handshake with the server. In summary, the SSL client should be able to validate the SSL server certificate's authenticity using it's root certificate and exchange cipher suites with the server.

Workflow as SSL Client

When troubleshooting SSL issues with Workflow, it is important to understand in detail as to where exactly each Workflow's HTTP client process executes so the necessary setup can be verified.

Workflow Manager UI

Workflow Notification Mailer is configured from Oracle Applications Manager >> Workflow Manager screens. When configuring IMAP and SMTP servers with SSL Enabled option checked, the Workflow Manager code attempts to connect to the IMAP and SMTP servers over SSL to validate connectivity before saving the configuration parameters. Since the OAM UI executes within OACORE OC4J container, it would use $OA_JRE_TOP/bin/java. The root certificate in the JRE's store should correspond to the Server Certificates on IMAP and SMTP servers in order for the connection to succeed.

Workflow Notification Mailer

Mailer executes within the Concurrent Manager process in the CM tier. The Java run-time used to run Mailer Service is configured as $AF_JRE_TOP/bin/java. If SSL is enabled, Mailer initiates SSL connection for following three reasons.

  • SMTP server - Establish SMTP connection to send e-mails.
  • IMAP server - Establish IMAP connection to receive e-mails.
  • EBS or non-EBS web server -Establish HTTP connection to a Web server to fetch OAF content or if images are to be embedded, connect to a content server.

Workflow Status Monitor

When Status Monitor page is loaded, there are two separate actions.

  • Loading of the OAF page first
  • Then loading of the Monitor Applet within that above OAF page that shows the diagram

Status Monitor makes HTTP requests during both actions above.

  • OAF controller GraphMonitorCO.java - When status monitor diagram page is loaded, this OAF controller code runs within OC4J? and it acts as HTTP client making a loop back request to Web server to fetch tags to embed the Status Monitor applet. If any exception occurs while loading the status monitor diagram page, it will result in OAF page error. OC4J runs using JRE at $OA_JRE_TOP/bin/java.
  • Monitor Applet - The monitor applet code running in Web Browser JVM (JInitiator or Sun JRE plugin) makes HTTP requests to fetch data to display diagram on the applet. The applet loads only after the status monitor page loads successfully above in (a). Any exceptions within the applet can only be tracked through Java console output on the browser.

Workflow Business Event System

From R12.1, Business Event System supports invoking web services. This includes following steps.

  • Consuming the WSDL - WSDL is consumed in a OAF page to create web service meta-data. The controller makes HTTP(S) request to the WSDL URL. In order for the OAF page to successfully connect to a HTTPS WSDL URL, the OC4J JVM should have access required SSL libraries and root certificate installed.
  • Invoking the web service - Invocation of the earlier consumed web service may occur in one of the following two processes.
    • OC4J - If the web service is invoked from a OAF page using synchronous subscription, then the OC4J process acts as SSL client. Like any OAF page, the process runs using $OA_JRE_TOP/bin/java
    • Concurrent Manager - If the web service is invoked using a asynchronous subscription, it is executed by Java Deferred Agent Listener in Agent Listener Service process. Like Workflow Mailer Service, this runs using $AF_JRE_TOP/bin/java

When there are issues...

In summary, Workflow's SSL client code executes in following run-time environments

  • $OA_JRE_TOP/jre/bin/java (Web Tier)
  • $AF_JRE_TOP/jre/bin/java (Concurrent Tier)
  • JInitiator
  • Sun JRE

For any SSL handshake errors involving Workflow code as client,

  1. Always verify that the JVM from which Workflow code initiates a SSL connection has the required root certificate installed
  2. If the server presents a certificate chain to validate, then the complete chain is installed on the client side.
  3. Most importantly, as part of SSL enablement of EBS, is the trusted certificate/certificate chain installed into internal EBS JVMs that could potentially act as SSL client to our own EBS servers.

How to check SSL connectivity?

SSL connectivity can be verified from the run-time environment where Workflow acts as client to a SSL server to confirm if the setup is correct. This helps troubleshoot general SSL setup without involving Workflow code.

For example, for Status Monitor SSL issues,

  1. GraphMonitorCO.java - Check connectivity from $OA_JRE_TOP/bin/java by using this JRE's trust-store to the web-server.
  2. Status Monitor Applet - Check connectivity from client machine based on appropriate run-time such as Sun JRE or JInitiator. For JInitiator, the certificates are stored under <JInitiator Home>\lib\security\certdb.txt. Java run-time is accessible using <JInitiator Home>\bin\java.exe

For connectivity testing following can help.

  1. openssl utility available in Unix based platforms
  2. This sample 
    SSLSocketClientTest.java
    class can be used to test a handshaking from the Java run-time
    1. Download the Java class source code in a directory. There is no package name for this Java class.
    2. Compile SSLSocketClientTest.java as
      javac -classpath $CLASSPATH SSLSocketClientTest.java
    3. Run it as below from required Java run-time
      java -classpath . -Dserver=server.com -Dport=443 -Dtruststore=<jre/lib/security /cacerts> SSLSocketClientTest

How to update the JDK Cacerts File?

These steps are mentioned as part of EBS SSL setup MOS Doc Enabling SSL in Oracle Applications Release 12.

  1. Navigate to the $OA_JRE_TOP/lib/security directory
  2. Backup the existing cacerts file.
  3. Copy your ca.crt and server.crt files to this directory. Issue the following command to insure that cacerts has write permissions. 
  4.    chmod u+w cacerts
  5. Add your Apache ca.crt and server.crt to cacerts
  6. keytool -import -alias ApacheRootCA -file ca.crt -trustcacerts -v -keystore cacerts
    keytool -import -alias ApacheServer -file server.crt -trustcacerts -v -keystore cacerts
  7. When prompted enter the keystore password (default password is changeit).

Certificate Chains

A certificate chain establishes as chain of trust. The certificate issued by a CA is not signed by their own root certificate but is signed by another CA's root certificate. For example, VeriSign is the most common CA whose user certificates that all the web browsers trust. This is because, the web browsers are pre-installed with VeriSign's root certificate. If another CA XyZ issues a certificate signed using VeriSign's root certificate, then the browser can trust the certificate from XyZ simply because the root certificate is issued by CA.

The chain of trust is

VeriSign's Root CA Certificate >> XyZ's Intermediate CA Certificate >> Server Certificate

There must be a chain of trust from the server certificate up through intermediate authorities up to one of the trusted Root Certificate in order for the server to be trusted. If the client is unable to build the chain of trust starting from the server certificate up to a trusted Root Certificate, then the SSL handshake fails with X509CertChainIncompleteErr.

How to rectify this?

Concatenate all the certificates in the chain into one single file as per the order in which they appear in the chain. Server Certificate should be the first one in the chain and followed by the intermediate certificates and finally the root certificate. You can verify this order and download the certificates using a Web browser. Import the concatenated certificate into the JDK from which the Workflow's code acts SSL client.


Conclusion

It is just a matter of establishing trust between the client and the server. Does the client have access to the certificates to trust the server?

Leveraging Oracle Workflow for Declarative PageFlow

This blog post contributed by Dilbagh Singh.

Oracle Workflow can be leveraged in Oracle Applications Framework for designing declarative Page Flow, which is used to handle conditional navigation rules.This is a better way to handle page navigations if you would want to avoid static, complex logic in the page controllers to handle different navigation scenarios. This requires a user to create a Pageflow workflow definition which is associated with the OA Framework based pages. Then there are certain APIs which are used in transition flow of the workflow. I would like to focus on creating a Workflow Definition for the page flow and how to interact with it as the transaction proceeds.

1. Create the OA Framework pages
Create the OA Framework pages you would want the page flow to consist of.

2. Design the Workflow Definition for the Page Flow
Define the Workflow in the workflow builder following the below mentioned guidelines:

  • Add a function activity for each page in the transaction. For each activity, decide whether to:

    • Associate the result with this activity (for conditional navigation) OR

    • Explicitly mark the activity as blocked by associating a Blocking Function (wf_standard.block), a PLSQL function with it

      • When the Workflow Engine encounters a blocking activity it stops and waits for some sub-process or external entity to provide the information it needs to proceed. So, with the mapping between transaction pages and the blocking activities in the Workflow, you can query the activity data to find out what page ought to be rendered.

  • Add a FORM attribute to each page-related blocking activity. The FORM attribute would have a value which specifies the next page to be traversed.

3. Start the Page Flow

  • You can start the page flow from a OAF page directly or upon triggered by some event or can start it from a static page by using the API OANavigation which provides createProcess() and startProcess()

  • You can then transition through the workflow by using getNextPage() from OANavigation API. There are different overloaded getNextPage APIs for transitioning through workflow, transitioning to next page, resuming a saved transaction etc. You can get the code snippets in the OAF Dev guide.

4. Clear the Workflow Context
  • Since the Workflow transaction holds an independent local JDBC connection, you must override the OADBTransaction.beforePoolCheckin() method in your root UI application module and call getDBTransaction.clearWorkflowInfo() to release the connection.

Some More features:

  1. Workflow-based page flows automatically support browser Back button navigation at the Workflow technology layer. Whenever user moves between the pages using browser Back button and resubmits, the workflow rewinds itself to the appropriate blocking activity so it stays in synch with the user's current navigation position.

  2. Workflow Page Flow can be used with Train and Navigator bar in a page, which the traditional 'Destination Function' based approach does not support.

  3. For the most part, you handle application errors in your Workflow-based page flows the same way that you do in any other context. That said, however, you need to consider the possibility that the user might fix mistakes and resubmit the form whenever you introduce workflow code.
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This blog is dedicated to bring latest information on Oracle Workflow new features, best practices, troubleshooting techniques and important fixes directly from it's Development Team.

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