Wednesday Dec 12, 2012

Oracle Solaris 11 pkg fix

Bob Netherton explains why Solaris 11 pkg fix is his new friend.

"So far so good. Then comes an oops... This is where you generally say a few things to yourself, and then promise to quit deleting configuration files and directories when you don't know what you are doing. Then you recall that the new Solaris 11 packaging system has some ability to correct common mistakes (like the one I just made)."

[Read More]

Thursday Nov 17, 2011

Critical Threads Optimization

Background

One of the more common issues we've been seeing in the field is the growing difficulty in optimizing performance of multi-threaded applications. A good portion of this difficulty is due to the increasing complexity of modern processors that present various degrees of sharing relationships between hardware components. Take any current CMT processor and you'll find any number of CPUs sharing execution pipelines, floating point units, caches, etc. Consequently, applying the traditional recipe of one software thread for each CPU will have varying degrees of success, according to the layout of the underlying hardware.

On top of this increasing complexity we've also seen processors with features that aim at dynamically resourcing software threads according to their utilization. Intel's Turbo Boost allows processors to increase their operating frequency if there is enough thermal headroom available and the processor isn't fully utilized. More recently, the SPARC T4 processor introduced dynamic threading, allowing each core to dynamically allocate more resources to its active CPUs. Both cases are in essence recognizing that current processors will be running a wide mix of workloads, some will be designed for throughput, others for low latency. The hardware is providing mechanisms to dynamically resource threads according to their runtime behavior.

We're very aware of these challenges in Solaris, and have been working to provide the best out of box performance while providing mechanisms to further optimize applications when necessary. The Critical Threads Optimzation was introduced in Solaris 10 8/11 and Solaris 11 as one such mechanism that allows customers to both address issues caused by contention over shared hardware resources and explicitly take advantage of features such as T4's dynamic threading.

What it is

The basic idea is to allow performance critical threads to execute with more exclusive access to hardware resources. For example, when deploying an application that implements a producer/consumer model, it'll likely be advantageous to give the producer more exclusive access to the hardware instead of having it competing for resources with all the consumers. In the case of a T4 based system, we may want to have a producer running by itself on a single core and create one consumer for each of the remaining CPUs.

With the Critical Threads Optimization we're extending the semantics of scheduling priorities (which thread should run first) to include priority over shared resources (which thread should have more "space"). Now the scheduler will not only run higher priority threads first: it will also provide them with more exclusive access to hardware resources if they are available.

How does it work ?

Using the previous example in Solaris 11, all you'd have to do would be to place the producer in the Fixed Priority (FX) scheduling class at priority 60, or in the Real Time (RT) class at any priority and Solaris will try to give it more "hardware space". On both Solaris 10 8/11 and Solaris 11 this can be achieved through the existing priocntl(1,2) and priocntlset(2) interfaces. If your application already assigns these priorities to performance critical threads, there's no additional step you need to take.

One important aspect of this optimization is that it requires some level of idleness in the system, either as a result of sizing the application before hand or through periods of transient idleness during runtime. If the system is fully committed, the scheduler will put all the available CPUs to work.

Best practices

If you're an application developer, we encourage you to look into assigning the right priorities for the different threads in your application. Solaris provides different scheduling classes (Time Share, Interactive, Fair Share, Fixed Priority and Real Time) that offer different policies and behaviors. It is not always simple to figure out which set of threads are critical to the performance of a workload, and it may not always be feasible to take advantage of this optimization, but we believe that this can be correctly (and safely) done during development.

Overall, the out of box performance in Solaris should meet your workload's requirements. If you are looking into that extra bit of performance, then the Critical Threads Optimization may be what you're looking for.

Monday Aug 29, 2011

Running GNOME Terminal From a Zone

As I've mentioned before, I VPN into the Oracle Intranet from within a zone. Once I establish the VPN connection, I'm no longer able to SSH into the zone, which is a slight drag if I'd like to open a new terminal window. The solution is to launch a new GNOME terminal window from within the zone. However, this wasn't without some minor hurdles to clear, so I'm documenting the process for future reference.

I'm assuming your zone already has a user account and the X authority file utility installed so you can launch X applications. If not, follow Steps 2 and 3 from the entry Running Firefox From a Zone.

Of course, GNOME Terminal needs to be installed:

bleonard@myzone:~$ sudo pkg install gnome-terminal
               Packages to install:     1
           Create boot environment:    No
               Services to restart:     2
DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
Completed                                  1/1       80/80      2.1/2.1

PHASE                                        ACTIONS
Install Phase                                160/160 

PHASE                                          ITEMS
Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
Image State Update Phase                         2/2  

At this point, you'd like to think you could just launch gnome-terminal, but alas:

bleonard@myzone:~$ gnome-terminal
**
ERROR:terminal-app.c:1450:terminal_app_init: assertion failed: (app->default_profile_id != NULL)
Abort (core dumped)

It turns out you also need to install the SMF services responsible for updating the GNOME desktop caches (I've already filed an issue for this):

bleonard@myzone:~$ sudo pkg install desktop-cache
               Packages to install:     8
           Create boot environment:    No
               Services to restart:     5
DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
Completed                                  8/8   3125/3125    13.5/13.5

PHASE                                        ACTIONS
Install Phase                              3566/3566 

PHASE                                          ITEMS
Package State Update Phase                       8/8 
Image State Update Phase                         2/2 

After installing the package, wait a few seconds while the cache is built. You can verify it's complete when the GNOME Gconf Cache Builder service state changes to online:

bleonard@myzone:~$ svcs -l gconf-cache
fmri         svc:/application/desktop-cache/gconf-cache:default
name         GNOME Gconf Cache Builder
enabled      true
state        online
next_state   none
state_time   August 29, 2011 04:50:45 PM EDT
logfile      /var/svc/log/application-desktop-cache-gconf-cache:default.log
restarter    svc:/system/svc/restarter:default
dependency   require_all/none svc:/system/filesystem/local (online)

After which, gnome-terminal should start successfully:

bleonard@myzone:~$ gnome-terminal &


If for some reason you still run into a problem, try refreshing the GNOME Gconf Cache Service:

bleonard@myzone:~$ sudo svcadm refresh gconf-cache

Friday Aug 19, 2011

Replacing the system HDD by a larger one on Solaris 11 X86

A feedback on replacing the internal disk drive on a Solaris 11 Express labtop by a larger one, using ZFS mirrorring and ZFS split.
[Read More]

Thursday Jul 28, 2011

Installing WebLogic in a Zone

Sadly, the download page for WebLogic 10.3.5 doesn't yet include an installer for Solaris on x86. So, here for you, I outline the steps I took to successfully install WebLogic on Solaris - in a zone, of course.

Step 1: Create the Zone

The Web Logic installer requires 1.2 GB of swap space. Follow these steps to ensure you have enough.

Create a VNIC for the zone:
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo dladm create-vnic -l e1000g0 wls_zone0

Create the zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zonecfg -z wls_zone
wls_zone: No such zone configured
Use 'create' to begin configuring a new zone.
zonecfg:wls_zone> create
zonecfg:wls_zone> set zonepath=/zones/wls_zone
zonecfg:wls_zone> set ip-type=exclusive
zonecfg:wls_zone> add net
zonecfg:wls_zone:net> set physical=wls_zone0
zonecfg:wls_zone:net> end
zonecfg:wls_zone> verify
zonecfg:wls_zone> exit 

Install the zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z wls_zone install
...

Here's the sysidcfg file I used for the zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cat /zones/wls_zone/root/etc/sysidcfg
system_locale=C
terminal=xterms
network_interface=PRIMARY {
	hostname=wls_zone
	ip_address=10.0.1.70
        default_route=10.0.1.1
	netmask=255.255.255.0
 	protocol_ipv6=no}
security_policy=none
name_service=NONE
nfs4_domain=dynamic
timezone=US/Eastern
root_password=fto/dU8MKwQRI

Boot and configure the zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z wls_zone boot
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zlogin -C wls_zone
[Connected to zone 'wls_zone' console]
100/100
Hostname: wls_zone
Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 3/3
Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
Configuring network interface addresses:.

wls_zone console login: root
Password: abc123 

Configure DNS name resolution:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cp /etc/nsswitch.conf /zones/wls_zone/root/etc/.
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cp /etc/resolv.conf /zones/wls_zone/root/etc/.

Step 2: Install the Supporting Software

The JDK:

root@wls_zone:~# pkg install jdk
               Packages to install:     3
           Create boot environment:    No
               Services to restart:     1
DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
Completed                                  3/3   1252/1252    71.7/71.7

PHASE                                        ACTIONS
Install Phase                              1633/1633 

PHASE                                          ITEMS
Package State Update Phase                       3/3 
Image State Update Phase                         2/2 

Include 64-bit support:

root@wls_zone:~# pkg install jdk64
               Packages to install:     1
           Create boot environment:    No
DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
Completed                                  1/1       32/32      0.7/0.7

PHASE                                        ACTIONS
Install Phase                                  59/59

PHASE                                          ITEMS
Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
Image State Update Phase                         2/2 

The X authority file utility. This will allow us to forward the display to the zone so we can run the graphical installer:

root@wls_zone:~# pkg install xauth
               Packages to install:     1
           Create boot environment:    No
DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
Completed                                  1/1         6/6      0.0/0.0

PHASE                                        ACTIONS
Install Phase                                  37/37 

PHASE                                          ITEMS
Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
Image State Update Phase                         2/2 

Install the X Test and Record extensions client library. This library is also required to start the graphical installer:

root@wls_zone:~# pkg install libxtst
               Packages to install:     2
           Create boot environment:    No
DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
Completed                                  2/2       96/96      0.2/0.2

PHASE                                        ACTIONS
Install Phase                                176/176 

PHASE                                          ITEMS
Package State Update Phase                       2/2 
Image State Update Phase                         2/2 

Step 3:  Create a User Account

For this exercise I'm going to create a user 'weblogic'.

root@wls_zone:~# useradd -m -d /weblogic -s /usr/bin/bash weblogic
root@wls_zone:~# passwd weblogic 
New Password: weblogic
Re-enter new Password: weblogic 
passwd: password successfully changed for weblogic

Step 4: Download WebLogic and Copy to the Zone

Downloading the Oracle WebLogic Server 11gR1 (10.3.5) + Coherence Package Installer File 1 for Additional Platforms. You may also want to download the Supplemental ZIP distribution File 1 that contains sample applications.

Copy those files into the zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cp Download/wls1035_generic.jar /zones/wls_zone/root/weblogic/.
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cp Download/wls1035_dev_supplemental.zip /zones/wls_zone/root/weblogic/.

Step 5: Start the Installer

SSH into the zone. Be sure to forward the X11 display:

bleonard@solaris:~$ ssh -X weblogic@10.0.1.70
The authenticity of host '10.0.1.70 (10.0.1.70)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is c4:73:8b:ea:db:c5:1e:fd:76:35:61:26:92:8e:4e:4b.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '10.0.1.70' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
Password: 
Last login: Thu Jul 28 07:55:41 2011 from 10.0.1.3
Oracle Corporation      SunOS 5.11      snv_151a        June 2011

Here's the official documentation to Starting the Installation Program on UNIX Using .jar Installers. Note, I'm also adding the option -Dspace.detection=false, because I can't figure out how to get past this error:

I certainly have more then 1MB of space in my home directory. So basically:

weblogic@wls_zone:~$ java -d64 -Dspace.detection=false -jar wls1035_generic.jar 
Extracting 0%....................................................................................................100%

Working through the installer, I select most of the defaults except where noted:

Enter your My Oracle Support credentials if you have them. You're allowed to continue if you them them blank, as I did:

Select the Custom Install Type. I like to include the Server Examples, but this is optional.

Select Server Examples:


I recommend running Quickstart to create an initial domain. To run Quickstart later, you'll find it at Oracle/Middleware/wlserver_10.3/common/quickstart/quickstart.sh.


Step 6:  Start the Server

weblogic@wls_zone:~$ ./Oracle/Middleware/user_projects/domains/base_domain/startWebLogic.sh &

..

<Jul 28, 2011 8:54:10 AM PDT> <Notice> <WebLogicServer> <BEA-000360> <Server started in RUNNING mode>

Step 7:  Browse to the Console

http://10.0.1.70:7001/console:


Monday Jul 25, 2011

Zone Swap Space

A non-global zone inherits its swap space setting from the global zone. For example, in my global zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ swap -sh
total: 604M allocated + 122M reserved = 724M used, 836M available

And in my local zone:

bleonard@myzone:~$ swap -sh
total: 604M allocated + 122M reserved = 724M used, 836M available 

If I need to increase swap space in a particular zone, I need to add swap to the entire system. As covered in Adjusting the Sizes of Your ZFS Swap and Dump Devices, first add another swap volume:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zfs create -V 1G rpool/swap2
Password: 

Then add the new volume to the swap:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo swap -a /dev/zvol/dsk/rpool/swap2

bleonard@solaris:~$ swap -sh
total: 612M allocated + 133M reserved = 748M used, 1.8G available

The new swap is also immediately recognized by the zone:

bleonard@myzone:~$ swap -sh
total: 612M allocated + 133M reserved = 748M used, 1.8G available

To permanently add the swap to the system, you need to add the device to the /etc/vfstab file:

bleonard@solaris:~$ cat /etc/vfstab 
#device		device		mount		FS	fsck	mount	mount
#to mount	to fsck		point		type	pass	at boot	options
#
/devices	-		/devices	devfs	-	no	-
/proc		-		/proc		proc	-	no	-
ctfs		-		/system/contract ctfs	-	no	-
objfs		-		/system/object	objfs	-	no	-
sharefs		-		/etc/dfs/sharetab	sharefs	-	no	-
fd		-		/dev/fd		fd	-	no	-
swap		-		/tmp		tmpfs	-	yes	-

/dev/zvol/dsk/rpool/swap	-		-		swap	-	no	-
/dev/zvol/dsk/rpool/swap2	-		-		swap	-	no	-

You can also control the amount of swap space used by zones with resource caps, for example:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zonecfg -z myzoney  
zonecfg:myzone> add capped-memory
zonecfg:myzone:capped-memory> set swap=1G
zonecfg:myzone:capped-memory> end
zonecfg:myzone> verify
zonecfg:myzone> exit

This change will require a zone reboot:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z myzone reboot

After which the swap cap will be in place:

bleonard@myzone:~$ swap -sh
total: 33M allocated + 0K reserved = 33M used, 988M available


Tuesday Jul 19, 2011

Integrated Load Balancer

I'm not sure how well known it is that Solaris 11 contains a load balancer. The official documentation, starting with the Integrated Load Balancer Overview, does a great job of explaining this feature. In this blog entry my goal is to provide an implementation example.

For starters, I will be using the HALF-NAT operation mode. Basically, HALF-NAT means that the client's IP address is not mapped so that the servers know the real client address. This is usually preferred for server logging (see ILB Operation Modes for more). 

I will load balance traffic across 2 zones, each running the Apache Tomcat server. The load balancer itself will be configured as a multi-homed zone. The configuration will look as follows:

Step 1: Create the VNICs

The first step is to create VNICs for all of these interfaces:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo dladm create-vnic -l e1000g0 ilb0
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo dladm create-vnic -l e1000g0 ilb1
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo dladm create-vnic -l e1000g0 server1
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo dladm create-vnic -l e1000g0 server2

Step 2: Create the Zones:

If you don't already have a file system for your zones:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zfs create -o mountpoint=/zones rpool/zones

Then create the ILB zones:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zonecfg -z ilb-zone
ilb-zone: No such zone configured
Use 'create' to begin configuring a new zone.
zonecfg:ilb-zone> create
zonecfg:ilb-zone> set zonepath=/zones/ilb-zone
zonecfg:ilb-zone> set ip-type=exclusive
zonecfg:ilb-zone> add net
zonecfg:ilb-zone:net> set physical=ilb0
zonecfg:ilb-zone:net> end
zonecfg:ilb-zone> add net
zonecfg:ilb-zone:net> set physical=ilb1
zonecfg:ilb-zone:net> end
zonecfg:ilb-zone> verify
zonecfg:ilb-zone> exit 

And the server zones (repeat this step for server 2 - changing values where appropriate):

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zonecfg -z server1-zone
server1-zone: No such zone configured
Use 'create' to begin configuring a new zone.
zonecfg:server1-zone> create
zonecfg:server1-zone> set zonepath=/zones/server1-zone
zonecfg:server1-zone> set ip-type=exclusive
zonecfg:server1-zone> add net
zonecfg:server1-zone:net> set physical=server1
zonecfg:server1-zone:net> end
zonecfg:server1-zone> verify
zonecfg:server1-zone> exit

Step 3: Install the ILB Zone

Then install the ilb-zone (wait to install the server zones as we will just clone this zone):

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z ilb-zone install
A ZFS file system has been created for this zone.
   Publisher: Using solaris (http://pkg.oracle.com/solaris/release/ ).
       Image: Preparing at /zones/ilb-zone/root.
       Cache: Using /var/pkg/download.
Sanity Check: Looking for 'entire' incorporation.
  Installing: Core System (output follows)
------------------------------------------------------------
Package: pkg://solaris/consolidation/osnet/osnet-incorporation@0.5.11,5.11-0.151.0.1:20101104T230646Z
License: usr/src/pkg/license_files/lic_OTN

Oracle Technology Network Developer License Agreement

...

               Packages to install:     1
           Create boot environment:    No
DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
Completed                                  1/1         1/1      0.0/0.0

PHASE                                        ACTIONS
Install Phase                                  11/11

PHASE                                          ITEMS
Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
Image State Update Phase                         2/2 
               Packages to install:    45
           Create boot environment:    No
               Services to restart:     3
DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
Completed                                45/45 12511/12511    89.1/89.1

PHASE                                        ACTIONS
Install Phase                            17953/17953 

PHASE                                          ITEMS
Package State Update Phase                     45/45 
Image State Update Phase                         2/2 
  Installing: Additional Packages (output follows)
               Packages to install:    46
           Create boot environment:    No
               Services to restart:     2
DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
Completed                                46/46   4498/4498    26.5/26.5

PHASE                                        ACTIONS
Install Phase                              6139/6139 

PHASE                                          ITEMS
Package State Update Phase                     46/46 
Image State Update Phase                         2/2 

        Note: Man pages can be obtained by installing SUNWman
 Postinstall: Copying SMF seed repository ... done.
 Postinstall: Applying workarounds.
        Done: Installation completed in 499.617 seconds.

  Next Steps: Boot the zone, then log into the zone console (zlogin -C)
              to complete the configuration process.

I will be using the following sysidcfg file to automate the zone's system configuration. Adjust your values accordingly. The root password is "abc123":

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cat /zones/ilb-zone/root/etc/sysidcfg 
system_locale=C
terminal=xterms
network_interface=ilb0 {
    primary
    hostname=ilb-ext
    ip_address=10.0.2.21
    netmask=255.255.255.0
    default_route=10.0.2.2
    protocol_ipv6=no}
network_interface=ilb1 {
    hostname=ilb-int
    ip_address=192.168.1.21
        default_route=NONE
    netmask=255.255.255.0
     protocol_ipv6=no}
security_policy=none
name_service=NONE
nfs4_domain=dynamic
timezone=US/Eastern
root_password=fto/dU8MKwQRI

Boot and log into the zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z ilb-zone boot
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zlogin -C ilb-zone
[Connected to zone 'ilb-zone' console]
100/100
Hostname: ilb-zone
Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 3/3
 network_interface=ilb0 {
ilb0 is not a valid network interface  line 3 position 19
Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
Configuring network interface addresses: ilb0 ilb1.

ilb-ext console login: root
Password: abc123
Jul  1 10:54:37 ilb-ext login: ROOT LOGIN /dev/console
Oracle Corporation      SunOS 5.11      snv_151a        November 2010
root@ilb-ext:~# 

Since our ilb-zone has 2 network interfaces, we also want to make sure a packet arriving on one network interface and addressed to a host on a different network is forwarded to the appropriate interface.

 root@ilb-ext:~# svcadm enable ipv4-forwarding

Step 4: Install the Serve 1 Zone

We'll create the first server zone as a clone of the ilb-zone. We'll then configure the server 1 zone and clone it to server 2.

Shut down ilb-zone so that it can be cloned:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z ilb-zone halt

Then clone ilb-zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z server1-zone clone ilb-zone

Here's a sysidcfg file to use with server1-zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cat /zones/server1-zone/root/etc/sysidcfg
system_locale=C
terminal=xterms
network_interface=PRIMARY {
	hostname=server1-zone
	ip_address=192.168.1.50
	netmask=255.255.255.0
	default_route=none
	protocol_ipv6=no}
security_policy=none
name_service=NONE
nfs4_domain=dynamic
timezone=US/Eastern
root_password=fto/dU8MKwQRI

Then boot and log in to server1-zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z server1-zone boot
Password: 
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zlogin -C server1-zone
[Connected to zone 'server1-zone' console]
Hostname: server1-zone
Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
Configuring network interface addresses: server1.

server1-zone console login: root
Password: abc123
Jul  1 14:53:20 server1-zone login: ROOT LOGIN /dev/console
Last login: Fri Jul  1 13:54:37 on console
Oracle Corporation      SunOS 5.11      snv_151a        November 2010

Also boot back up the ilb zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z ilb-zone boot
Password: 

Step 5: Configure Internet Access

Test if you can ping the outside world from within the ilb zone:

root@ilb-ext:~# ping www.oracle.com
ping: unknown host www.oracle.com

Open another terminal window. The new terminal window should have you in the global zone. Copy the /etc/resolve.conf and /etc/[nsswitch.conf files from the global zone to ilb-zone and server1-zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cp /etc/resolv.conf /zones/ilb-zone/root/etc/.
Password: 
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cp /etc/nsswitch.conf /zones/ilb-zone/root/etc/.
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cp /etc/resolv.conf /zones/server1-zone/root/etc/.
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cp /etc/nsswitch.conf /zones/server1-zone/root/etc/. 

Return to the ilb-zone. You should not be able to reach the outside world:

root@ilb-ext:~# ping www.oracle.com
www.oracle.com is alive 

However, server1-zone needs some routing set up before it can reach out as it will route its traffic through the ilb-zone:

root@server1-zone:~# route -p add  default 192.168.1.21
add net default: gateway 192.168.1.21
add persistent net default: gateway 192.168.1.21

root@server1-zone:~# ping www.oracle.com
www.oracle.com is alive 

Step 6: Install Tomcat

Apache Tomcat will be the service we load balance to:

root@server1-zone:~# pkg install tomcat tomcat-examples runtime/java
               Packages to install:     3
           Create boot environment:    No
               Services to restart:     2
DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
Completed                                  3/3   1166/1166    38.9/38.9

PHASE                                        ACTIONS
Install Phase                              1504/1504 

PHASE                                          ITEMS
Package State Update Phase                       3/3 
Image State Update Phase                         2/2 
Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 1/1

root@server1-zone:~# svcadm enable http:tomcat6

Step 7: Configure Routing to the Server Zone

From the global zone we need to be able to reach the server. Add the following route (the -p option makes the changes persistent across network restarts):

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo route -p add 192.168.1.0 10.0.2.21
Password: 
add net 192.168.1.0: gateway 10.0.2.21
add persistent net 192.168.1.0: gateway 10.0.2.21
And now you should be able to reach Tomcat from the global zone (or any client on that subnet):


Step 8: Cloning the Tomcat Server Zone

Now that we have the Tomcat server running in a zone, we can quickly create another instance. First, we need to shut down the server1-zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z server1-zone halt

Then clone it:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z server2-zone clone server1-zone

Copy the sysidcfg file you created for server 1 to server 2:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cp /zones/server1-zone/root/etc/sysidcfg /zones/server2-zone/root/etc/sysidcfg

Then change the hostname and ip_address. This time around we'll also set the default router. Once editing is complete, the file should look as follows:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cat /zones/server2-zone/root/etc/sysidcfg
system_locale=C
terminal=xterms
network_interface=PRIMARY {
	hostname=server2-zone
	ip_address=192.168.1.60
	netmask=255.255.255.0
	default_route=192.168.1.21
	protocol_ipv6=no}
security_policy=none
name_service=NONE
nfs4_domain=dynamic
timezone=US/Eastern
root_password=fto/dU8MKwQRI

Then boot and log into the server 2 zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z server2-zone boot
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zlogin -C server2-zone
[Connected to zone 'server2-zone' console]
Hostname: server2-zone
Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
Configuring network interface addresses: server2.

server2-zone console login: root
Password: abc123
Jul  6 10:39:54 server2-zone login: ROOT LOGIN /dev/console
Last login: Fri Jul  1 16:19:45 on console
Oracle Corporation      SunOS 5.11      snv_151a        November 2010
root@server2-zone:~# 

Not only does this 2nd zone install much, much quicker, but Tomcat is already up and running:

It really gives you a feel for how easy it can be to scale using Solaris in a cloud type environment.

Don't forget to boot server1-zone:

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z server1-zone boot

Step 9: Configure Load Balancing

OK, that was a lot of setup just to get to the point of this blog. But now that we have 2 servers running at 2 IP address, let's set up a load balancer to scale traffic between them.

In the ILB zone, install the ILB:

root@ilb-ext:~# pkg install ilb
               Packages to install:     1
           Create boot environment:    No
               Services to restart:     1
DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
Completed                                  1/1       11/11      0.2/0.2

PHASE                                        ACTIONS
Install Phase                                  38/38 

PHASE                                          ITEMS
Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
Image State Update Phase                         2/2 
Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 1/1

Then enable the ILB service:

root@ilb-ext:~# svcadm enable ilb

Then define a server group:

root@ilb-ext:~# ilbadm create-servergroup -s servers=192.168.1.50:8080,192.168.1.60:8080 tomcatgroup
root@ilb-ext:~# ilbadm show-servergroup 
SGNAME         SERVERID            MINPORT MAXPORT IP_ADDRESS
tomcatgroup    _tomcatgroup.0      8080    8080    192.168.1.50
tomcatgroup    _tomcatgroup.1      8080    8080    192.168.1.60

Then define a load balancing rule. This is the most complicated part of the process. For starters, I'll try to keep the rule as simple as possible. The rule is enabled (-e), will persist (-p), incoming packets (-i) are matched against destination virtual IP address (vip) and port 10.0.2.20:80. The packet is handled (-m) using round robin (rr). The destination for the packets (-o) is server group tomcatgroup. The rule is called tomcatrule_rr.

root@ilb-ext:~# ilbadm create-rule -e -p -i vip=10.0.2.20,port=80 -m lbalg=rr,type=HALF-NAT -o servergroup=tomcatgroup tomcatrule_rr

You can view the rule as follows:

root@ilb-ext:~# ilbadm show-rule
RULENAME            STATUS LBALG       TYPE    PROTOCOL VIP         PORT
tomcatrule_rr       E      roundrobin  HALF-NAT TCP 10.0.2.20       80
root@ilb-ext:~# ilbadm show-rule -f
       RULENAME: tomcatrule_rr
         STATUS: E
           PORT: 80
       PROTOCOL: TCP
          LBALG: roundrobin
           TYPE: HALF-NAT
      PROXY-SRC: --
          PMASK: /32
        HC-NAME: --
        HC-PORT: --
     CONN-DRAIN: 0
    NAT-TIMEOUT: 120
PERSIST-TIMEOUT: 60
    SERVERGROUP: tomcatgroup
            VIP: 10.0.2.20
        SERVERS: _tomcatgroup.0,_tomcatgroup.1

Finally, we need to tell the outside world that packets destined for our VIP, 10.0.2.20, should be sent to ilb0. First, find the MAC address of ilb0:

root@ilb-ext:~# dladm show-vnic ilb0
LINK         OVER         SPEED  MACADDRESS        MACADDRTYPE         VID
ilb0         ?            1000   2:8:20:bf:2a:d9   random              0

Then resolve the address to interface ilb0 using arp:

root@ilb-ext:~# arp -s 10.0.2.20 2:8:20:bf:2a:d9 pub permanent

You should then be able to ping the VIP:

root@ilb-ext:~# ping 10.0.2.20
10.0.2.20 is alive

Step 10: Load Balance!

You can now point your browser to the virtual IP address and get a result back from one of the Tomcat servers:

Very cool! But from which server was I served? I modified the example snoop.jsp to return the server's hostname and IP Address. Save the snoop.jsp to the /var/tomcat6/webapps/examples/jsp/snp directory in each of your zones.

bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cp Downloads/snoop.jsp /zones/server1-zone/root/var/tomcat6/webapps/examples/jsp/snp/.
bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo cp Downloads/snoop.jsp /zones/server2-zone/root/var/tomcat6/webapps/examples/jsp/snp/.

I've appended the Server Side IP Address section to the bottom of the page, http://10.0.2.20/examples/jsp/snp/snoop.jsp:


Step 11: Health Checks

To keep things simple on the first go-around, I avoided health checks. However, it's pointless to have a load balancer that continues to feed requests to a dead server.

Health check options include ping probes, TCP probes, UDP probes and a user-defined script. Since I'm concerned about the health of Tomcat, I've created a simple script:

root@ilb-ext:~# cat /var/hc-tomcat 
#!/bin/bash
result=`curl -s http://$2:8080`
if [ ${result:0:5} = "<meta" ]; then
        echo 0
else
        echo -1 
fi

The load balancer provides the following variables to use with your script, of which I'm only using $2:

$1 - VIP (literal IPv4 or IPv6 address)
$2 - Server IP (literal IPv4 or IPv6 address)
$3 - Protocol (UDP, TCP as a string)
$4 - Numeric port range (the user-specified value for hc-port)
$5 - maximum time (in seconds) that the test should wait before returning a failure. If the test runs beyond the specified time, it might be stopped, and the test would be considered failed. This value is user-defined and specified in hc-timeout.

Ensure the script has execute permissions (the ilbd deamon, which runs the health check, is not run as root):

root@ilb-ext:~# chmod +x /var/hc-tomcat

Giving the script a quick test:

root@ilb-ext:~# /var/hc-tomcat n/a 192.168.1.50
0

You then create a health check rule as follows:

root@ilb-ext:~# ilbadm create-healthcheck -h hc-test=/var/hc-tomcat,hc-timeout=2,hc-count=1,hc-interval=10 hc-tomcat

The hc-timeout is how many seconds the health check will wait for a response before giving up. The hc-count is how many times the script will attempt to succeed before claiming the server to be dead. The hc-interval is how often the health-check is performed.

Once created you can view the configured health-checks as follows:

root@ilb-ext:~# ilbadm show-hc
HCNAME        TIMEOUT COUNT   INTERVAL DEF_PING TEST
hc-tomcat     2       1       10       Y        /var/hc-script

Now that we have a health check, we need to add it to our load balancing rule. Unfortunately, ilbadm doesn't have a command to modify an existing load balancing rule, so we have to delete it and create it again:

root@ilb-ext:~# ilbadm delete-rule tomcatrule_rr

We'll create the same rule as before, this time including the health check:

root@ilb-ext:~# ilbadm create-rule -e -p -i vip=10.0.2.20,port=80 -m lbalg=rr,type=HALF-NAT -h hc-name=hc-tomcat -o servergroup=tomcatgroup tomcatrule_rr

Once the new rule is created, the health check goes into effect. You can see the status as follows:

root@ilb-ext:~# ilbadm show-hc-result
RULENAME      HCNAME        SERVERID      STATUS   FAIL LAST     NEXT     RTT
tomcatrule_rr hc-tomcat     _tomcatgroup.0 alive   0    10:39:51 10:40:02 2509
tomcatrule_rr hc-tomcat     _tomcatgroup.1 alive   0    10:39:57 10:40:09 1869

So now, if probe.jsp is showing that you're hitting server 2 and we then disable Tomcat on Server 1:

root@server1-zone:~# svcadm disable tomcat6

When you refresh your browser you will be directed to Server 2. Of course, any state they you may have been maintaining on Server 1 will be lost. You can also see the status as dead using ilbadm show-hc-result:

root@ilb-ext:~# ilbadm show-hc-result
RULENAME      HCNAME        SERVERID      STATUS   FAIL LAST     NEXT     RTT
tomcatrule_rr hc-tomcat     _tomcatgroup.0 dead    4    10:43:36 10:43:45 1102
tomcatrule_rr hc-tomcat     _tomcatgroup.1 alive   0    10:43:42 10:43:53 5919

See Administering Health Checks in ILB for the official documentation.

That was a fair amount of work to configure this environment. Would it be worth providing a VM pre-configured with load balancing for download?

Wednesday Jul 06, 2011

Two Part Series on Live Upgrade

What prompted me to write my previous entry, recommended reading, was Bob Netherton's recently published 2 part series on Live Upgrade. Part 1 covers common problems while part 2 introduces survival tips:

Bob plans to update these entries as the topic evolves. However, he may also convert them over to a wiki if that makes more sense. Let him know.

    Recommended Reading

    If you're a user of Solaris, there's probably a handful of Solaris blogs that you follow. There's one group of guys that I want to bring your attention to - the Solaris sales consultants and architects. While I sit in my lush corporate office, these guys are out in the field dealing with customers on a daily basis. Their experience is valuable, and lucky for us, most of them take the time to share what they know. They are:

    Bob Netherton
    Jeff Savit
    Jeff Victor
    Jim Laurent
    Scott Dickson
    Steffen Weiberle

    Add these guys to your favorite reader now (just click the  icon) - you'll be a better Solaris user for it.

    Monday Jul 04, 2011

    Making yourself indispensible with DTrace

    DTrace technology and tools appeared in 2005, and despite this, it is still not very well known among majority of developers and system administrators. It is especially surprising given that for five and a half years since the release of Solaris 10, where DTrace was first implemented, there was no better technology made for analyzing of operating systems and applications.[Read More]

    Friday Jul 01, 2011

    Getting Audio from a Zone

    Now that I have Firefox and Java Web Start running from a zone, the last piece of the puzzle was audio (essential because most Flash content is accompanied by sound). 

    In the global zone there's a nice little utility called audiotest for testing your sound:

    bleonard@solaris:~$ audiotest
    Sound subsystem and version: SunOS Audio 4.0 (0x00040003)
    Platform: SunOS 5.11 snv_151a i86pc
    
    *** Scanning sound adapter #1 ***
    /dev/sound/audio810:0dsp (audio engine 0): audio810#0
      - Performing audio playback test... 
    	<left> ................OK
    	<right> ...............OK
    	<stereo> ..............OK
    	<measured sample rate 47727.00 Hz (-0.57%)>
    
    *** All tests completed OK ***

    Of course, before you can try audiotest in a zone, it must be installed:

    root@myzone:~# pkg install audio-utilities
                   Packages to install:     1
               Create boot environment:    No
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                  1/1         6/6      0.4/0.4
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                                  20/20 
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2

    However, we'll need to do more than just install audiotest:

    root@myzone:~# audiotest
    /dev/mixer: No such file or directory
    The device file is missing from /dev.

    The audio devices also need to be added to the zone. For this we modify the zone configuration as follows:

    bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zonecfg -z myzone
    Password: 
    zonecfg:myzone> add device
    zonecfg:myzone:device> set match=/dev/audio*
    zonecfg:myzone:device> end
    zonecfg:myzone> add device
    zonecfg:myzone:device> set match=/dev/sound/*
    zonecfg:myzone:device> end
    zonecfg:myzone> add device
    zonecfg:myzone:device> set match=/dev/mixer*
    zonecfg:myzone:device> end
    zonecfg:myzone> add device
    zonecfg:myzone:device> set match=/dev/sndstat
    zonecfg:myzone:device> end
    zonecfg:myzone> verify
    zonecfg:myzone> exit

    Then reboot the zone:

    bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z myzone reboot

    After which, audiotest should work:

    root@myzone:~# audiotest
    Sound subsystem and version: SunOS Audio 4.0 (0x00040003)
    Platform: SunOS 5.11 snv_151a i86pc
    
    *** Scanning sound adapter #1 ***
    /dev/sound/audio810:0dsp (audio engine 0): audio810#0
      - Performing audio playback test... 
            <left> ................OK
            <right> ...............OK
            <stereo> ..............OK
            <measured sample rate 48208.00 Hz (0.43%)>
    
    *** All tests completed OK ***

    You can also examine /dev/sndstat for additional information:

    root@myzone:~# cat /dev/sndstat
    SunOS Audio Framework
    
    Audio Devices:
    0: audio810#0 Intel AC'97, ICH (DUPLEX)
    
    Mixers:
    0: audio810#0 Intel AC'97, ICH
            AC'97 codec: SigmaTel STAC9700

    However, when testing the sound from Firefox (from a user account other than root), such as this recent Flash presentation on Solaris availability, you may still be disappointed. This is simply a permissions problem, as the devices only have read and write permissions for root:

    root@myzone:~# ls -l /dev/audio*
    crw-------   1 root     root      99,  3 Jul  1 10:21 /dev/audio
    crw-------   1 root     root      99,  4 Jul  1 10:21 /dev/audioctl

    To address this:

    root@myzone:~# chmod 777 /dev/audio*
    root@myzone:~# chmod 777 /dev/sound/*

    And you should be all set.

    Thursday Jun 23, 2011

    Giving a Zone "More Power"

    In addition to the traditional virtualization benefits that Solaris zones offer, applications running in zones are also running in a more secure environment. One way to quantify this is compare the privileges available to the global zone with those of a local zone.

    For example, there a 82 distinct privileges available to the global zone:

    bleonard@solaris:~$ ppriv -l | wc -l 
    82

    You can view the descriptions for each of those privileges as follows:

    bleonard@solaris:~$ ppriv -lv
    contract_event
    	Allows a process to request critical events without limitation.
    	Allows a process to request reliable delivery of all events on
    	any event queue.
    contract_identity
    	Allows a process to set the service FMRI value of a process
    	contract template.
    ...

    Or for just one or more privileges:

    bleonard@solaris:~$ ppriv -lv file_dac_read file_dac_write
    file_dac_read
    	Allows a process to read a file or directory whose permission
    	bits or ACL do not allow the process read permission.
    file_dac_write
    	Allows a process to write a file or directory whose permission
    	bits or ACL do not allow the process write permission.
    	In order to write files owned by uid 0 in the absence of an
    	effective uid of 0 ALL privileges are required.
    

    However, in a non-global zone, only 43 of the 83 privileges are available by default:

    root@myzone:~# ppriv -l zone | wc -l      
    43

    The missing privileges are:

    cpc_cpu
    dtrace_kernel
    dtrace_proc
    dtrace_user
    file_downgrade_sl
    file_flag_set
    file_upgrade_sl
    graphics_access
    graphics_map
    net_mac_implicit
    proc_clock_highres
    proc_priocntl
    proc_zone
    sys_config
    sys_devices
    sys_ipc_config
    sys_linkdir
    sys_dl_config
    sys_net_config
    sys_res_bind
    sys_res_config
    sys_smb
    sys_suser_compat
    sys_time
    sys_trans_label
    virt_manage
    win_colormap
    win_config
    win_dac_read
    win_dac_write
    win_devices
    win_dga
    win_downgrade_sl
    win_fontpath
    win_mac_read
    win_mac_write
    win_selection
    win_upgrade_sl
    xvm_control

    However, just like Tim Taylor, it is possible to give your zones more power. For example, a zone by default doesn't have the privileges to support DTrace:

    root@myzone:~# dtrace -l
       ID   PROVIDER            MODULE                          FUNCTION NAME

    The DTrace privileges can be added, however, as follows:

    bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zonecfg -z myzone
    Password:
    zonecfg:myzone> set limitpriv="default,dtrace_proc,dtrace_user"
    zonecfg:myzone> verify
    zonecfg:myzone> exit
    bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z myzone reboot

    Now I can run DTrace from within the zone:

    root@myzone:~# dtrace -l | more
       ID   PROVIDER            MODULE                          FUNCTION NAME
        1     dtrace                                                     BEGIN
        2     dtrace                                                     END
        3     dtrace                                                     ERROR
     7115    syscall                                               nosys entry
     7116    syscall                                               nosys return
    ...

    Note, certain privileges are never allowed to be assigned to a zone. You'll be notified on boot if you attempt to assign a prohibited privilege to a zone:

    bleonard@solaris:~$ sudo zoneadm -z myzone reboot
    privilege "dtrace_kernel" is not permitted within the zone's privilege set
    zoneadm: zone myzone failed to verify

    Here's a nice listing of all the privileges and their zone status (default, optional, prohibited): Privileges in a Non-Global Zone.

    Thursday Jun 09, 2011

    Running Java Web Start From a Zone

    As indicated in my previous entry, I run my VPN software within a zone to connect to the Oracle intranet. Another component I need to access is the Solaris bug tracking system, which is launched via Java Web Start. To my disappointment, this also required a bit of troubleshooting. As my example here, I'll use one of my favorite Java Web Start applications, JDiskReport.

    Assuming you left off with getting Firefox running from a zone, if you attempted to Web Start JDiskReport, the first problem is that Java Web Start isn't even installed on the system:


    This is easy enough to fix:

    root@myzone:~# pkg install java
                   Packages to install:     5
               Create boot environment:    No
                   Services to restart:     1
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                  5/5     779/779    34.4/34.4
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                              1179/1179 
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                       5/5 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 

    With Java installed, Firefox properly detects Java Web Start:

    However, when you try to launch JDiskReport now, nothing happens at all. This is the most frustrating kind of error.

    If you select the option to save the jdiskreport.jnlp file to your home directory and try to launch it from there, you'll see we're dumping core again:

    bleonard@myzone:~$ javaws jdiskreport.jnlp 
    Segmentation Fault (core dumped)
    

    Unlike with Firefox however, we're not given anything else to work with. Using truss and digging into the stack trace, I was able to determine we also need the packages utf-8 and libxtst:

    root@myzone:~# pkg install utf-8 libxtst
                   Packages to install:     1
               Create boot environment:    No
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                  1/1   2674/2674    10.4/10.4
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                              2722/2722 
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 
    

    Once these 2 packages are installed, you're in business with Java Web Start:


    It's worth noting what a small footprint my zone has - less than 1 GB. Pretty cool, huh? Even more impressive is that it's actually only consuming 400 MB of space in my global zone because it's on a zfs dataset with compression turned on:

    bleonard@solaris:~/Desktop$ zfs get all rpool/zones/myzone
    NAME                PROPERTY                        VALUE                           SOURCE
    rpool/zones/myzone  type                            filesystem                      -
    rpool/zones/myzone  creation                        Wed Jun  8 11:31 2011           -
    rpool/zones/myzone  used                            388M                           -
    rpool/zones/myzone  available                       14.7G                           -
    rpool/zones/myzone  referenced                      33K                             -
    rpool/zones/myzone  compressratio                   1.89x  
    ...                         -
    

    And while we're on the subject of resource consumption, look at zonestat:

    bleonard@solaris:~$ zonestat 5 1
    Collecting data for first interval...
    Interval: 1, Duration: 0:00:05
    SUMMARY                    Cpus/Online: 1/1   Physical: 1535M    Virtual: 2512M
                        ----------CPU---------- ----PHYSICAL----- -----VIRTUAL-----
                   ZONE  USED %PART  %CAP %SHRU  USED   PCT  %CAP  USED   PCT  %CAP
                [total]  0.31 31.8%     -     - 1141M 74.3%     - 1369M 54.5%     -
               [system]  0.12 12.7%     -     -  302M 19.6%     -  643M 25.6%     -
                 global  0.15 15.5%     -     -  604M 39.3%     -  529M 21.0%     -
                 myzone  0.03 3.57%     -     -  234M 15.2%     -  196M 7.81%     -
    

    Only 234M of RAM. Like I said in the previous post, you can't achieve numbers like that with a VirtualBox VM.

    Wednesday Jun 08, 2011

    Running Firefox From a Zone

    I know a lot of folks that VPN into their office environment. However, VPN connections generally reduce your bandwidth and in many cases restrict your connections to local network services (such as printers).

    A common workaround that some folks use is to setup their VPN environment in a VirtualBox image, freeing their host OS from the shackles of VPN. However, the VirtualBox approach has its own limitations, as you're now dedicating a significant amount of system resources to running another operating system just to get VPN access. I also use VirtualBox on a daily basis so dedicating a VM for VPN is not really an option.

    This is where zones and network virtualization really shine. I've created an exclusive IP zone and installed my VPN software - no problem. The trickier part was actually getting Firefox up and running from the zone so I could browse the Oracle intranet. For future reference, I'm documenting those steps here.

    Step 1: Install Firefox

    The obvious...

    root@myzone:~# pkg install firefox
                   Packages to install:    46
               Create boot environment:    No
                   Services to restart:     8
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                46/46   8916/8916    62.3/62.3
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                            11116/11116 
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                     46/46 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 
    Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 1/1
    
    

    Step 2: Create a User Account

    To share the display with the global zone, we're going to ssh into the zone. By default, root is not allowed to ssh into a zone. If you don't already have a user account in the zone, create one now:

    root@myzone:~# useradd -m -d /bleonard -s /usr/bin/bash bleonard
    80 blocks
    
    root@myzone:~# passwd bleonard
    New Password: 
    Re-enter new Password: 
    passwd: password successfully changed for bleonard
    
    

    Step 3: Install the X authority file utility

    If you ssh into the zone and attempt to start Firefox, you'll get a "no display specified" error:

    bleonard@solaris:~$ ssh -X bleonard@10.0.2.50
    The authenticity of host '10.0.2.50 (10.0.2.50)' can't be established.
    RSA key fingerprint is b3:1b:be:55:69:95:51:5d:b8:23:c7:9c:57:73:1a:98.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
    Warning: Permanently added '10.0.2.50' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
    Password: 
    Last login: Wed Jun  8 12:17:28 2011 from 10.0.2.15
    Oracle Corporation      SunOS 5.11      snv_151a        November 2010
    
    bleonard@myzone:~$ firefox 
    Error: no display specified
    

    The X authority file utility manages the display authorization when using the -X option to ssh into a zone:

    root@myzone:~# pkg install xauth
                   Packages to install:     1
               Create boot environment:    No
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                  1/1         6/6      0.0/0.0
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                                  37/37
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 
    

    You then have to exit and re-ssh into the zone. Then try starting Firefox again. This is where things get interesting. If you already have Firefox running in the global zone, Firefox on a remote machine (à la, the zone) will hand off to a process already running on your local box if it is available. For our purposes, this is not what we want as we need a unique instance of Firefox running form the zone. The solution is to use the -no-remote option. However, with this approach we're kindly greeted with a core dump:

    bleonard@myzone:~$ firefox -no-remote
    GLib: Cannot convert message: Conversion from character set 'UTF-8' to 'ASCII' is not supported
    Gtk-Message: Failed to load module "canberra-gtk-module": ld.so.1: firefox-bin: fatal: libcanberra-gtk-module.so: open failed: No such file or directory
    process 2976: D-Bus library appears to be incorrectly set up; failed to read machine uuid: Failed to open "/var/lib/dbus/machine-id": No such file or directory
    See the manual page for dbus-uuidgen to correct this issue.
      D-Bus not built with -rdynamic so unable to print a backtrace
    /usr/lib/firefox/run-mozilla.sh: line 131:  2976 Abort                   (core dumped) "$prog" ${1+"$@"}
    
    
    

    We've got several issues to deal with here, and we'll take them 1 at a time.

    Step 4: Deal with the Error Messages

    Install a Locale

    One of the messages we see in the above output is:

    bleonard@myzone:~$ GLib: Cannot convert message: Conversion from character set 'UTF-8' to 'ASCII' is not supported
    

    If we look at the default locale on the system, it's "C":

    bleonard@myzone:~$ locale
    LANG=
    LC_CTYPE="C"
    LC_NUMERIC="C"
    LC_TIME="C"
    LC_COLLATE="C"
    LC_MONETARY="C"
    LC_MESSAGES="C"
    LC_ALL=
    

    Let's install something more appropriate that supports UTF-8, in my case en_us:

    root@myzone:~# pkg install en_us
                   Packages to install:     2
               Create boot environment:    No
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                  2/2       16/16      2.0/2.0
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                                  82/82 
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                       2/2 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 
    
    

    And then set that locale:

    bleonard@myzone:~$ export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
    
    bleonard@myzone:~$ locale
    LANG=en_US.UTF-8
    LC_CTYPE="en_US.UTF-8"
    LC_NUMERIC="en_US.UTF-8"
    LC_TIME="en_US.UTF-8"
    LC_COLLATE="en_US.UTF-8"
    LC_MONETARY="en_US.UTF-8"
    LC_MESSAGES="en_US.UTF-8"
    LC_ALL=
    
    

    Install the Event Sound API

    Another message we see in the above:

    Gtk-Message: Failed to load module "canberra-gtk-module": ld.so.1: firefox-bin: fatal: libcanberra-gtk-module.so: open failed: No such file or directory
    

    The missing libcanberra-gtk-module.so is found in the libcanberra package:

    root@myzone:~# pkg install libcanberra    
                   Packages to install:    14
               Create boot environment:    No
                   Services to restart:     2
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                14/14   2024/2024    18.9/18.9
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                              2773/2773 
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                     14/14 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 
    
    

    Install the D-Bus Message Bus System

    And the final message we see in the output above:

    process 3730: D-Bus library appears to be incorrectly set up; failed to read machine uuid: Failed to open "/var/lib/dbus/machine-id": No such file or directory
    See the manual page for dbus-uuidgen to correct this issue.
      D-Bus not built with -rdynamic so unable to print a backtrace
    

    So let's install D-Bus:

    root@myzone:~# pkg install dbus
                   Packages to install:     1
               Create boot environment:    No
                   Services to restart:     2
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                  1/1       31/31      0.4/0.4
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                                  77/77 
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 
    Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 1/1
    
    

    And try starting Firefox again:

    bleonard@myzone:~$ firefox -no-remote
    
    (firefox-bin:3393): Pango-WARNING **: failed to choose a font, expect ugly output. engine-type='PangoRenderFc', script='common'
    /usr/lib/firefox/run-mozilla.sh: line 131:  3393 Segmentation Fault      (core dumped) "$prog" ${1+"$@"}
    

    Now we've got a new issue to deal with, fonts.

    Step 5: Install Fonts

    root@myzone:~# pkg install fonts-core
                   Packages to install:     1
               Create boot environment:    No
                   Services to restart:     1
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                  1/1       84/84      9.5/9.5
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                                108/108 
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 

    And we're finally greeted with Firefox:

    A couple of points to note here. Notice the header which indicates from which host Firefox is running (on myzone). This is very nice as mine says (on vpn).

    You'll also notice we're missing the Nimbus look & feel. This can be quickly addressed by installing the nimbus package:

    root@myzone:~# pkg install nimbus
                   Packages to install:     1
               Create boot environment:    No
                   Services to restart:     1
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                  1/1   1352/1352      3.5/3.5
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                              3126/3126 
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 
    
    

    And finally, the Oracle Solaris welcome page is missing. If you care about this, just install the os-welcome package:

    root@myzone:~# pkg install os-welcome
                   Packages to install:     1
               Create boot environment:    No
                   Services to restart:     1
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                  1/1       69/69      0.1/0.1
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                                166/166 
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 

    All set and done we look as follows:

    Step 6: Optional Niceties

    Flash

    One suggestion (from the comments below), install Flash:

    root@myzone:~# pkg install firefox-flashplayer
                   Packages to install:     1
               Create boot environment:    No
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                  1/1         2/2      4.7/4.7
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                                  30/30 
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 

    Dictionary

    Installing a dictionary will give Firefox spell checking capabilities. Pick the one appropriate for your language:
    root@myzone:~# pkg install dictionary/en
                   Packages to install:     1
               Create boot environment:    No
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                  1/1         4/4      0.2/0.2
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                                  29/29
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                       1/1 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 

    PDF Viewer

    root@punchin-zone:~# pkg install evince
                   Packages to install:    20
               Create boot environment:    No
                   Services to restart:     6
    DOWNLOAD                                  PKGS       FILES    XFER (MB)
    Completed                                20/20   5515/5515    47.3/47.3
    
    PHASE                                        ACTIONS
    Install Phase                              6821/6821 
    
    PHASE                                          ITEMS
    Package State Update Phase                     20/20 
    Image State Update Phase                         2/2 
    Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 



    What's in a Zone?

    I was recently asked what packages were installed in a zone. The generally answer is "not much". That's surprising to some as Solaris 11 itself is pretty lightweight. Zones, in comparison, are featherweight.

    There at 848 packages in a fresh installation of Solaris 11 Express:

    bleonard@solaris:~$ pkg list | wc -l
    848
    

    Compared to only 120 in a fresh installation of a zone:

    root@myzone:~# pkg list | wc -l     
    120
    

    You're not going to get much done in a zone w/out first installing some software.

    At the risk of creating too long a blog entry, here at the 848 packages installed in the global zone. The packages that are also found in the fresh installation of a local zone are in bold blue:

    bleonard@solaris:~$ pkg list
    NAME (PUBLISHER)                              VERSION         STATE      UFOXI
    SUNWcs                                        0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    SUNWcsd                                       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    archiver/gnu-tar                              1.23-0.151.0.1  installed  -----
    audio/audio-utilities                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    benchmark/x11perf                             1.5.1-0.151     installed  -----
    codec/flac                                    0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    codec/libtheora                               0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    codec/ogg-vorbis                              0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    codec/speex                                   0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    communication/im/pidgin                       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    communication/pda/gnome-pilot                 0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    communication/pda/pilot-link                  0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    compatibility/packages/SUNWxwplt              0.5.11-0.151    installed  -----
    compress/bzip2                                1.0.6-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    compress/gzip                                 1.3.5-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    compress/p7zip                                4.55-0.151.0.1  installed  -----
    compress/unzip                                5.53.7-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    compress/zip                                  2.32-0.151.0.1  installed  -----
    consolidation/SunVTS/SunVTS-incorporation     0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/X/X-incorporation               0.5.11-0.151    installed  -----
    consolidation/admin/admin-incorporation       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/cacao/cacao-incorporation       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/cde/cde-incorporation           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/cns/cns-incorporation           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/dbtg/dbtg-incorporation         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/gfx/gfx-incorporation           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/gnome/gnome-incorporation       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/gnome_l10n/gnome_l10n-incorporation 0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/hcts/hcts-incorporation         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/install/install-incorporation   0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/ips/ips-incorporation           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/jdmk/jdmk-incorporation         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/l10n/l10n-incorporation         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/man/man-incorporation           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/nspg/nspg-incorporation         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/nvidia/nvidia-incorporation     0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/osnet/osnet-incorporation       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/sfw/sfw-incorporation           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/sic_team/sic_team-incorporation 0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/solaris_re/solaris_re-incorporation 0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/sunpro/sunpro-incorporation     0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/ub_javavm/ub_javavm-incorporation 0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    consolidation/vpanels/vpanels-incorporation   0.5.11-0.151    installed  -----
    consolidation/xvm/xvm-incorporation           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    crypto/ca-certificates                        0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    crypto/gnupg                                  2.0.13-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    data/iso-codes                                0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    database/sqlite-3                             3.6.23-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/administration/gnome-system-tools     0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/administration/gparted                0.4.5-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/administration/nwam-manager           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/archive-manager/file-roller           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/calculator/gcalctool                  0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/cd-burning/brasero                    0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/cd-ripping/sound-juicer               0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/character-map/gucharmap               0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/compiz                                0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/compiz/ccsm                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/compiz/library/compizconfig-gconf     0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/compiz/library/libcompizconfig        0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/compiz/plugin/compiz-fusion-extra     0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/compiz/plugin/compiz-fusion-main      0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/gksu                                  0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/pdf-viewer/evince                     0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/remote-desktop/tigervnc               1.0.1-0.151     installed  -----
    desktop/system-monitor/gnome-system-monitor   0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/time-slider                           0.2.97-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/window-manager/twm                    1.0.4-0.151     installed  -----
    desktop/xdg/menu-editor/alacarte              0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/xdg/xdg-user-dirs-gtk                 0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/xdg/xdg-utils                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    desktop/xscreensaver                          5.11-0.151.0.1  installed  -----
    developer/build/gnu-make                      3.81-0.151.0.1  installed  -----
    developer/build/make                          0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    developer/debug/mdb                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    developer/debug/mdb/module/module-ce          0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    developer/debug/mdb/module/module-fibre-channel 0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    developer/debug/mdb/module/module-qlc         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    developer/dtrace                              0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    developer/dtrace/toolkit                      0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    developer/gnome/gnome-doc-utils               0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    developer/linker                              0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    developer/macro/cpp                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    developer/object-file                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    developer/ui-designer/glade                   0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    diagnostic/acpidump                           0.2007.11.16-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    diagnostic/constype                           1.0.2-0.151     installed  -----
    diagnostic/cpu-counters                       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    diagnostic/ddu                                0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    diagnostic/ddu/data                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    diagnostic/ddu/library                        0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    diagnostic/ddu/locale                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    diagnostic/latencytop                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    diagnostic/powertop                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    diagnostic/scanpci                            0.10.9-0.151    installed  -----
    diagnostic/top                                3.8-0.151.0.1   installed  -----
    diagnostic/xload                              1.0.2-0.151     installed  -----
    documentation/gnome/gnome-user-docs           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/audio                                  0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/audio/audio810                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/audio/audiocmi                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/audio/audioemu10k                      0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/audio/audiohd                          0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/audio/audioixp                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/audio/audiols                          0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/audio/audiop16x                        0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/audio/audiosolo                        0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/audio/audiovia823x                     0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/audio/audiovia97                       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/crypto/dca                             0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/crypto/tpm                             0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/firewire                               0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/graphics/agpgart                       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/graphics/atiatom                       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/graphics/av1394                        0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/graphics/dcam1394                      0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/graphics/dcam1394/devfsadm-dcam1394    0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/graphics/drm                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/graphics/nvidia                        0.256.44-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/graphics/usbvc                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/i86pc/fipe                             0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/i86pc/ioat                             0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/i86pc/platform                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/management/bmc                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/afe                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/amd8111s                       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/arn                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/atge                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/ath                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/atu                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/bfe                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/bge                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/bnx                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/bnxe                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/bpf                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/ce                             0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/chxge                          0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/dmfe                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/e1000g                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/elxl                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/emlxs                          0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/fcip                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/fcp                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/fcsm                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/fp                             0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/hme                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/hxge                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/ib                             0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/igb                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/ipw                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/iwh                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/iwi                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/iwk                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/iwp                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/ixgb                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/ixgbe                          0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/mcxe                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/mwl                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/mxfe                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/myri10ge                       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/nge                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/ntxn                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/nxge                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/pcan                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/pcwl                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/platform                       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/qlc                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/ral                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/rge                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/rtls                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/rtw                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/rum                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/rwd                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/rwn                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/sfe                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/uath                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/ural                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/urtw                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/usbecm                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/vr                             0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/wpi                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/xge                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/yge                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/network/zyd                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/pcmcia                                 0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/serial/pcser                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/serial/usbftdi                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/serial/usbsacm                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/serial/usbser                          0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/serial/usbser_edge                     0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/serial/usbsksp                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/serial/usbsksp/usbs49_fw               0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/serial/usbsprl                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/aac                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/adpu320                        0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/ahci                           0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/amr                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/arcmsr                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/ata                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/bcm_sata                       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/blkdev                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/cpqary3                        0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/glm                            0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/lsimega                        0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/marvell88sx                    0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/mega_sas                       0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/mpt_sas                        0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/mr_sas                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/nv_sata                        0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
    driver/storage/pcata                          0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
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    driver/storage/si3124                         0.5.11-0.151.0.1 installed  -----
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    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video             0.5.11-0.151    installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-apm         1.2.3-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-ark         0.7.3-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-ast         0.91.10-0.151   installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-ati         6.13.1-0.151    installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-chips       1.2.3-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-cirrus      1.3.2-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-glint       1.2.4-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-i128        1.3.4-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-i740        1.3.2-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-intel       2.6.3-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-mach64      6.8.2-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-mga         1.4.13-0.151    installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-neomagic    1.2.5-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-nv          2.1.18-0.151    installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-openchrome  0.2.904-0.151   installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-r128        6.8.1-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-radeonhd    1.3.0-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-rendition   4.2.4-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-s3          0.6.3-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-s3virge     1.10.4-0.151    installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-savage      2.2.1-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-siliconmotion 1.7.4-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-sis         0.10.3-0.151    installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-tdfx        1.4.3-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-tga         1.2.1-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-trident     1.3.4-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-tseng       1.2.4-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-vesa        2.3.0-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xorg/driver/xorg-video-vmware      10.16.9-0.151   installed  -----
    x11/server/xserver-common                     1.7.7-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/server/xvnc                               1.0.1-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/session/sessreg                           1.0.6-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/session/smproxy                           1.0.3-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/session/winsysck                          0.5.11-0.151    installed  -----
    x11/session/xauth                             1.0.4-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/session/xinit                             1.2.1-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/trusted/libxtsol                          0.5.11-0.151    installed  -----
    x11/x11-server-utilities                      7.5-0.151       installed  -----
    x11/x11-window-dump                           1.0.3-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/xcalc                                     1.0.3-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/xclipboard                                1.1.0-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/xfd                                       1.0.1-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/xfontsel                                  1.0.2-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/xfs/xfs-utilities                         7.5-0.151       installed  -----
    x11/xkill                                     1.0.2-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/xlock                                     0.5.11-0.151    installed  -----
    x11/xmag                                      1.0.3-0.151     installed  -----
    x11/xvidtune                                  1.0.2-0.151     installed  -----
    
    
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    The Observatory is a blog for users of Oracle Solaris. Tune in here for tips, tricks and more as we explore the Solaris operating system from Oracle.

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