Saturday Dec 21, 2013

Measuring Network Bandwidth Using iperf

iperf is a simple, open source tool to measure the network bandwidth. It can test TCP or UDP throughput. Tools like iperf are useful to check the performance of a network real quick, by comparing the achieved bandwidth with the expectation. The example in this blog post is from a Solaris system, but the instructions and testing methodology are applicable on all supported platforms including Linux.

Download the source code from iperf's home page, and build the iperf binary. Those running Solaris 10 or later, can download the pre-built binary (file size: 245K) from this location to give it a quick try (right click and "Save Link As .." or similar option).

Testing methodology:

iperf's network performance measurements are based on the client-server communication model - hence requires establishing both a server and a client. The same iperf binary can be used to run the process in server and client modes.

  1. Start iperf in server mode
    iperf -s -i <interval>

    Option -s or --server starts the process in server mode. -i or --interval is the sampling interval in seconds.

  2. Start iperf in client mode, and test the network connection between client and the server with arbitrary data transfers.

    iperf -n <bytes> -i <interval> -c <ServerIP>
    

    Option -c or --client starts the process in client mode. Option -n or --bytes specify the number of bytes to transmit in bytes, KB (use suffix K) or MB (use suffix M). -i or --interval is the sampling interval in seconds. The last option is the IP address or the hostname of the server to connect to. By default, client connects to the server using TCP. -u or --udp switches to UDP.

  3. Check the network link speed on server and client, and compare the throughput achieved.

Check the man page out for the full list of options supported by iperf in client and server modes.

Here is a simple demonstration.

On server node:

iperfserv% dladm show-phys net0
LINK              MEDIA                STATE      SPEED  DUPLEX    DEVICE
net0              Ethernet             up         1000   full      igb0

iperfserv% ifconfig net0 | grep inet
        inet 10.129.193.63 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 10.129.193.255

iperfserv% ./iperf -v
iperf version 3.0-BETA5 (28 March 2013)SunOS iperfserv 5.11 11.1 sun4v sparc sun4v


iperfserv% ./iperf -s -i 1
-----------------------------------------------------------
Server listening on 5201
-----------------------------------------------------------

On client node:

client% dladm show-phys net0
LINK              MEDIA                STATE      SPEED  DUPLEX    DEVICE
net0              Ethernet             up         1000   full      igb0

client% ifconfig net0 | grep inet
        inet 10.129.193.151 netmask ffffff00 broadcast 10.129.193.255

client% ./iperf  -n 1024M  -i 1 -c 10.129.193.63
Connecting to host 10.129.193.63, port 5201
[  4] local 10.129.193.151 port 63507 connected to 10.129.193.63 port 5201
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth
[  4]   0.00-1.01   sec   105 MBytes   875 Mbits/sec
[  4]   1.01-2.02   sec   112 MBytes   934 Mbits/sec
[  4]   2.02-3.00   sec   110 MBytes   934 Mbits/sec
			[...]
[  4]   8.02-9.01   sec   110 MBytes   933 Mbits/sec
[  4]   9.01-9.27   sec  30.0 MBytes   934 Mbits/sec
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth
      Sent
[  4]   0.00-9.27   sec  1.00 GBytes   927 Mbits/sec
      Received
[  4]   0.00-9.27   sec  1.00 GBytes   927 Mbits/sec

iperf Done.

At the same time, somewhat similar messages are written to stdout on the server node.

iperfserv% ./iperf  -s -i 1
-----------------------------------------------------------
Server listening on 5201
-----------------------------------------------------------
Accepted connection from 10.129.193.151, port 33457
[  5] local 10.129.193.63 port 5201 connected to 10.129.193.151 port 63507
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth
[  5]   0.00-1.00   sec   104 MBytes   874 Mbits/sec
[  5]   1.00-2.00   sec   111 MBytes   934 Mbits/sec
[  5]   2.00-3.00   sec   111 MBytes   934 Mbits/sec
			[...]
[ ID] Interval           Transfer     Bandwidth
      Sent
[  5]   0.00-9.28   sec  1.00 GBytes   927 Mbits/sec
      Received
[  5]   0.00-9.28   sec  1.00 GBytes   927 Mbits/sec
-----------------------------------------------------------
Server listening on 5201
-----------------------------------------------------------

The link speed is specified in Mbps (megabit per second). In the above example, the network link is operating at 1000 Mbps speed, and the achieved bandwidth is 927 Mbps, which is 92.7% of the advertised bandwidth.

Notes:

  • It is not necessary to execute iperf in client and server modes as root or privileged user
  • In server mode, iperf uses port 5201 by default. It can be changed to something else using -p or --port option
  • Restart iperf server after each client test to get reliable, consistent results
  • Using iperf is just one of many ways to measure the network bandwidth. There are other tools such as uperf, ttcp, netperf, bwping, udpmon, tcpmon, .. just to name a few. Research and pick the one that best suits your requirement.

Monday Oct 14, 2013

[Script] Breakdown of Oracle SGA into Solaris Locality Groups

Goal: for a given process, find out how the SGA was allocated in different locality groups on a system running Solaris operating system.

Download the shell script, sga_in_lgrp.sh. The script accepts any Oracle database process id as input, and prints out the memory allocated in each locality group.

Usage: ./sga_in_lgrp.sh <pid>

eg.,

# prstat -p 12820

   PID USERNAME  SIZE   RSS STATE   PRI NICE      TIME  CPU PROCESS/NLWP
 12820 oracle     32G   32G sleep    60  -20   0:00:16 0.0% oracle/2

# ./sga_in_lgrp.sh 12820

Number of Locality Groups (lgrp): 4
------------------------------------

lgroup 1 :   8.56 GB
lgroup 2 :   6.56 GB
lgroup 3 :   6.81 GB
lgroup 4 :  10.07 GB

Total allocated memory:  32.00 GB

For those who wants to have a quick look at the source code, here it is.

# cat sga_in_lgrp.sh

#!/bin/bash

# check the argument count
if [ $# -lt 1 ]
then
        echo "usage: ./sga_in_lgrp.sh <oracle pid>"
        exit 1
fi

# find the number of locality groups
lgrp_count=$(kstat -l lgrp | tail -1 | awk -F':' '{ print $2 }')
echo "\nNumber of Locality Groups (lgrp): $lgrp_count"
echo "------------------------------------\n"

# save the ism output using pmap
pmap -sL $1 | grep ism | sort -k5 > /tmp/tmp_pmap_$1

# calculate the total amount of memory allocated in each lgroup
for i in `seq 1 $lgrp_count`
do
        echo -n "lgroup $i : "
        grep "$i   \[" /tmp/tmp_pmap_$1 | awk '{ print $2 }' | sed 's/K//g' | 
               awk '{ sum+=$1} END {printf ("%6.2f GB\n", sum/(1024*1024))}'
done

echo
echo -n "Total allocated memory: "
awk '{ print $2 }' /tmp/tmp_pmap_$1 | sed 's/K//g' | awk '{ sum+=$1} END 
         {printf ("%6.2f GB\n\n", sum/(1024*1024))}'

rm /tmp/tmp_pmap_$1

Like many things in life, there will always be a better or simpler way to achieve this. If you find one, do not fret over this approach. Please share, if possible.

Monday Sep 30, 2013

Miscellaneous Tips: Solaris, Oracle Database, Java, FMW

[Solaris] Cleanup all IPC resources

Run the following wrapper script with root user privileges.

for i in `ipcs -a | awk '{ print $2 }'`
do
	ipcrm -m $i 2> /dev/null
	ipcrm -q $i 2> /dev/null
	ipcrm -s $i 2> /dev/null
done

[Java, WebLogic] Find the process id (pid) of a WebLogic managed server instance

Run the following as the user who owns the process, or with root user privileges.

/usr/java/bin/jps -v | grep <WLS_server_name> | awk '{ print $1 }'

I think this tip is applicable on all supported platforms.

eg.,
Finding the pid of a managed server, bi_server1.

# /usr/java/bin/jps -v | grep bi_server1 | awk '{ print $1 }'
18659

# pargs 18659 | grep weblogic.Name
argv[7]: -Dweblogic.Name=bi_server1

[Oracle Database] Make Oracle ignore hints

Set the following hidden parameter.

_optimizer_ignore_hints=TRUE

(in general, Oracle does not recommend playing with hidden parameters. Check with Oracle support when in doubt).


[Oracle Database] Data Pump Export in a RAC environment fails with ORA-31693, ORA-31617, ORA-19505, ORA-27037 errors

eg.,

ORA-31693: Table data object "<SCHEMA>"."<TABLE>":"P_1147" failed to load/unload \
        and is being skipped due to error:
ORA-31617: unable to open dump file "<FILE>" for write
ORA-19505: failed to identify file "<FILE>"
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
SVR4 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3

Workaround:

Add CLUSTER=N to the list of existing expdp options.


[Solaris, ZFS] Check the current ARC size and its breakdown

kstat -m zfs | grep size 		(any user)  - OR -
echo ::arc | mdb -k | grep size 	(root user)

echo ::memstat | mdb -k		(root user)


eg.,

# echo ::arc | mdb -k | grep size
size                      =       259391 MB
buf_size                  =         3218 MB
data_size                 =       249309 MB
other_size                =         6863 MB
l2_hdr_size               =            0 MB

# kstat -m zfs | grep size
        buf_size                        3375105344
        data_size                       261419672320
        l2_hdr_size                     0
        other_size                      7197048560
        size                            271991826224

# echo ::memstat | mdb -k
Page Summary                Pages                MB  %Tot
------------     ----------------  ----------------  ----
Kernel                   14646326            114424    4%
ZFS File Data            31948806            249600   10%
Anon                     24660113            192657    7%
Exec and libs                8912                69    0%
Page cache                 126052               984    0%
Free (cachelist)            24517               191    0%
Free (freelist)         263965754           2062232   79%
Total                   335380480           2620160

[Fusion Middleware] Disable Fusion Middleware Diagnostic Framework (DFW) Dump Sampling

The Diagnostic Framework in FMW 11g environments detect, diagnose and resolve critical errors such as uncaught exceptions, deadlocked threads and out of memory errors. It is enabled by default.

Though DFW is supposed to diagnose and fix some of the issues transparently, due to the inevitable bugs in [all kinds of] software and misconfigurations, sometimes DFW itself may become a major issue. For instance, there is a bug that reported very high system CPU time on a SPARC server where FMW 11g was running. Per the bug description, the system CPU utilization spikes every minute exactly at 00s of a minute, CPU utilization goes down within few seconds - but the pattern persists and the spiky behavior returns within a minute. Another symptom was the sudden drop in available swap space from tens of giga bytes to a few mega bytes when the CPU spike occurs. Upon close examination, it was found out that DFW in FMW is forking tens of jstack processes to collect the thread dumps from an equal number of java processes running in that FMW environment, causing the sudden spike in CPU (each process is busy gathering thread dumps at the same time) and a steep drop in swap space (each jstack process forked a jmap process. both jstack and jmap processes consume some virtual memory just like any other process). All this happened because DFW thought it found a critical issue, and it wasn't noticed or addressed by anyone including the administrators (DFW couldn't fix this particular issue on its own) - so, it kept gathering the diagnostic data continuously. In this example, DFW did the right thing but the diagnostic data collection frequency was too short - only one minute, that diminished the value of DFW and made it a liability. In such dire situations, probably it is best to disable the dump sampling feature of Diagnostic Framework tentatively while the underlying original issue is being fixed in that application environment. It can be enabled again when the critical issue was fixed, and no longer an issue.

Steps to disable Fusion Middleware Diagnostic Framework (DFW) Dump Sampling: (courtesy: Shashidhara Varamballi)

Method (1) Using WLST:

  1. run wlst.sh
  2. connect to the AdminServer
  3. execute command: enableDumpSampling (enable=0, server='<server_name>')

Method (2) Manual editing of config file:

  1. Edit $DOMAIN_HOME/config/fmwconfig/servers/<server_name>/dfw_config.xml
  2. Change the "enabled" attribute from "true" to "false".
    eg.,
    <dumpSampling enabled="false">
  3. Change the "useExternalCommands" attribute from "true" to "false".
    eg.,
    <threadDump useExternalCommands="false"/>
  4. Save the changes
--

SEE ALSO:

Fusion Middleware Diagnostics weblog


[Solaris 11] Virtual-to-physical link (NIC) mapping

Check the output of /sbin/dladm show-phys (any user). By default, only those physical links that are available on the running system are displayed. Option -P shows the physical device and attributes of all physical links.

eg.,

$ /sbin/dladm show-phys
LINK              MEDIA                STATE      SPEED  DUPLEX    DEVICE
net0              Ethernet             up         1000   full      ixgbe0
net5              Infiniband           down       0      unknown   ibp2
net1              Ethernet             up         1000   full      ixgbe1
net6              Infiniband           down       0      unknown   ibp3
net4              Ethernet             up         10     full      usbecm2

$ /sbin/dladm show-phys -P
LINK              DEVICE       MEDIA                FLAGS
net8              ibp1         Infiniband           r----
net0              ixgbe0       Ethernet             -----
net7              ibp0         Infiniband           r----
net3              ixgbe3       Ethernet             r----
net5              ibp2         Infiniband           -----
net1              ixgbe1       Ethernet             -----
net6              ibp3         Infiniband           -----
net4              usbecm2      Ethernet             -----
net2              vsw0         Ethernet             r----

Saturday Aug 31, 2013

[Oracle Database] Unreliable AWR reports on T5 & Redo logs on F40 PCIe Cards

(1) AWR report shows bogus wait events and times on SPARC T5 servers

Here is a sample from one of the Oracle 11g R2 databases running on a SPARC T5 server with Solaris 11.1 SRU 7.5

Top 5 Timed Foreground Events

Event Waits Time(s) Avg wait (ms) % DB time Wait Class
latch: cache buffers chains 278,727 812,447,335 2914850 13307324.15Concurrency
library cache: mutex X212,595449,966,33021165427370136.56Concurrency
buffer busy waits219,844349,975,25115919255732352.01Concurrency
latch: In memory undo latch25,46837,496,8001472310614171.59Concurrency
latch free2,60224,998,5839607449409459.46Other

Reason:
Unknown. There is a pending bug 17214885 - Implausible top foreground wait times reported in AWR report.

Tentative workaround:
Disable power management as shown below.

# poweradm set administrative-authority=none

# svcadm disable power
# svcadm enable power

Verify the setting by running poweradm list.

Also disable NUMA I/O object binding by setting the following parameter in /etc/system (requires a system reboot).

set numaio_bind_objects=0

Oracle Solaris 11 added support for NUMA I/O architecture. Here is a brief explanation of NUMA I/O from Solaris 11 : What's New web page.

Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) I/O : Many modern systems are based on a NUMA architecture, where each CPU or set of CPUs is associated with its own physical memory and I/O devices. For best I/O performance, the processing associated with a device should be performed close to that device, and the memory used by that device for DMA (Direct Memory Access) and PIO (Programmed I/O) should be allocated close to that device as well. Oracle Solaris 11 adds support for this architecture by placing operating system resources (kernel threads, interrupts, and memory) on physical resources according to criteria such as the physical topology of the machine, specific high-level affinity requirements of I/O frameworks, actual load on the machine, and currently defined resource control and power management policies.

Do not forget to rollback these changes after applying the fix for the database bug 17214885, when available.

(2) Redo logs on F40 PCIe cards (non-volatile flash storage)

Per the F40 PCIe card user's guide, the Sun Flash Accelerator F40 PCIe Card is designed to provide best performance for data transfers that are multiples of 8k size, and using addresses that are 8k aligned. To achieve optimal performance, the size of the read/write data should be an integer multiple of this block size and the data transferred should be block aligned. I/O operations that are not block aligned and that do not use sizes that are a multiple of the block size may suffer performance degration, especially for write operations.

Oracle redo log files default to a block size that is equal to the physical sector size of the disk, typically 512 bytes. And most of the time, database writes to the redo log in a normal functioning environment. Oracle database supports a maximum block size of 4K for redo logs. Hence to achieve optimal performance for redo write operations on F40 PCIe cards, tune the environment as shown below.

  1. Configure the following init parameters
    _disk_sector_size_override=TRUE
    _simulate_disk_sectorsize=4096
    
  2. Create redo log files with 4K block size
    eg.,
    SQL> ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE '/REDO/redo.dbf' size 20G blocksize 4096;
    
  3. [Solaris only] Append the following line to /kernel/drv/sd.conf (requires a reboot)
    sd-config-list="ATA     3E128-TS2-550B01","disksort:false,\
                 cache-nonvolatile:true, physical-block-size:4096";
    
  4. [Solaris only][F20] To enable maximum throughput from the MPT driver, append the following line to /kernel/drv/mpt.conf and reboot the system.
    mpt_doneq_thread_n_prop=8;
    

This tip is applicable to all kinds of flash storage that Oracle sells or sold including F20/F40 PCIe cards and F5100 storage array. sd-config-list in sd.conf may need some adjustment to reflect the correct vendor id and product id.

Tuesday Jul 30, 2013

Oracle Tips : Solaris lgroups, CT optimization, Data Pump, Recompilation of Objects, ..

1. [Re]compiling all objects in a schema
exec DBMS_UTILITY.compile_schema(schema => 'SCHEMA');

To recompile only the invalid objects in parallel:

exec UTL_RECOMP.recomp_parallel(<NUM_PARALLEL_THREADS>, 'SCHEMA');

A NULL value for SCHEMA recompiles all invalid objects in the database.


2. SGA breakdown in Solaris Locality Groups (lgroup)

To find the breakdown, execute pmap -L | grep shm. Then separate the lines that are related to each locality group and sum up the value in 2nd column to arrive at a number that shows the total SGA memory allocated in that locality group.

(I'm pretty sure there will be a much easier way that I am not currently aware of.)


3. Default values for shared pool, java pool, large pool, ..

If the *pool parameters were not set explicitly, executing the following query is one way to find out what are they currently set to.

eg.,
SQL> select * from v$sgainfo;

NAME                                  BYTES RES
-------------------------------- ---------- ---
Fixed SGA Size                      2171296 No
Redo Buffers                      373620736 No
Buffer Cache Size                8.2410E+10 Yes
Shared Pool Size                 1.7180E+10 Yes
Large Pool Size                   536870912 Yes
Java Pool Size                   1879048192 Yes
Streams Pool Size                 268435456 Yes
Shared IO Pool Size                       0 Yes
Granule Size                      268435456 No
Maximum SGA Size                 1.0265E+11 No
Startup overhead in Shared Pool  2717729536 No
Free SGA Memory Available                 0
12 rows selected.

4. Fix to PLS-00201: identifier 'GV$SESSION' must be declared error

Grant select privilege on gv_$SESSION to the owner of the database object that failed to compile.

eg.,
SQL> alter package OWF_MGR.FND_SVC_COMPONENT compile body;
Warning: Package Body altered with compilation errors.

SQL> show errors
Errors for PACKAGE BODY OWF_MGR.FND_SVC_COMPONENT:

LINE/COL ERROR
-------- -----------------------------------------------------------------
390/22   PL/SQL: Item ignored
390/22   PLS-00201: identifier 'GV$SESSION' must be declared

SQL> grant select on gv_$SESSION to OWF_MGR;
Grant succeeded.

SQL> alter package OWF_MGR.FND_SVC_COMPONENT compile body;
Package body altered.

5. Solaris Critical Thread (CT) optimization for Oracle logwriter (lgrw)

Critical Thread is a new scheduler optimization available in Oracle Solaris releases Solaris 10 Update 10 and later versions. Latency sensitive single threaded components of software such as Oracle database's logwriter benefit from CT optimization.

On a high level, LWPs marked as critical will be granted more exclusive access to the hardware. For example, on SPARC T4 and T5 systems, such a thread will be assigned exclusive access to a core as much as possible. CT optimization won't delay scheduling of any runnable thread in the system.

Critical Thread optimization is enabled by default. However the users of the system have to hint the OS by marking a thread or two "critical" explicitly as shown below.

priocntl -s -c FX -m 60 -p 60 -i pid <pid_of_critical_single_threaded_process>

From database point of view, logwriter (lgwr) is one such process that can benefit from CT optimization on Solaris platform. Oracle DBA's can either make the lgwr process 'critical' once the database is up and running, or can simply patch the 11.2.0.3 database software by installing RDBMS patch 12951619 to let the database take care of it automatically. I believe Oracle 12c does it by default. Future releases of 11g software may make lgwr critical out of the box.

Those who install the database patch 12951619 need to carefully follow the post installation steps documented in the patch README to avoid running into unwanted surprises.


6. ORA-14519 error while importing a table from a Data Pump export dump
ORA-14519: Conflicting tablespace blocksizes for table : Tablespace XXX block \
size 32768 [partition specification] conflicts with previously specified/implied \
tablespace YYY block size 8192
 [object-level default]
Failing sql is:
CREATE TABLE XYZ
..

All partitions in table XYZ are using 32K blocks whereas the implicit default partition is pointing to a 8K block tablespace. Workaround is to use the REMAP_TABLESPACE option in Data Pump impdp command line to remap the implicit default tablespace of the partitioned table to the tablespace where the rest of partitions are residing.


7. Index building task in Data Pump import process

When Data Pump import process is running, by default, index building is performed with just one thread, which becomes a bottleneck and causes the data import process to take a long time especially if many large tables with millions of rows are being imported into the target database. One way to speed up the import process execution is by skipping index building as part of data import task with the help of EXCLUDE=INDEX impdp command line option. Extract the index definitions for all the skipped indexes from the Data Pump dump file as shown below.

impdp <userid>/<password> directory=<directory> dumpfile=<dump_file>.dmp \
    sqlfile=<index_def_file>.sql INCLUDE=INDEX

Edit <index_def_file>.sql to set the desired number of parallel threads to build each index. And finally execute the <index_def_file>.sql to build the indexes once the data import task is complete.

Sunday Jun 30, 2013

Solaris Tips : Assembler, Format, File Descriptors, Ciphers & Mount Points

1. Most Oracle software installers need assembler

Assembler (as) is not installed by default on Solaris 11.
     Find and install

eg.,
# pkg search assembler
INDEX       ACTION VALUE                           PACKAGE        
pkg.fmri    set    solaris/developer/assembler     pkg:/developer/assembler@0.5.11-0.175.1.5.0.3.0

# pkg install pkg:/developer/assembler

Assembler binary used to be under /usr/ccs/bin directory on Solaris 10 and prior versions.
     There is no /usr/ccs/bin on Solaris 11. Contents were moved to /usr/bin



2. Non-interactive retrieval of the entire list of disks that format reports

If the format utility cannot show the entire list of disks in a single screen on stdout, it shows some and prompts user to - hit space for more or s to select - to move to the next screen to show few more disks. Run the following command(s) to retrieve the entire list of disks in a single shot.

format < /dev/null

	-or-

echo "\n" | format



3. Finding system wide file descriptors/handles in use

Run the following kstat command as any user (privileged or non-privileged).

kstat -n file_cache -s buf_inuse

Going through /proc (process filesystem) is less efficient and may lead to inaccurate results due to the inclusion of duplicate file handles.



4. ssh connection to a Solaris 11 host fails with error Couldn't agree a client-to-server cipher (available: aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,arcfour128,arcfour256,arcfour)

Solution: add 3des-cbc to the list of accepted ciphers to sshd configuration file.

Steps:

  1. Append the following line to /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    Ciphers aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,arcfour128,arcfour256,\
       arcfour,3des-cbc
  2. Restart ssh daemon
    svcadm -v restart ssh



5. UFS: Finding the last mount point for a device

fsck utility reports the last mountpoint on which the filesystem was mounted (it won't show the mount options though). The filesystem should be unmounted when running fsck.

eg.,
# fsck -n /dev/dsk/c0t5000CCA0162F7BC0d0s6
** /dev/rdsk/c0t5000CCA0162F7BC0d0s6 (NO WRITE)
** Last Mounted on /export/oracle
** Phase 1 - Check Blocks and Sizes
...
...

Tuesday Mar 05, 2013

SuperCluster Best Practices : Deploying Oracle 11g Database in Zones

To be clear, this post is about a white paper that's been out there for more than two months. Access it through the following url.

  Best Practices for Deploying Oracle Solaris Zones with Oracle Database 11g on SPARC SuperCluster

The focus of the paper is on databases and zones. On SuperCluster, customers have the choice of running their databases in logical domains that are dedicated to running Oracle Database 11g R2. With exclusive access to Exadata Storage Servers, those domains are aptly called "Database" domains. If the requirement mandates, it is possible to create and use all logical domains as "database domains" or "application domains" or a mix of those. Since the focus is on databases, the paper talks only about the database domains and how zones can be created, configured and used within each database domain for fine grained control over multiple databases consolidated in a SuperCluster environment.

When multiple databases are being consolidated (including RAC databases) in database logical domains, zones are one of the options that fulfill requirements such as the fault, operation, network, security and resource isolation, multiple RAC instances in a single logical domain, separate identity and independent manageability for database instances.

The best practices cover the following topics. Some of those are applicable to standalone, non-engineered environments as well.

Solaris Zones

  • CPU, memory and disk space allocation
  • Zone Root on Sun ZFS Storage Appliance
  • Network configuration
  • Use of DISM
  • Use of ZFS filesystem
  • SuperCluster specific zone deployment tool, ssc_exavm
  • ssctuner utility

Oracle Database

  • Exadata Storage Grid (Disk Group) Configuration
  • Disk Group Isolation
    • Shared Storage approach
    • Dedicated Storage Server approach
  • Resizing Grid Disks

Oracle RAC Configuration
Securing the Databases, and

Example Database Consolidation Scenarios

  • Consolidation example using Half-Rack SuperCluster
  • Consolidation example using Full-Rack SuperCluster

Acknowledgements

A large group of experts reviewed the material and provided quality feedback. Hence they deserve credit for their work and time. Listed below are some of those reviewers (sincere apologies if I missed listing any major contributors).

Kesari Mandyam, Binoy Sukumaran, Gowri Suserla, Allan Packer, Jennifer Glore, Hazel Alabado, Tom Daly, Krishnan Shankar, Gurubalan T, Rich long, Prasad Bagal, Lawrence To, Rene Kundersma, Raymond Dutcher, David Brean, Jeremy Ward, Suzi McDougall, Ken Kutzer, Larry Mctintosh, Roger Bitar, Mikel Manitius

Tuesday Feb 12, 2013

OBIEE 11g Benchmark on SPARC T4

Just like the Siebel 8.1.x/SPARC T4 benchmark post, this one too was overdue for at least four months. In any case, I hope the Oracle BI customers already knew about the OBIEE 11g/SPARC T4 benchmark effort. In here I will try to provide few additional / interesting details that aren't covered in the following Oracle PR that was posted on oracle.com on 09/30/2012.

    SPARC T4 Server Delivers Outstanding Performance on Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition 11g


Benchmark Details

System Under Test

The entire BI middleware stack including the WebLogic 11g Server, OBI Server, OBI Presentation Server and Java Host was installed and configured on a single SPARC T4-4 server consisting four 8-Core 3.0 GHz SPARC T4 processors (total #cores: 32) and 128 GB physical memory. Oracle Solaris 10 8/11 is the operating system.

BI users were authenticated against Oracle Internet Directory (OID) in this benchmark - hence OID software which was part of Oracle Identity Management 11.1.1.6.0 was also installed and configured on the system under test (SUT). Oracle BI Server's Query Cache was turned on, and as a result, most of the query results were cached in OBIS layer, that resulted in minimal database activity making it ideal to have the Oracle 11g R2 database server with the OBIEE database running on the same box as well.

Oracle BI database was hosted on a Sun ZFS Storage 7120 Appliance. The BI Web Catalog was under a ZFS/zpool on a couple of SSDs.


Test Scenario

In this benchmark, 25000 concurrent users assumed five different business user roles -- Marketing Executive, Sales Representative, Sales Manager, Sales Vice-president, and Service Manager. The load was distributed equally among those five business user roles. Each of those different BI users accessed five different pre-built dashboards with each dashboard having an average of five reports - a mix of charts, tables and pivot tables - and returning 50-500 rows of aggregated data. The benchmark test scenario included drilling down into multiple levels from a table or chart within a dashboard. There is a 60 second think time between requests, per user.


BI Setup & Test Results

OBIEE 11g 11.1.1.6.0 was deployed on SUT in a vertical scale-out fashion. Two Oracle BI Presentation Server processes, one Oracle BI Server process, one Java Host process and two instances of WebLogic Managed Servers handled 25,000 concurrent user sessions smoothly. This configuration resulted in a sub-second overall average transaction response time (average of averages over a duration of 120 minutes or 2 hours). On average, 450 business transactions were executed per second, which triggered 750 SQL executions per second.

It took only 52% of CPU on average (~5% system CPU and rest in user land) to do all this work to achieve the throughput outlined above. Since 25,000 unique test/BI users hammered different dashboards consistently, not so surprisingly bulk of the CPU was spent in Oracle BI Presentation Server layer, which took a whopping 29%. BI Server consumed about 10-11% and the rest was shared by Java Host, OID, WebLogic Managed Server instances and the Oracle database.


So, what is the key take away from this whole exercise?

SPARC T4 rocks Oracle BI world. OBIEE 11g/SPARC T4 is an ideal combination that may work well for majority of OBIEE deployments on Solaris platform. Or in marketing jargon - The excellent vertical and horizontal scalability of the SPARC T4 server gives customer the option to scale up as well as scale out growth, to support large BI EE installations, with minimal hardware investment.

Evaluate and decide for yourself.

[Credit to our colleagues in Oracle FMW PSR, ISVe teams and SCA lab support engineers]

Friday Dec 28, 2012

Solaris Tips : CPU Cache Sizes, Changing System Date

Tip #1: Finding the CPU cache sizes from Solaris operating environment

Use the prtpicl utility to list out system configuration, and look for the cache sizes within that output.

eg.,

$ /usr/sbin/prtpicl -v |grep cache
              :l1-icache-size    0x10000
              :l1-icache-line-size       0x40
              :l1-icache-associativity   0x2
              :l1-dcache-size    0x10000
              :l1-dcache-line-size       0x40
              :l1-dcache-associativity   0x2
              :l2-cache-size     0x500000
              :l2-cache-line-size        0x100
              :l2-cache-associativity    0xa

[Updated 01/14/13] The above output was gathered from an M4000 system that has SPARC64 VII processors.

Recent update releases of Solaris 10 and 11 show the prtpicl reported cache sizes in decimal numbers.

Here is a slightly improved prtpicl command that filters out unwanted output. (Courtesy: Georg)

/usr/sbin/prtpicl -v -c cpu | egrep "^ +cpu|ID|cache"

Tip #2: Changing the System Date

Use date to change the system date. For example, to set the system date to March 9, 2008 08:15 AM, run the following command. Syntax: date mmddHHMMyy

#date 0309081508

Sun Mar 9 08:15:03 PST 2008

Friday Aug 03, 2012

Enabling 2 GB Large Pages on Solaris 10

Few facts:

  • - 8 KB is the default page size on Solaris 10 and 11 as of this writing
  • - both hardware and software must have support for 2 GB large pages
  • - SPARC T4 hardware is capable of supporting 2 GB pages
  • - Solaris 11 kernel has in-built support for 2 GB pages
  • - Solaris 10 has no default support for 2 GB pages
  • - Memory intensive 64-bit applications may benefit the most from using 2 GB pages

Prerequisites:

OS: Solaris 10 8/11 (Update 10) or later
Hardware: SPARC T4. eg., SPARC T4-1, T4-2 or T4-4

Steps to enable 2 GB large pages on Solaris 10:

  1. Install the latest kernel patch or ensure that 147440-04 or later was installed

  2. Add the following line to /etc/system and reboot
    • set max_uheap_lpsize=0x80000000

  3. Finally check the output of the following command when the system is back online
    • pagesize -a

    eg.,
    % pagesize -a
    8192		<-- 8K
    65536		<-- 64K
    4194304		<-- 4M
    268435456	<-- 256M
    2147483648	<-- 2G
    
    % uname -a
    SunOS jar-jar 5.10 Generic_147440-21 sun4v sparc sun4v
    

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