Wednesday Jul 30, 2014

Reducing Downtime While Patching Multi-OMS Environments

Enterprise Manager has now been released for a few weeks, as well as the OMS Bundle patches (also known as System patches). If you plan to apply these bundle patches to your OMS, and you are concerned about the downtime, then, you can reduce the downtime by referring to this whitepaper that contains patching instructions to reduce downtime. 

This whitepaper covers various Enterprise Manager High Availability (EM HA)  usecases (level 1, 2, 3, 4), and contains instructions on how to reduce downtime while applying patches to each of these usecases. It also clearly defines the steps that require downtime and those that do not.

If you have a multi-OMS setup, you can also refer to this whitepaper which covers script creation using the opatchauto command, which automates the substeps and further reduces downtime.During our internal testing of this whitepaper on an EM HA setup, we have noticed a significant reduction in downtime. 

If your customer plans to do an Enterprise Manager Upgrade to, then as a post upgrade recommendation, they should patch their OMS with the latest bundle patches by following the instructions outlined in this whitepaper.

White paper on OTN:

MOS note for the latest Bundle Patches:
Enterprise Manager (PS3) Master Bundle Patch List (Doc ID 1900943.1)

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Wednesday Jul 23, 2014

Enterprise Manager Ops Center 12c R2 U1 Released

We are happy and excited to announce that on July 20, 2014, Oracle Enterprise Manager Ops Center 12c Release 2 Update 1 was released for all platforms including Oracle Solaris SPARC/x86 and Linux.

Ops Center 12cR2 PSU1 is an update release containing improvements and enhancements in the following areas: performance, new hardware support and general quality improvements.

In the performance area we have made improvements in core Ops Center components such as the Enterprise Controller, Proxy Controller and Virtualization Agent. We have reduced the Enterprise Controller memory footprint and enhanced start up times for the Enterprise Controller and agents. We have looked at areas such as deployment wizards and the management of LUN's and made improvements in the performance of these areas.

For new hardware we support the discovery, monitoring and provisioning of both OS and Firmware for: X4-4, X4-8, M4000 and M10. We also made improvements for firmware management of the X4-2 and introduced enhanced support for add / modify hardware configurations for Oracle SuperCluster. 

In the general quality area we improved security, refined logging, made improvements to OS provisioning and enhanced areas such as LDAP and the UI.

For customers with a support contract historically any new updates to the Ops Center components would automatically appear in the Download window of the UI. However, we have noticed a bug which prevents this new version appearing. A fix / IDR is in place and is described in the release notes for this version available here. There is also a MOS note 1908726.1 which describes the IDR and procedure to enable the download.

Software downloads outside of this automatic process will be available on the OTN and edelivery in the coming days.

Before upgrading your Enterprise Controller please check the upgrade guide available here.

There is also an excellent blog which gives advice on pre upgrade tasks to ensure a smooth and successful upgrade experience here.

EM12c Release 4: Upgrading Agents with Ease

Now that Enterprise Manager 12cR4 has been out for a little while, more people are getting around to upgrading their agents.  Since the monthly Patch bundles were released we already have a few Agent side patches that we want to apply to our newly upgraded agents.  I’ve written about simplifying your agent patching before, but this feature still seems to fly under the radar.  It’s days like these that I miss running a massive Enterprise Manager with thousands of databases, because this is one of the things that would have made me dance in my cubicle.

Let's say, you have 100 agents (50 with Database plug-in, 50 with Middleware plug-in).  In my previous blog on EM patches, I explained the different types of patches available for EM, so I’m not going to go into detail here.   What I'm going to illustrate is how we can upgrade those 100 agents, and patch them with the following patches in one step (current as of today):

[Read More]

Tuesday Jul 22, 2014

Upgrading to Enterprise Manager Ops Center

Hi all,

this is just a quick note for those looking to upgrade to the new relase of Ops Center (

It is avalable for download:

  • From OTN - after July 25, 2014
  • From OSDC - after July 31, 2014
  • From  the Ops Center BUI - after July 20, 2014

    Before you can see the new version in an existing 12.2.0 (or earlier) version of Ops Center you will need to apply a quick patch to to make the new version visable to downlaod. Details of how to access this IDR and how to apply it can be found in the MOS Note (Doc ID 1908726.1) 

    Happy Upgrading



  • Sunday Jul 20, 2014

    Pre-Upgrade Checks Enterprise Manager Ops Center

    With the release of Enterprise Manager Ops Center 12.2.1, it is time to go through the upgrade cycle. I thought I would share the pre-upgrade checks I go through when I upgrade to a new Ops Center build. As part of the development team, I get involved in pre-release Quality Assurance testing, which means I end up doing hundreds of upgrades as part of the testing process.

    Update releases come out regularly and contain enhancements and bug fixes. As with any other application in your environment, you should upgrade Ops Center to the current release/update in a timely and controlled manner. For those of you who are long time sys-admins, there is no rocket science here. It is the same sort of planning you would do for any other Enterprise level application.

     In my test environments, I have my Enterprise Controller (EC) and Proxy Controllers (PC) inside Solaris Zones (Solaris 11), so I have a couple of extra checks I do, but the process as a whole is still valid if your EC/PC are on their own separate hardware.

    1) Read the Release Notes

    Yes, those release notes/README files are important and you should spend the time reading them. They will contain the latest information about the update and any known issues and workarounds.

    2) Check Free Disk Space

    Confirm that there is enough disk space to unpack and install the upgrade. How much is enough space is the ultimate question. It will vary with each different upgrade and will depend on how you have configured your underlying filesystems and your actual environment. Here are some guidelines. Please note that the numbers I quote tend to be a little generous as it is always better to have more free space than not enough.

    • There should always be a few GB of space free in the root partition (it is just good sys-admin practice - below 90 % would be ideal).
    • The filesystem that holds /var/tmp  will need space for the DB backup that is run as part of the installer. The size of this will depend on the size of your DB. So check how much a "ecadm backup" takes on your system.
    • The filesystem that holds /var/tmp is also the temporary location where we unpack the upgrade bundle.
    • The filesystem that holds /var/opt/sun/xvm will have the majority of the upgrade code installed into it as well as a copy of the installer under the update-saved-state directory.
    So what does that mean for size requirements?
    • You need about 5 times the upgrade bundle. The current upgrade bundle is 3.8GB unpacked, so that would be 20GB.
    • The DB backup will take about 10% of the actual DB size.
    root@ec:/ec_backup# du -hs *
     1.3G   sat-backup-pre-12.2.1-upgrade.20140702
    root@ec:/ec_backup# du -hs /var/opt/sun/xvm/oracle/oradata/OCDB
    14G   /var/opt/sun/xvm/oracle/oradata/OCDB

     Although more space is actually used during the backup before it is packed up, I would allow for about 4 GB of space.

    • So for my environment, I would look for about 25GB (rounding up) free space (your number may vary). I am sure I could scrimp and save and get this number down, but the idea is to have plenty of free space to allow for the upgrade to go through without incident.

    3) Backups Backups Backups

    Before commencing any upgrade, you should make sure you can roll back if something goes horribly wrong. Years of history in administration and support have made me a paranoid person. I believe you can never have too many backups, so I do the following:

    • Confirm you have a successful database backup using "ecadm backup". (You should already be doing this on a weekly basis)
    root@ec:/# /opt/SUNWxvmoc/bin/ecadm backup -d pre-12.2.1-upgrade -o
    ecadm: using logFile =
    ecadm: *** PreBackup Phase 
    ecadm: *** Backup Phase
    ecadm: *** PostBackup Phase 
    ecadm: *** Backup complete
    ecadm: *** Output in /ec_backup/sat-backup-pre-12.2.1-upgrade.20140702 
    ecadm: *** Log in /var/opt/sun/xvm/logs/sat-backup-2014-07-02-11:52:16.log
    Of course, copy the generated backup file to somewhere safe on another system.
    • Confirm you have a successful filesystem backup using your Enterprise backup software. (You should already be doing this on a weekly basis.) I would recommend full filesystem backups and having a separate backup of the /var/opt/sun/xvm directory and any of your Ops Center software libraries if you did not put them in the default location (/var/opt/sun/xvm/locallib/swlib[0-2]).
    • Take a ZFS snapshot (recursive) of the full zone (rpool and any other zpool that are part of the zone). This is normally your easiest and fastest roll back method should you need it. NOTE: Make sure you know how to recover/rollback a zone. "zfs snapshot -r rpool" recursively snapshots all underlying filesystems, but "zfs rollback -r rpool" will only rollback a single filesystem. You need to rollback each filesystem separately. If you are not sure, practice it on a test zone first.
    ### Take a zfs snapshot ###
        root@ec:/# zfs list
        NAME                              USED  AVAIL  REFER  MOUNTPOINT
        rpool                             156G  41.1G    31K  /rpool
        rpool/ROOT                        134G  41.1G    31K  legacy
        rpool/ROOT/solaris                134G  41.1G  24.6G  /
        rpool/ROOT/solaris-backup-1       174K  41.1G  1.37G  /
        rpool/ROOT/solaris-backup-1/var   110K  41.1G  27.9G  /var
        rpool/ROOT/solaris-backup-2       296K  41.1G  24.2G  /
        rpool/ROOT/solaris-backup-2/var   232K  41.1G  48.4G  /var
        rpool/ROOT/solaris/var            109G  41.1G  77.2G  /var
        rpool/VARSHARE                     88K  41.1G  66.5K  /var/share
        rpool/ec_backup                  1.29G  41.1G  1.29G  /ec_backup
        rpool/export                      161K  41.1G    32K  /export
        rpool/export/home                 111K  41.1G    32K  /export/home
        rpool/export/home/ocadmin          61K  41.1G  40.5K 
        rpool/oracle                     20.7G  41.1G  20.7G 
        root@ec:/# zfs snapshot -r rpool@pre-OC-12.2.1-install.20140702

    4) Check for any failed services

    It is good practice to clear/enable/disable any broken SMF services, but there are a few key ones to check.

    • Make sure all the Ops Center services that should be running are running and the ones that should not are not. A classic example here is when you have an EC running without a collocated PC. The PC shows as disabled, but still shows in a "svcs -xv" output.

        root@ec:/var/tmp/downloads# svcs -xv
        (Cacao, a common Java container for JDMK/JMX based management
         State: disabled since June 12, 2014 08:07:08 AM EST 
        Reason: Disabled by an administrator.
           See: man -M /usr/share/man -s 1M cacaoadm 
           See: man -M /usr/share/man -s 5 cacao
           Impact: 1 dependent service is not running: 

    In this case, our EC did not have a collocated PC, so we should ensure that these services are really disabled and don't try to start-up during the upgrade process.

        root@ec:/var/tmp/downloads# svcadm disable
        root@ec:/var/tmp/downloads# svcadm disable
    •  If you are using zones either on the system where the EC is installed in the GZ or your EC/PC run in a NGZ, you also need to check that the IPS proxies are running to allow the Solaris 11 packaging system to work correctly.
      • In a Global Zone (GZ) check that zones-proxyd is online.
    root@t4-1-syd04-b:~# svcs svc:/application/pkg/zones-proxyd:default
    STATE          STIME    FMRI
    online         Jul_02   svc:/application/pkg/zones-proxyd:default
      • In a Non Global Zone (NGZ)check that the zones-proxy-client is online.
    root@ec:~# svcs svc:/application/pkg/zones-proxy-client:default
    STATE          STIME    FMRI
    online          8:54:47 svc:/application/pkg/zones-proxy-client:default
    • What you are looking for is a clean bill of health from "svcs -xv" command.
        root@ec:/var/tmp/downloads# svcs -xv

    5) Check the pkg publishers

    To be able to do a successful upgrade, you need the pkg publisher for a system to be working. In a zones environment, that means the publishers in the GZ and all the NGZ should be working. Publishers that don't resolve when a package links into a zone will cause the whole upgrade to stop.

    So here are a couple things to look for when you are using an EC in a zone.

    • If this was a test environment where you had multiple EC/PC in different zones, either those EC/PC should be running or the publishers that point to a NON running EC/PC should be cleared. This can be done by issuing a
    # pkg unset-publisher Publisher-Name 

    The aim here is to clear all the local publishers in the zone and just use the proxied publishers in the GZ.

    • If you have the GZ pointing to a PC that points to the EC that is being upgraded, where the EC is in a NGZ under the GZ (yes this is the whole chicken and egg problem), you have a slightly different problem. During the upgrade, parts of the EC will be shutdown which will stop the remote PC from proxying access to EC's IPS repository. So you need to set the publishers to point to an IPS repository that they can reach. Luckily, the actual IPS repository on the EC does still keep running on port 11000 throughout the upgrade.
    root@t4-1-syd04-b:~# pkg publisher
    PUBLISHER                   TYPE     STATUS P LOCATION
    solaris                     origin   online F https://oracle-oem-oc-mgmt-pc217:8002/IPS/
    cacao                       origin   online F https://oracle-oem-oc-mgmt-pc217:8002/IPS/
    mp-re          (non-sticky) origin   online F https://oracle-oem-oc-mgmt-pc217:8002/IPS/
    opscenter                   origin   online F https://oracle-oem-oc-mgmt-pc217:8002/IPS/
    root@t4-1-syd04-b:~# pkg unset-publisher opscenter
    root@t4-1-syd04-b:~# pkg unset-publisher mp-re
    root@t4-1-syd04-b:~# pkg unset-publisher cacao
    root@t4-1-syd04-b:~# pkg set-publisher -G '*' -g http://ec:11000/ solaris
    root@t4-1-syd04-b:~# pkg publisher
    PUBLISHER                   TYPE     STATUS P LOCATION
    solaris                     origin   online F http://ec:11000/
    • You can reset to their original state, all the publishers that were set by Ops Center, by rebooting the system or running the script in each zone.
    # /var/opt/sun/xvm/utils/ -P PC_IP_Address
    Use as the IP address for the EC/PC when it is pointing too itself

    6) Run OCDoctor troubleshoot

    Run the OCDoctor troubleshoot script over your EC and PC's before an upgrade. It is a good sanity check to look for and fix underlying problems before you start the upgrade process. If you are in connected mode, your EC should already have the latest version of OCDoctor downloaded. Otherwise, you can update it by running " --update" or downloading from

    Note: The error "'root' should not be a role" can be safely ignored as it was only required for earlier versions of Ops Center.

        root@ec:/var/tmp/downloads# /var/opt/sun/xvm/OCDoctor/ -t
        Ops Center Doctor 4.34  [OC,SunOS11] [Read only]
        [02-Jul-2014 11:25AM EST]
        ======================== Checking Enterprise Controller...==============================
        OK: Total number of OSes: 12  Total LDOMs:7  Total Zones: 
        ERROR: User 'root' should not be a role. You should convert it to a
        normal user before the installation.
               This can be done by running:
        # rolemod -K type=normal root
        OK: Files in /var/opt/sun/xvm/images/agent/ have the right permissions
        OK: Files in /var/opt/sun/xvm/osp/web/pub/pkgs/ have the right  permissions
        OK: both pvalue and pdefault in systemproperty are equal to false (at id 114)
        OK: Found only 285 OCDB*.aud files in oracle/admin/OCDB/adump folder
        OK: Found no ocdb*.aud files in oracle/admin/OCDB/adump folder
        OK: No auth.cgi was found in cgi-bin
        OK: User 'oracleoc' home folder points to the right location
        OK: User 'allstart' home folder points to the right location
        OK: Apache logs are smaller than 2 GB
        OK: n1gc folder has the right permissions
        OK: All agent packages are installed properly
        OK: All Enterprise Controller packages are installed properly
        OK: Enterprise Controller status is online
        OK: the version is the latest one (
        OK: satadm timeouts were increased
        OK: tar command was properly adjusted in satadm
        OK: stclient command works properly
        OK: Colocated proxy status is 'disabled'
        OK: Local Database used space is 19%, 6G out of 32G (local DB, using 1 files)
        OK: Debug is disabled in .uce.rc
        OK: Debug is disabled for cacao instance oem-ec
        OK: no 'conn_properties_file_name' value in .uce.rc
        OK: 30G available in /
        OK: 30G available in /var
        OK: 30G available in /var/tmp
        OK: 30G available in /var/opt/sun/xvm
        OK: 30G available in /opt
        OK: DNS does not unexpectedly resolve hostname '_default_'
        OK: Found the server .uce.rc at /var/opt/sun/xvm/uce/opt/server/cgi-bin/.uce.rc
        OK: Server .uce.rc has the correct file permissions
        OK: Server .uce.rc has the correct ownership
        OK: Connectivity to the KB public servers works properly (using download_large.cgi)
        OK: Grouplock file doesn't exist
        OK: package hmp-tools@2.2.1 is not installed
        OK: package driver/x11/xsvc is not installed
        OK: Cacao facet is set to False
        OK: All Solaris 11 agent bundles in /var/opt/sun/xvm/images/agent are imported properly to the repository
        OK: Disconnected mode is not configured
        OK: Locales are OK ("en_US.UTF-8")
        OK: No need to check for Solaris 11 agent bundle issue as this EC is newer than Update 1
        OK: No partially installed packages
        OK: UCE 'private' folder exists
        OK: No http_proxy is set in the user profile files
        OK: 'public' folder has the right ownership
        OK: 'public' folder is writable for uce-sds
        OK: 'private' folder has the right ownership
        OK: 'private' folder is writable for uce-sds
        OK: '/var/tmp' folder is writable for uce-sds
        OK: No old jobs rerun (CR 6990675)
        OK: No need to adjust SEQ_COUNT (MAXID:2986 SEQCOUNT:2986)
        OK: no row with found in DB table
        NOTICE: Can't perform cryptoadm test inside a zone.
                Run --troubelshoot from the global zone as well to test the crypto services.
        OK: System time is not in the past
        OK: User uce-sds is part of all the proper groups
        OK: oracleoc user ulimit -Sn is 1024
        OK: oracleoc user ulimit -Hn is 65536
        OK: FC Libraries do not contain duplicate LUNs
        OK: 'update-saved-state' folder exists and has the right permissions
        OK: verify-db does not return 'Invalid pad value' message
        OK: No credential issues found 
        =========== Proxy controller is installed but not configured, skipping ==================
        =========== Agent controller is installed but not configured, skipping ==================

    Now do the upgrade

    Choose whichever upgrade method you like. Both the BUI and CLI methods will give you the same end result. The Ops Center upgrade is not a difficult upgrade and following some simple pre-work checks will maximize your chance of a straightforward and successful upgrade.


    Rodney Lindner


    Thursday Jul 17, 2014

    Patching 101 - The User Friendly Guide to Understanding EM Patches

    There was a conversation on twitter last week about available patches for Enterprise Manager (EM), and it got a little deeper than 140 characters will allow.  I've written this blog to give a quick Patching 101 on the types of EM patches you might see and the details around how they can be applied.

    OMS Patches

    The core Enterprise Manager system is typically patched with the quarterly PSU patches (released Jan, Apr, July, Oct) or a one-off when directed by support for a critical issue.  PSU patches will be cumulative, so you need not apply each of them, just apply the latest.  The OMSes must be shutdown during patching, however some patches are being released with rolling patch instructions for multi-OMS systems.  These patches must be applied at the host level, and cannot be automated via EM.   ALWAYS read the readme, yes every time.  The patching steps can change from patch to patch so it's critical to read the readme. OPatch or OPatchauto will be used to apply these patches.  Did I mention to read the readme for every patch?  It's also important to note that there may be additional steps when patching in a multi-OMS or standby environment, so read the output of OPatchauto carefully.

    Always download the latest OPatch release for the appropriate version.  If you read the readme, you already know this!   Download patch 6880880 for 11.1 (the OPatch version used by EM) and unzip into the $ORACLE_HOME.  Most errors in patching are related to not updating OPatch. 

    For more information on PSU Patches and patching EM:
    Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Administrators Guide - Chapter 16 Patching Oracle Management Server and the Repository
    EM 12c Cloud Control: List of Available Patch Set Updates PSU (Doc ID 1605609.1)
    How to Determine the List of Patch Set Update(PSU) Applied to the Enterprise Manager OMS and Agent Oracle Homes? (Doc ID 1358092.1)

    Each plug-in has binaries that will require patches as well.  Same downtime requirements apply for plug-in patches as the quarterly PSUs.  Starting in, the plug-in patches are being released as a monthly bundle.  This means that if you have 6 plug-ins, you may have 6 OMS side patches to apply - 1 for each plug-in.  Bundles are not always released for every plug-in every month.  They are cumulative, so pick the latest.

    Starting with, the individual OMS-side plug-in bundles are being grouped into a System  Patch each month. So for example, in June 2014 the System patch includes MOS, Cloud, DB, FA, FMW, SMF, and Siebel plug-ins.  Non-required patches will be skipped.

    For more information on the EM Patch Bundles and Patching EM:
    Enterprise Manager (PS3) Master Bundle Patch List (Doc ID 1900943.1)
    Enterprise Manager Bundle Patch Master Note (Doc ID 1572022.1)

    Agent Patches

    Agent patches are applied to each agent.  They can be applied via EM using the MOS patch plans, which makes it a lot easier when you have 100s or 1000s of Agents to patch!  The Patch Plans will start a blackout, validate prerequisites, check for conflicts, and update OPatch for you.  If you don't use the Patch Plan you can patch manually with OPatch, don't forget to read the readme!  The Agent must be shutdown during the patch application.  There are 4 main types of Agent patches you will see:

    • Core Agent - Starting with the core Agent will have monthly patch bundles .  These are also cumulative, so my recommendation is to apply the latest one.  
    • Agent-side Discovery Plug-in - This is the lightweight piece of the plug-in used for target discovery.  Discovery plug-in patches are cumulative with other discovery plug-in patches for that component. 
    • Agent-side Monitoring Plug-in - This is the more detailed monitoring side of the plug-ins for the required components.  Monitoring plug-in patches are cumulative with other monitoring plug-in patches for that component.   So if there's a Discovery and Monitoring patch available for the DB Plug-in, you need to apply both of them.  
    • JDBC patches for the Agent will be JDBC version  These patches do get applied to the Agent, and can be applied via the Patch Plans.  

    You can apply the latest Agent bundle, JDBC patch and the plug-in bundles in one patch plan.   If there's a conflict, you'll be notified.   If the Agents you've selected don't have specified plug-ins, you'll also receive notice during the analyze step.  As of now, for my agents, I would apply the patch (18873338) and the two available plug-in agent patches DB monitoring (19002534) and FMW monitoring (18953219) and the latest JDBC patches (18502187,18721761) all in one patch plan.

    I discovered a new feature in while testing this.  Normally you had to have Normal Oracle Home preferred credentials set for all Agent targets to patch, or select Override and specify the Normal Oracle Home credentials.   In, the Agent uses it's internal credentials to Patch itself, so setting preferred credentials or specifying at run-time is not required.  The user patching would require the Manage Target Patch and Patch Plan privileges.  

    For more details on Agent patching:
    Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control Administrators Guide - Chapter 17 Patching Enterprise Manager Agents 
    Simplified Agent and Plug-in Patching


    The OMS and Agent are the key components, and my main focus here.  However it's important to keep the infrastructure stack up to date as well.  This includes the Oracle Fusion Middleware and Oracle Database that are used for EM.   The recommendation is to follow the best practices for each of these components, and regularly update with the PSU patches available.   The following reference notes will help in identifying the current PSU patches.   The WebLogic Server version used by EM 12c is 10.3.6. 

    Oracle Recommended Patches -- Oracle Database (MOS 756671.1)
    Master Note on WebLogic Server Patch Set Updates (PSUs) (MOS 1470197.1)


    Hopefully this will help you understand the various types of components involved with keeping EM up to date.   Obviously, you may not want to patch each month and maybe not every quarter, but the patches are available to keep the software up to date and make things easier to apply in bundles.  You'll want to setup a plan for planned software maintenance in your environment.  There's a whitepaper Oracle Enterprise Manager Software Planned Maintenance that will help guide you through the best practices.  

    Tuesday Jul 01, 2014

    Limit Self Service User Access to Database Self Service Portal

    When implementing database as a service and/or snap clone, a common request was for a way to hide the other service types like IaaS, MWaaS, etc from the self service portal for the end users. Before EM12c R4, there was no way to restrict the portal view. Essentially, any user with the EM_SSA_USER role would be directed to the self service portal and would then be able to see all service types supported by EM12c.

    Of course, you could always set Database as your default self service portal from the 'My Preferences' pop up, but this only helps with their post-login experience. The end user still gets to see all the options as shown in screen above.

    In EM12c R4, a new out of the box role called EM_SSA_USER_BASE has been introduced. This role, by default, does not give access to any portal, that is an explicit selection. Here is how you use this role:

    1. Create a custom role and add the EM_SSA_USER_BASE role to it.

     2. Now in the Resource Privileges step, select the Resource Type 'Cloud Self Service Portal for Database', and edit it

    3. Check the 'Access the Cloud Self Service Portal for Database.' privilege. Finish the rest of the wizard.

     Now, when a user with this custom role accesses the self service portal, they can only do so for databases and nothing else.

    While the EM_SSA_USER role will continue to work, we recommend you start using the new EM_SSA_USER_BASE role. For more details on DBaaS or Snap Clone roles, refer to the cloud admin guide chapter on roles and users.

    -- Adeesh Fulay (@AdeeshF)


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