Sometime you just have to do a cleanup but it seems a waste not to keep information that may still be valuable for the historical record. This is one such time. Here are some of the older resources about Oracle Net Services, aka SQL*Net taken from a web page that is about to be revamped.
Of course, if you want current information, visit the Oracle Net Service page, the Net Services Net Services Reference, or the latest Net Services Adminstrator's Guide.
Oracle Net Services provides a scalable, secure, and easy-to-use high-availability network infrastructure for Oracle environment. It eases the complexities of network configuration and management, maximizes performance, and improves network security and diagnostic capabilities as summarized hereafter.
- Connectivity: Oracle Net Services enables a network session from a client application to an Oracle database server. Once a network session is established, Oracle Net acts as the data courier for both the client application and the database server. It is responsible for establishing and maintaining the connection between the client application and database server, as well as exchanging messages between them.
- Manageability: it encompasses location transparency, centralized configuration and management, quick installation and configuration. Location Transparency service allows a database client to identify the target database server; to achieve this goal, several naming methods are available today: Oracle Net Directory naming, Local naming (TNSNAMES.ORA), Host naming, and External naming.
- Centralized Configuration and Management: allows administrators, in large network environments, to easily access a centralized repository (i.e., LDAP-compliant directory server such as Oracle Internet Directory) to specify and modify the network configuration.
- Quick Installation and Configuration: networking components for the Oracle database server and clients are preconfigured for most environments. The Oracle database service is resolved using various naming methods. As a result, clients and servers are ready to immediately connect when installed.
- Performance and Scalability: features such as Database Resident Connection Pool (connection pooling), Shared Server (session multiplexing), and scalable event models (polling) enable performance and high scalability.
- Network Security: Oracle Net Services enables database access control using features of firewall access control and protocol access control.
- Diagnosability: a diagnostic and performance analysis tool, Trace Assistant, provides detailed information about the source and context of problems as they arise.
What's New in Oracle Database 12c
The new features for Net Services in Oracle Database 12c include:
- Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Addressing and Connectivity support over Public VIPs to Real Application Clusters (please refer the IPv6 Statement of Direction below for more information)
- Networking support for new architectures, such as, Database Consolidation and Global Data Services
- Large Session Data Unit (SDU) sizes, with a new upper limit of 2 MB. The larger SDU size can be used to achieve better utilization of available bandwidth in networks that have high bandwidth delay products and host resources, according to application characteristics.
- Advanced Network Compression. This feature can be used to reduce the amount of data transmitted over the network. New parameters for the sqlnet.ora file enable compression and selection of the preferred compression level. Please refer the Advanced Network Compression white paper below for more information.
- Dead Connection Detection has been enhanced to reduce the amount of time taken to detect terminated connections. The SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME parameter must be set in the sqlnet.ora file to detect terminated clients. If the system supports TCP keepalive tuning, then Oracle Net Services automatically uses the enhanced detection model, and tunes the TCP keepalive parameters at a per-connection level.
- Intelligent Client Connection establishment feature reduces the priority of connection attempts to unresponsive nodes in the address string of connect descriptors. No configuration changes are required to use this feature.
- Incident Generation for Process Failures for the following Oracle Net Services components has been added:
- Oracle Net Listener
- Listener control utility (LSNRCTL)
- Connection Manager Administration (CMADMIN)
- Oracle Connection Manager gateway (CMGW)
What's New in Oracle Database 11gR1 & 11gR2
The new features for Net Services in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 include:
- Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Addressing and Connectivity for single-instance database (please refer the IPv6 Statement of Direction below for more information)
- Oracle Restart in single instance environment for restarting the listener, the database and other Oracle components following hardware/software failure or host restart.
- Support for CONNECT_TIMEOUT and TRANSPORT_CONNECT_TIMEOUT for each IP address
- CIDR notation and wildcard support for valid node checking
- The new features for Net Services in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 include:
- Support for authenticated LDAP access for Net Naming
- Performance Improvements
- Fastpath for common usage scenarios, enforced transparently (no configuration required)
- Efficient network support for bulk/large data transfers (such as, SecureFile LOBs)
- Efficient event dispatch mechanisms for PHP and process-based systems (enforced transparently, no config. required)
- Fast Reconnects for High Availability: efficient detection of terminated instances and conect time failover
- Support for Database Resident Connection Pool
- Enhancements to the Easy Connect Naming method
For more details see the Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
Oracle Database 12c
Oracle Database 11gR2
Oracle Database 11gR1
Oracle Database 10g
Oracle Database 9i