Monday Nov 25, 2013
Friday Jul 19, 2013
By Raveendra Reddy on Jul 19, 2013
Wednesday Jun 26, 2013
By Hema Sridharan on Jun 26, 2013
MySQL Enterprise Backup v3.8.2, a maintenance release of online MySQL backup tool, is now available for download from My Oracle Support (MOS) website as our latest GA release. It will also be available via the Oracle Software Delivery Cloud in approximately 1-2 weeks. A brief summary of the changes in MySQL Enterprise Backup version 3.8.2 is given below.
A. Functionality Added or Changed:
- MySQL Enterprise Backup has a new --on-disk-full command line option. mysqlbackup could hang when the disk became full, rather than detecting the low space condition. mysqlbackup now monitors disk space when running backup commands, and users can now specify the action to take at a disk-full condition with the --on-disk-full option. For more details, refer this page
- MySQL Enterprise Backup has a new progress report feature, which periodically outputs short progress indicators on its operations to user-selected destinations (for example, stdout, stderr, a file, or other choices). For more details on progress report options, refer here
B. Bugs Fixed:
- When --innodb-file-per-table=ON, if a table was renamed and backup-to-image was in progress, apply-log would fail when being run on the backup. (Bug #16903973)
- MySQL Server failed to start after a backup was restored if there had been online DDL transactions on partitioned tables during the time of backup. (Bug #16924499)
- apply-log failed if ALTER TABLE ... REORGANIZE PARTITION was applied to partitioned InnoDB tables during backup. (Bug #16721824, Bug #16903951)
- apply-incremental-backup might fail with an assertion error if the InnoDB tables being backed up were created in Barracuda format and with their KEY_BLOCK_SIZE values different from the innodb_page_size . This fix ensures that different KEY_BLOCK_SIZE values are handled properly during incremental backup and apply-incremental-backup operations.
- If a table was renamed following a full backup, a subsequent incremental backup could copy the .frm file with the new name, but not the associated .ibd file with the new name. After a restore, the InnoDB data dictionary could be in an inconsistent state. This issue primarily occurred if the table was not changed between the full backup and the subsequent incremental backup. Bug #16262690)
- After a full backup, if a table was renamed and modified, apply-incremental-backup would crash when run on the backup directory. (Bug #16262609)
- The value of the binary log position in backup_variables.txt could be different from the output displayed during the backup-and-apply-log operation. (This issue did not occur if the backup and apply-log steps were done separately.) (Bug #16195529)
When using the --only-innodb-with-frm option, MySQL Enterprise Backup tried to create temporary files at unintended locations in the file system, which might cause a failure when, for example, the user had no write privilege for those locations. This fix makes sure the paths for the temporary files are correct. (Bug #14787324)
- A backup process might hang when it ran into an LSN mismatch between a data file and the redo log. This fix makes sure the process does not hang and it displays an error message showing the name of the problematic data file (Bug #14791645)
Please post your questions / comments about Backup in forums.
Friday May 03, 2013
By SanjayM on May 03, 2013
MySQL Enterprise Backup (MEB) was born 3 years ago as a newly branded avatar of InnoDB Hot backup. Wanted to share what has gone on so far, how we at Oracle think about backup, the milestones that we have achieved and the road ahead. The idea for this blog came to me after looking at Mikael's latest blog. While Mikael talks about MySQL, I want to talk about MEB.
When we started with InnoDB Hot backup the first challenge was to have it adhere to the development, quality and release processes for MySQL. This meant creating a quality plan, getting it into the development trees of MySQL and ensuring that each piece of new code went through architecture and code review. Though the initial implementer and architect of Hot backup continues to work with the MEB team, there were a host of new engineers to be trained. We also needed to ensure that the new (at that time) Barracuda InnoDB file format and incremental backup was supported. MEB 3.5.1 was the release which got these things along with the adherence to the development and quality model of MySQL.
The next challenge we faced was that of ensuring that MEB was on equal footing for both Linux and Windows. InnoDB hot Backup consisted of 2 programs - ibbackup and innobackup; innobackup is a Perl module. The main issue with using the program on Windows was the requirement to install Perl. With multiple Perl implementations and changing Perl versions, we did not want to check MEB compatibility for every implementation and new version of Perl when it was released. Even though the problem is the similar for Linux; the users of Linux are used to hacking around, changing paths and managing multiple versions of software like Perl. Windows users however expect things to just work. So we set about removing the Perl code altogether. This meant that the innobackup functionality had to be re-coded as a C program. Merging these 2 programs meant a major re-think on how the combined command line interface needed to look. The solution we came up with was to let the ibbackup and innobackup command line syntax remain as is, while the combined program had a similar but more logical "mysqlbackup" command line syntax. We were very happy with the new syntax because it freed us from history and MEB syntax became very much in line with the syntax of other MySQL clients. With the release of 3.6 we had a single C program, a more logical syntax , a product which was easier to install and worked exactly the same for all platforms.
We were getting to 2012 and database sizes were commonly approaching the 1 TB size. Such large databases meant the backup should ideally be streamed to tape. Interfacing with tape drives is a complicated and specialized activity. We neither had the bandwidth nor the expertize to handle tapes in MEB. The best solution was to adhere to a good common standard interface that was adopted by software which dealt with tapes. The interface we decided to support was Oracle's System Backup to Tape (SBT) . MEB was modified to be able to to stream the backup output to this interface. A common requirement for these interfaces is that they ideally want to deal with the backup as a single file. A single file can be streamed and restored by any software that speaks SBT. There is a whole ecosystem around SBT because it is the preferred way to backup the Oracle database. Changing MEB to think streaming instead of random access directory output was the challenge we overcame with the release of version 3.7 of MEB. With version 3.7, MEB could interface with Oracle Secure Backup, Symantec Net Backup and Tivoli Storage Manager and any other backup software that understood SBT.
After having resolved what we saw as the "basic" requirements for backup , our customers were demanding more performance and usability. We took up the challenge of performance for the 3.8 version of MEB. MEB was a monolithic single threaded program. We decided to internally break up MEB into 3 separate modules. The read phase, the process phase and the write phase. Each of these 3 phases could be multi-threaded. The number of threads dedicated for each phase were also made user configurable. All operations of backup including the "Applylog" and "copyback" were made multi-threaded. Read more details about this design approach and the performance gains in my blog - Truly Parallel backup. Meanwhile the new release of the MySQL Server 5.6 was also out. It was an interesting challenge to ensure that MEB understood the new MySQL 5.6 features and was able to take advantage of them. As on date MEB 3.8.1 is the only online backup solution that is compatible with the new features of MySQL 5.6.
Backup is like buying insurance. When all else fails you need to be sure that there is a working backup that is available to bring back your database. Backup is not something that can fail when it is needed. It is required that we are surefooted when dealing with such a critical activity. We take your trust in our solution very seriously. Thanks for being a part of the MEB journey (and for reading this blog) so far. The MySQL landscape is ever changing and we know that you desire more usability, performance and flexibility from MEB. We will try and ensure that we meet these expectations with the best possible quality. With every new MEB release you will see a more usable, flexible and performant MEB.
Friday Feb 08, 2013
By SanjayM on Feb 08, 2013
How do you ensure that you have the capability to be able to tune the level of parallelism for varying input and output devices and varying levels of load?
These were some of the questions that we needed to answer when we were trying to implement multi-threading capability for MySQL Enterprise Backup (MEB).
The trivial way of achieving parallelism is by having the multiple threads pick up the different files (in a file per table) scenario. But this did not seem adequate because:
a) The sizes of these files (corresponding to the tables) could be different and then one large file would limit the level of parallelism since it would be processed by a single thread.
b) If you have to stream the backup how do you reconcile these multiple files being streamed by separate threads? Large backups are streamed directly to tape so it is better to have a single file being output and not multiple files.
c) If you buffer each file and wait for a file to be completely processed and then push it to tape then it is not true streaming because you are using intermediate disk space to save the incomplete portions of all the files.
The answer that we found was to implement the parallel algorithm using a horizontal strategy instead of a vertical strategy.
In the vertical strategy, each thread acts on a separate file. This
limits streaming since the file sizes can vary.
In the horizontal strategy, each file is broken into a sections (denoted by multiple colors). A separate thread is assigned to operate on a single section.
Parallel operations are then possible for reading , processing and writing of these file subsections because no two threads will be operating on the same section of the file.
This setup is especially useful when using compression since there can be multiple threads performing compression while the read and write continues in parallel.
There may be additional overhead of ensuring that the buffers are in the correct order when they are written out, but since most of the buffers of the same size and having similar operations being performed, the overhead is minimal.
You get truly serialized output that is streamed to tape as it gets processed. If you are streaming to a remote host or to tape, there is almost no additional space required on your main server. We call this new mechanism parallel backup because we are achieving parallelism thereby making the backup faster. Indeed, using parallel backup may see up to 10 times the speed of a normal backup in certain scenarios.
The graph below shows the time it took for backup for MEB 3.7.1 v/s MEB 3.8 using varying number of threads.
Note : This is a 16 GB, 2 x 2000 MHz, 2 RAID DISKS (1027 GB,733.9GB) machine running Oracle Linux.
As you can see above; MEB 3.8 provides options to configure the number of threads you use for reading, writing and processing. Lets denote RT, PT and WT as number of Read, Process and Write threads respectively. Default values for MEB 3.8 is RT=3,PT=3, WT=3 which is changing in MEB 3.8.1 to RT=1, PT=6, WT=1.
This is close to the fastest backup we get in the graph above. The reason for not choosing RT=1, PT=12, WT=1 (which is the fastest) is because the CPU gets very highly utilized in the 1,12,1 configuration.
Remember, the read write throughput depends on your input and output devices. It is possible that multiple threads do not give you a better performance for read or write v/s a single thread.
There are also options available to have a configurable number of buffers used by these threads.
Each buffer is of size 16MB. You should have at-least [RT+PT+WT+ (MAX(RT,PT,WT) ] number of buffers so that you get optimal parallelism.
For Example if RT=1, PT=6, WT=1 then you should configure 1+6+1+6 = 14 buffers (default in MEB 3.8.1)
If for example you configure multiple threads but configure only 1 buffer then your backup is not taking advantage of parallelism at all. The read thread reads into the single buffer, buffer is then processed, written and then freed. The read thread is waiting for a buffer to be free to read into it; so it is like a serial process.
One more thing to note is that the number of buffers is limited by the memory limit configured for backup (default 300MB). Please ensure that you configure enough memory to be able to distribute it to the buffers you have configured. If the memory limit configured is less then what is required for the configured number of buffers; MEB will automatically decrease the number of buffers to fit into the memory limit. Based on the default values, if you are configuring more than 18 buffers you will need to increase the memory limit.
Please look at the previous 3.8 blog for detailed configuration examples :
or into our documentation of this feature at
and remember the wise DBA advise:
If you don't verify your backups periodically it is like not having backups at all
Thursday Feb 07, 2013
By Hema Sridharan on Feb 07, 2013
The MySQL Enterprise Backup 3.8.1 release's main goal was support MySQL 5.6 server. But also beyond that primary goal MEB team added some valuable new options and features to ensure you'll get most from the new features in 5.6 as well. At a glance, here are some of the highlights,
MEB copy of InnoDB undo log tablespaces
MySQL 5.6 introduces a new feature to store undo logs in separate files called as undo tablespaces for improved performance. These undo tablespaces are logically part of system tablespace. All the commands associated with MEB - "backup", "apply-log" and "copy-back" now take care of the undo tablespaces in the same way as they process the system tablespace. MEB now supports innodb_undo_directory[logs][tablespace] option variables. When backup is executed, undo datafiles (up to number specified by innodb_undo_tablespaces) are stored in same directory as the datafiles of system tablespace. During copy-back, files can be stored in a location specified by the user using option --innodb-undo-directory.
MEB support for Global transaction ID's
GTID feature is newly introduced in MySQL 5.6 server. GTID's help to track the data being replicated particularly with the automatic slave promotion when a master fails.
When server is started with GTID's enabled and backup is performed on the master server, mysqlbackup produces a new file called as gtid_executed.sql in meta backup directory . This file is used after restoring the backup data on slave server and contains GTID_PURGED option. This provides information from the server at the end of the backup, thereby ensuring that replication starts from the point in time when backup was taken.
UNC Path name support
MEB now supports UNC path names by specifying a location of network resource such as shared file, directory or printer. This feature helps to start backups using windows task scheduler when shared drives cannot be mapped to a drive letter. Support for UNC path names also allows MEB to take backups when user is not logged in.
eg: ./mysqlbackup --defaults-file=/home/my/my.cnf --backup-dir="\\mysql\\testmeb\" backup
Where testmeb is shared network directory on windows.
When the shared name is corrupt / invalid, MEB detects and then tries to access the files pointed to by the path and prints an error message.
MEB support for different page size settings for InnoDB
InnoDB page size is the server parameter that is associated with all the innodb tablespaces in the MySQL instance. By default the value of this size used to be 16K in the versions less than MySQL 5.6. But from MySQL 5.6, this option is made user configurable to 4k, 8k, 16k etc. Starting from MEB 3.8.1, Backup will work successfully when server is started with different innodb_page_size values. The innodb-page-size option can also be specified in the mysqlbackup command line but MEB will ignore the option provided the connection to server is available. If innodb_page_size option is not specified in command line or if connection to server is not available, then the value of innodb-page-size is read from the header of the innodb data files.
InnoDB Checksum Algorithm Support
MEB 3.8.1 introduces new option support of --innodb-checksum-algorithm in MySQL 5.6. This option can also be specified on the command line. A default option is used if its not specified in the command line and also if the connection to the server is offline. Without the support for this new option, MEB could not start the server after sequence of backup, apply-log and restore operations. One thing to be noted here is,
a. Server backed with strict_crc32, strict_innodb or strict_none checksum algorithms should be restored with the same algorithm
b. Server backed with mixed algorithms should not be restored to a server with strict_* algorithms.
Backup of system tablespace with fractional megabyte.
It sometimes happens that InnoDB engine extends datafiles of system tablespace by few megabytes. But if the disk is full, then system tablespace will actually extend to fractional megabytes. During such cases, MEB performs a consistency check on the sizes of InnoDB datafiles and if the size does not match the size of the file on the disk, a warning is reported.That is MEB does not backup the fractional datafile in the system tablespace.
Backup restore file per table tablespaces at different locations.
In MySQL 5.6, it is possible to create new InnoDB table with per-table tablespace outside of data directory where .ibd file should be created instead of default location in the database sub directory. For each .ibd file, a .isl file is created in the database subdirectory containing absolute path name acting like a symbolic link to actual tablespace file. All the MEB operations are now able to read the .isl files to locate the .ibd files during backup. During backup, both .isl and .ibd files are copied to the backup directory but .isl is renamed as .bl file. During copy-back, .ibd files are being copied to a location specified in .bl file. But if the target location is changed where the restore of the backup should be performed, then one needs to manually edit the .bl file before doing the restore and specify the abs path name where .ibd files should go.
The above mentioned are new features added to backup code but this release also includes various bug fixes, please take a look at the MEB 3.8.1 reference manuals for more details.
The MEB team has put great deal of efforts to ensure that latest release of MEB 3.8.1 is compliant with MySQL 5.6 server. Please try this new MEB 3.8.1 version with MySQL 5.6 server and as always send us your feedback / comments here. MEB 3.8.1 is now available in My Oracle Support site and will very soon be available in Oracle's Cloud delivery site.
Once again, I would like to thank entire MEB team to deliver this release on time and with many valuable new additions.
Saturday Sep 29, 2012
By Hema Sridharan on Sep 29, 2012
In MySQL Enterprise Backup 3.6, new option was introduced to support backup to tapes via SBT interface. SBT stands for System Backup to Tape, an Oracle API that helps to perform backup and restore jobs via media management software such as Oracle's Secure Backup (OSB). There are other storage managers like IBM's Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM) and Symantec's Netbackup (NB) which are also supported by MEB but we don't guarantee that it will function as expected for every release. MEB supports SBT API version 2.0
In this blog, I am primarily going to focus the interface of MEB and Symantec's NB. If we are using tapes for backup, ensure that tape library and tape drives are compatible.
1. Install NB 7.5 master and media servers in Linux OS. ( NB 7.1 can also be used but for testing purpose I used NB 7.5)
2. Install MEB 3.8 also in Linux OS.
3. Install NB admin console in your windows desktop and configure the NB master server from there.
Note: Ensure that you have root user permission to install NetBackup.
Configuration Steps for MEB and NB
Once MEB and NB are installed,
- Ensure that NB is linked to MEB by specifying the library /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so64 in the mysqlbackup command line using --sbt-lib-path.
- Configure the NB master server from windows console. That is configure the storage units by specifying the Storage unit name, Disk type, Media Server name etc.
- Create NetBackup policies that are user selectable. But please make sure that policy type is "Oracle".
- Define the clients where MEB will be executed. Some times this will be different host where MEB is run or some times in same Media server where NB and tapes are attached.
Now once the installation and configuration steps are performed for MEB and NB, the next part is the actual execution.
MEB should be run as single file backup using --backup-image option with prefix sbt:(it is a tag which tells MEB that it should stream the backup image through the SBT interface) which is sent to NB client via SBT interface . The resulting backup image is stored where NB stores the images that it backs up.
The following diagram shows how MEB interacts with MMS through SBT interface.
The following parameters should also be ready for the execution,
--sbt-lib-path : Path to SBT library specific to NetBackup MMS. SBT lib for NetBackup is in /usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so64
--sbt-environment: Environment variables must be defined specific to NetBackup. In our example below, we use
ORACLE_HOME = /export/home2/tmp/hema/mysql-server/
./mysqlbackup --port=13000 --protocol=tcp --user=root --backup-image=sbt:bkpsbtNB --sbt-lib-path=/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so64 --sbt-environment="NB_ORA_SERV=myserver.com, NB_ORA_CLIENT=myserver.com, NB_ORA_POLICY=NBU-MEB, ORACLE_HOME=/export/home2/tmp/hema/mysql-server/” --backup-dir=/export/home2/tmp/hema/MEB_bkdir/ backup-to-image
Once backup is completed successfully, this should appear in Activity Monitor in NetBackup Console.
For restore, image contents has to be extracted using image-to-backup-dir command and then apply-log and copy-back steps are applied.
./mysqlbackup --sbt-lib-path=/usr/openv/netbackup/bin/libobk.so64 --backup-dir=/export/home2/tmp/hema/NBMEB/ --backup-image=sbt:bkpsbtNB image-to-backup-dir
Now apply logs as usual, shutdown the server and perform restore, restart the server and check the data contents.
- ./mysqlbackup ---backup-dir=/export/home2/tmp/hema/NBMEB/ apply-log
- ./mysqlbackup --datadir=/export/home2/tmp/hema/mysql-server/mysql-5.5-meb-repo/mysql-test/var/mysqld.1/data/ --backup-dir=/export/home2/tmp/hema/MEB_bkpdir/ innodb_log_files_in_group=2 --innodb_log_file_size=5M --user=root --port=13000 --protocol=tcp copy-back
The NB console should show 'Restore" job as done. If you don't see that there is something wrong with MEB or NetBackup.
You can also refer to more detailed steps of MEB and NB integration in whitepaper here
MySQL MEB Team Blog
- MySQL Enterprise Backup 3.10.0-What's New
- MEB integration with Workbench
- Backing up full server instance using MySQL Enterprise Backup
- MEB & OSB slides for the the talk at Oracle open World
- Slides for MEB talk at MySQL Connect
- Backing up selective innodb tables using MEB.
- How to restore directly on a remote machine from the backup stream
- Skip Unused Pages with MySQL Enterprise Backup 3.9.0
- MySQL Enterprise Backup 3.9.0 – An Insight
- Improved Backup Progress in MySQL Enterprise Backup(MEB) 3.8.2