Monday Aug 17, 2009

OpenSolaris for Puppets

At OSCON last month I had the pleasure of discussing OpenSolaris, the OpenSolaris Bible, and Open HA Cluster with “Jack”. It was fun playing the “straight man,” especially since we hadn't planned anything ahead of time so I had no idea where the conversation was going to head. Take a look and let me know what you think.

Monday Jun 22, 2009

Running Open HA Cluster in VirtualBox

If you want to try out a High Availability Cluster on OpenSolaris, but don't have the physical hardware, you can easily prototype it in VirtualBox. You need only a single physical machine with an AMD or Intel processor and at least 3 GB of RAM. Even laptops work fine; I'm using a Toshiba Tecra M10 laptop.

When using VirtualBox, the "cluster" will be two VirtualBox guests. Because of a new preview feature in Open HA Cluster 2009.06, called "weak membership," you don't need to worry about a quorum device or quorum server. More on that below.

For detailed instructions on running Open HA Cluster 2009.06 in VirtualBox, I highly recommend Thorsten Frueauf's whitepaper (pdf link). This post won't attempt to be a substitute for that document. Instead, I will describe a single, simple configuration to get you up and running. If this piques your interest, please read Thorsten's whitepaper for more details.

Without further ado, here are the instructions for running a two-node Open HA Cluster in VirtualBox.

1. Install OpenSolaris 2009.06

  • You first need to install OpenSolaris 2009.06 on the physical machine. I'll assume you already know how to do that. If not, check out the documentation.
  • I also suggest you create a separate Boot Environment (BE) for playing with Open HA Cluster. In case you mess up anything beyond repair, it's nice to have a safe BE into which you can boot.

    # beadm create cluster
    # beadm activate cluster
    # init 6

2. Install VirtualBox

  • Download VirtualBox from www.virtualbox.org (I'm using 2.2.0, but the latest version should work fine).
  • Install VirtualBox:

    # gunzip VirtualBox-2.2.0-45846-SunOS.tar.gz
    # tar -xf VirtualBox-2.2.0-45846-SunOS.tar
    # pkgadd -G -d VirtualBoxKern-2.2.0-SunOS-r45846.pkg
    # pkgadd -G -d VirtualBox-2.2.0-SunOS-r45846.pkg

3. Create The First OpenSolaris VirtualBox Guest

  • Download the iso image for OpenSolaris 2009.06 from www.opensolaris.com.
  • Start VirtualBox:

    $ /usr/bin/VirtualBox

  • Click the “New” button in the GUI interface.
  • In the first screen, choose “Solaris” as the Operating System and “OpenSolaris” as the version.

  • In the second screen, select 1024 MB RAM:

  • In the next screen, select "Create new hard disk". Follow the wizard's instructions, choosing "dynamically-expanding storage" and a 16GB hard drive (the default).

  • Verify that everything is correct and create the guest:

  • Now select the guest that you just created and click the green "Start" arrow. You'll be presented by a "first-run" wizard:

  • Select the location of the OpenSolaris 2009.06 iso image you previously downloaded, and click "Next." The guest will now boot into the OpenSolaris Live CD.
  • Once it's booted, run the installer to install it into the VirtualBox guest. After it installs, shut it down and edit the settings. Select the "CD/DVD-ROM" option and make sure the "Mount CD/DVD Drive" box is unchecked, so it doesn't boot back into the Live CD.
  • Now boot the guest and create a "cluster" boot environment:

    # beadm create cluster
    # beadm activate cluster

4. Create a Second VirtualBox Guest

  • Repeat the above procedure for the second guest (naming it something different, obviously).

4.5.(Optional) Disable Graphical Boot and Login in the Guests

Disabling the graphical login helps reduce memory consumption by the guests. Perform the following procedure in each of the two guests:
  • Edit the "cluster" entry in the GRUB menu to remove the "splashimage", "foreground", and "background" lines, and remove ",console=graphics" from the kernel line:

    # cp /rpool/boot/grub/menu.lst menu.lst.bak1
    # vi /rpool/boot/grub/menu.lst
    (edit menu)

    The diffs should be something like this (though your line numbers may vary depending on what BEs you have in the GRUB menu):

    # diff menu.lst menu.bak1
    44a33,35
    > splashimage /boot/solaris.xpm
    > foreground d25f00
    > background 115d93
    46c37
    < kernel$ /platform/i86pc/kernel/$ISADIR/unix -B $ZFS-BOOTFS
    ---
    > kernel$ /platform/i86pc/kernel/$ISADIR/unix -B $ZFS-BOOTFS,console=graphics

    Your BE entry should look something like this:

    title cluster
    findroot (pool_rpool,0,a)
    bootfs rpool/ROOT/cluster
    kernel$ /platform/i86pc/kernel/$ISADIR/unix -B $ZFS-BOOTFS
    module$ /platform/i86pc/$ISADIR/boot_archive

  • Disable the graphical-login/gdm service and reboot.

    # svcadm disable graphical-login/gdm
    # init 6

5. Configure Cluster Publisher

In order to form the cluster you'll later configure "bridged networking" for the VirtualBox guests. But once you do that, the guests won't be able to access the Internet without some additional steps that I won't document here (see Thorsten's whitepaper for details).

Thus, you need to install all the packages you'll need from the repositories before you've configured the networking.

  • First, point your web browser at https://pkg.sun.com. Login with your Sun online account (creating a new account if you don't already have one). Then select the "Open HA Cluster 2009.06" repository, accept the license terms, and follow the instructions for downloading and installing the certificate and key on both of your VirtualBox guests.
  • Now in each guest, set the publisher of the cluster packages.

    # pkg set-publisher -k /var/pkg/ssl/Open_HA_Cluster_2009.06.key.pem -c /var/pkg/ssl/Open_HA_Cluster_2009.06.certificate.pem -O https://pkg.sun.com/opensolaris/ha-cluster ha-cluster

6. Install Packages

  • # pkg install ha-cluster-full

  • I also recommend installing the COMSTAR packages now, which you'll need if you want to use iSCSI to create highly available shared storage using the directly attached disks on each node of the cluster. I'll describe this process in detail in a subsequent post.

    # pkg install SUNWstmf SUNWiscsi SUNWiscsit

  • You can also install applications that you'll need at this point. For example, to install Tomcat and MySQL:

    # pkg install SUNWtcat
    # pkg install SUNWmysql51

7. Configure Networking on the Physical Host

You can now set up the networking framework to allow the two cluster nodes (the VirtualBox guests) to communicate both with each other and with the physical host.

  • First, on the physical host, create an “etherstub”. This is a fake network adapter that will let the guests and host communicate as if they were on their own subnet. The benefit of using an etherstub instead of a physical adapter is that the network communication works whether or not the host is connected to an outside network.

    # dladm create-etherstub etherstub0

  • Next, create five VNICs on the etherstub. These virtual NICs will be assigned to the two guests and the host. You can use different MAC addresses if you prefer.

    # dladm create-vnic -l etherstub0 -m a:b:c:d:1:2 vnic0
    # dladm create-vnic -l etherstub0 -m a:b:c:d:1:3 vnic1
    # dladm create-vnic -l etherstub0 -m a:b:c:d:1:4 vnic2
    # dladm create-vnic -l etherstub0 -m a:b:c:d:1:5 vnic3
    # dladm create-vnic -l etherstub0 -m a:b:c:d:1:6 vnic4

  • Still on the physical host, disable NWAM and enable network/physical:default.

    # svcadm disable nwam
    # svcadm enable network/physical:default

  • Now you can start assigning IP addresses. This demo uses the 10.0.2.0/24 subnet for the internal communication, and leaves the 192.168.1.0/24 subnet for the external network. Pick three IP addresses: one for the physical host, and one for each of the cluster nodes. I'm using:

    10.0.2.97 phys-host
    10.0.2.98 chopin
    10.0.2.99 liszt

    These are random choices. Feel free to use any IP addresses within the proper subnet.

  • Configure the host's IP address on one of the VNICs. I use vnic0.

    # ifconfig vnic0 plumb
    # ifconfig vnic0 inet 10.0.2.97/24 up

  • Make the configuration persistent across reboots:

    # echo "10.0.2.97/24" > /etc/hostname.vnic0

  • Add entries to /etc/inet/hosts for the two guests and the host:

    10.0.2.97 phys-host
    10.0.2.98 chopin
    10.0.2.99 liszt

  • Plumb and configure the physical adapter to access an external network with DHCP. This assumes the public adapter is named e1000g0. Run dladm show-link to find the name of the adapter on your system.

    # ifconfig e1000g0 plumb
    # ifconfig e1000g0 dhcp start

  • Make it persistent:

    # touch /etc/hostname.e1000g0 /etc/dhcp.e1000g0

  • Add dns to /etc/nsswitch.conf:

    # grep dns /etc/nsswitch.conf
    hosts: files dns

8. Configure Networking in the First Guest

As described earlier, you need to use "bridged networking" for the guests, which gives the guests emulated physical adapters that run on VNICs on the host. You need to give each guest two adapters – one for the public network and one for the cluster private network. Note that you can't use VNICs inside the guests because they don't work inside VirtualBox.

  • While the guest is shut down, select it, and select the "Settings" button to edit it.
  • Select the "Network" settings.
  • Select "Adapter 1" and change "Attached to" to "Bridged Networking". Click the little screwdriver icon to the right of the selection box, and select the VNIC to use (I suggest vnic1) and fill in its MAC address. You can use dladm show-vnic on the host in case you forgot the MAC you chose when creating the VNIC.

  • Do the same for "Adapter 2", using one of the other free vnics (vnic3 for example). For Adapter 2, you'll first need to check the "Enable Network Adapter" box, as only one adapter is enabled by default.
  • Now boot the guest.
  • Once booted, disable NWAM:

    # svcadm disable network/physical:nwam
    # svcadm enable network/physical:default

  • Configure the IP address you chose earlier for this cluster node on the e1000g0 adapter.

    # ifconfig e1000g0 plumb
    # ifconfig e1000g0 inet 10.0.2.98/24 up
    # echo "10.0.2.98/24" > /etc/hostname.e1000g0

  • Add entries to /etc/inet/hosts:

    10.0.2.97 phys-host
    10.0.2.98 chopin
    10.0.2.99 liszt

  • Verify that you can connect to the physical host:

    chopin# ping 10.0.2.97
    chopin#ping phys-host

  • On the host, verify you can connect to the guest:

    host# ping 10.0.2.98

9. Configure Networking in the Second Guest

  • Repeat the above steps for the second guest, but using the IP address for that cluster node on the e1000g0 adapter (for example 10.0.2.99)

    # ifconfig e1000g0 inet 10.0.2.99/24 up
    # echo "10.0.2.99/24" > /etc/hostname.e1000g0

  • Verify that you can connect from each guest to the other and to the physical host, and from the physical host to both guests.

10. Configure the Cluster

  • In each guest, open up rpcbind:

    # svccfg -s rpc/bind setprop config/local_only = boolean: false
    # svcadm refresh rpc/bind

  • Now in only one of the guests, run scinstall and follow its prompts. In order to configure the cluster with only one private interconnect, you need to select “custom” mode. Make sure, also, to select “lofi” for the Global Devices file system instead of a /globaldevices partition (even though /globaldevices is the default, it won't work on ZFS root). Here is a sample run of scinstall.

11. Configure Weak Membership

If you're familiar with HA Clusters, you may notice that you haven't configured a quorum device or quorum server to break a tie and ensure that only one node of the cluster stays up in the case of a network partition. Instead, you can use "weak membership" which is a new preview features in Open HA Cluster 2009.06. Weak membership allows a two-node cluster to run without a quorum device arbitrator. Instead, you use a "ping target" arbitrator, which can be any network device on the same subnet. In the case of node death or a network partition, each node attempts to ping the ping target. If the node can ping it successfully, it stays up. As you might guess, this mechanism is imperfect, and in the worst case can lead to a split-brain scenario of both nodes providing services simultaneously, which can lead to data loss. To configure weak membership in the VirtualBox setup, you can use the physical host as the ping target.

  • On one of the cluster nodes, run:

    # /usr/cluster/bin/clq set -p multiple_partitions=true -p ping_targets=10.0.2.97 membership
    This action might result in data corruption or loss.
    Are you sure you want to enable multiple partitions in the cluster to be operational (y/n) [n]?y
    # /usr/cluster/bin/clq reset

Now your cluster is ready to use!

Wednesday Jun 10, 2009

Cluster Summit Recap and Photos

I'm happy to report that the first Open HA Cluster Summit last week was a fantastic event.

The summit kicked off with Professor David Cheriton's keynote address, The Network is the Cluster (pdf link). If the audience took away only one thing from the whole summit, I hope it was the point Cheriton made up-front on the second slide, that everyone needs high availability because the alternative is unpredictability and un-dependability. We all take availability of the computer services we use for granted until those services are not there. Here's a photo of Professor Cheriton concluding his talk:

P

As you can see the room was full and the audience attentive (I'm in the front row on the left):

After Dr. Cheriton's address, we had a discussion featuring panelists from Aster Data Systems, Google, and Sun Microsystems and moderated by Eve Kleinknecht.

One point I took away from the discussion is that high availability isn't for the 364 days a year that everything works right. It's for the one day a year when something goes wrong. Here Thorsten Frueauf (left) and I are watching the panel:

The morning session wrapped up with my talk on a minimal and modular HA cluster for OpenSolaris (pdf link). Here I am at the podium:

Lunch featured a nice centerpiece of an OpenSolaris Bible at each table for one lucky winner from that table.

I happily signed the books for all the winners.

The afternoon sessions included a variety of talks from both Sun and non-Sun participants. I particularly enjoyed Marcelo Leal's presentation on his AVS agent for Open HA Cluster (pdf link):

The event concluded with a fun "Casino Night":

First two photos by Thorsten Frueauf. All other photos by Tirthankar Das

Tuesday Jun 09, 2009

Next Generation High Availability Cluster Video

Here's an interview with my Engineering Director, Meenakshi Kaul-Basu, and Dan Roberts, Director of OpenSolaris Product Management, about the Open HA Cluster 2009.06 release that was announced last week.

Thursday May 07, 2009

At CommunityOne West June 1-2

I'm looking forward to the upcoming CommunityOne West conference in San Francisco at the beginning of June. This is a great event at which to learn about OpenSolaris and other FOSS software, and I'm particularly excited about the several opportunities that I'll have in which to share some information about OpenSolaris and Open HA Cluster.

On Monday, June 1, Dave and I will be giving two talks based on our book, OpenSolaris Bible.

The first talk, Developing on OpenSolaris will provide a tutorial on using OpenSolaris as your development platform, focusing on the features unique to OpenSolaris. This talk, at 10:50 AM, will kick off the "Developing On OpenSolaris" track.

Our second talk of the day, at 11:50 AM is titled, Becoming an OpenSolaris Power User. If you missed us at CommunityOne East, come check this one out, with revised and updated content for the OpenSolaris 2009.06 release. This presentation is part of the "Managing OpenSolaris" track.

Jerry, the third author on OpenSolaris Bible, will also be giving a talk on Monday at 1:40 PM on Virtualization in OpenSolaris.

Also on Monday, the three of us will do a book signing for OpenSolaris Bible, though the time and location haven't yet been finalized.

On Tuesday, Jerry and I will be part of a “deep dive” tutorial on Deploying OpenSolaris in your Datacenter. I'll cover High Availability, including SMF, FMA, and Open HA Cluster (of course!). Jerry will cover Zones. Additional topics will include ZFS.

Attendance at CommunityOne is completely free on Monday. I'm not sure yet if the deep dive on Tuesday will also be free.

When I'm not speaking, you can probably find me in the pavilion at the Open HA Cluster booth.

I hope to see you at Moscone in June! Also, don't forget about the Open HA Cluster Summit on the preceding Sunday, May 31.

Tuesday Jul 15, 2008

Project Colorado

I've just proposed a new OpenSolaris project to port Open HA Cluster to the OpenSolaris distribution, including the new Image Packaging System. To quote from my proposal email, this distribution of OHAC will provide basic cluster functionality with a low barrier to entry and easy deployment for OpenSolaris. Additional functionality will be provided via optional IPS packages. The intended audience is system administrators needing simple HA and developers needing an HA framework for their applications or software appliances.

This project to me feels like the natural next step from the open sourcing work I've been doing for the past year and 1/2. Now that the code is out there, it's time to get it running on OpenSolaris. I'm particularly excited to get back to hands-on engineering after suffering through the legal and process work of open sourcing.

One note on the project name: Following the state-name precedence of Nevada and Indiana, I naturally chose the state in which I live.

Thursday Jun 05, 2008

Solaris Cluster Express 6/08 available

As I announced to the OpenSolaris community yesterday, we've released a new version of Solaris Cluster Express. SCX, as we call it, is a build of Solaris Cluster for Solaris Express. This release runs on SXCE build 86. If you don't want to build the cluster source code yourself, this binary distribution is a good option for trying out Solaris Cluster / Open HA Cluster on OpenSolaris.

Friday May 30, 2008

Solaris Cluster Fully Open Source

This announcement yesterday marks the culmination of my work for the past 1 1/2 years or so. In summary, we open sourced over two million lines of code!

I've learned quite a bit about the legal and business side of open sourcing in the process of getting this code open sourced. But hopefully now I can stop spending so much time with lawyers and get back to programming :-)

Here's a roundup of the various blog entries so far mentioning this release:

Tuesday Dec 04, 2007

Sun Cluster Geographic Edition is now Open-Source

The source code for the Sun Cluster Geographic Edition product is now available in the HA Clusters community on OpenSolaris.org! In addition to browsing the Open High Availability Cluster Geographic Edition source code, you can download it and build it with either the Sun Studio or the gcc compiler.

This source code release represents the second phase of the complete Sun Cluster open-sourcing roadmap. The first phase, the Sun Cluster Agents, occurred last June, and the third and final phase, the Sun Cluster core gate, will happen sometime next year.

I'm particularly pleased that, in addition to product code, this release of the Geographic Edition source includes test code, man pages, and globalization source.

Thursday Sep 20, 2007

Photos from Sun Tech Days Boston

I wrote last week that I was in Boston for the kickoff event of Sun Tech Days 2007-2008.

I thought the OpenSolaris day and Installfest went well. If you're interested, you can check out the slides (PDF file) from my talk on Open High Availability Cluster.

Here are some photos

Giving my talk


Continuing my talk


Stephen Lau, multitasking Solaris installs across four laptops at the Installfest

Tuesday Sep 11, 2007

At Sun Tech Days Boston

I'm in Boston this week for the Sun Tech Days conference. Today I will be giving a presentation on Open High Availability Cluster as part of the OpenSolaris track. Here's the complete conference agenda.

Monday Jul 30, 2007

Solaris Cluster Express 7/07 available

The first release of Solaris Cluster Express is now available for download.

Solaris Cluster Express 7/07 is a complete version of Solaris Cluster that runs on Solaris Express Community Edition build 68. You can install and run Solaris Cluster Express 7/07 on SPARC based platforms and on 32-bit or 64-bit x86 based platforms.

As the tech lead on this effort, I'm particularly pleased that we were able to release it so quickly after our first Solaris Cluster source-code release last month.

My colleague, Thorsten, wrote a great summary of the reasons that this is a particularly exciting release.

You can also browse the installation instructions.

Please check it out and give us your feedback!

Monday Jul 23, 2007

My Upcoming Open HA Cluster Talks

I'll be presenting, "Discovering Open High Availability Cluster" at two different OpenSolaris User Groups in the next few weeks.

Both meetings are open to the public. If you’re in the area, please come by!

Thursday Jul 05, 2007

Globalization Source for Sun Cluster Agents

We've open-sourced some more Solaris Cluster code under the Open High Availability Cluster umbrella. The globalization (G11N) source code for the Solaris Cluster Agents is now available.

Browse the source

Download the source

About

Nick Solter is a software engineer and author living in Colorado.

Search

Archives
« April 2014
SunMonTueWedThuFriSat
  
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
   
       
Today