This is a contributed post from Jeff Liu, lead XFS developer for the Oracle mainline Linux kernel team, with contributions from Liu Bo, our lead BTRFS developer.
Recently, we attended the China Linux Storage and Filesystem workshop (CLSF), and the China Linux Kernel conference (CLK), which were held in Shanghai.
Here are the highlights
for both events.
CLSF - 17th October
XFS update (led by Jeff Liu)
XFS keeps rapid progress with a lot of changes, especially focused on the infrastructure/performance
improvements as well as new feature development. This can be reflected with a sample statistics
among XFS/Ext4+JBD2/Btrfs via:
# git diff --stat --minimal -C -M v3.7..v3.12-rc4 -- fs/xfs|fs/ext4+fs/jbd2|fs/btrfs
XFS: 141 files changed, 27598 insertions(+), 19113 deletions(-)
Ext4+JBD2: 39 files changed, 10487 insertions(+), 5454 deletions(-)
Btrfs: 70 files changed, 19875 insertions(+), 8130 deletions(-)
- What made up those changes in XFS?
- Self-describing metadata(CRC32c). This is a new feature and it contributed about 70% code changes,
it can be enabled via `mkfs.xfs -m crc=1 /dev/xxx` for v5 superblock.
- Transaction log space reservation improvements. With this change, we can calculate the log space
reservation at mount time rather than runtime to reduce the the CPU overhead.
- User namespace support. So both XFS and USERNS can be enabled on kernel configuration begin from
Linux 3.10. Thanks Dwight Engen's efforts for this thing.
- Split project/group quota inodes. Originally, project quota can not be enabled with group quota at
the same time because they were share the same quota file inode, now it works but only for v5 super
block. i.e, CRC enabled.
- CONFIG_XFS_WARN, an new lightweight runtime debugger which can be deployed in production environment.
- Readahead log object recovery, this change can speed up the log replay progress significantly.
- Speculative preallocation inode tracking, clearing and throttling. The main purpose is to deal with
inodes with post-EOF space due to speculative preallocation, support improved quota management to free
up a significant amount of unwritten space when at or near EDQUOT. It support backgroup scanning which
occurs on a longish interval(5 mins by default, tunable), and on-demand scanning/trimming via ioctl(2).
- Bitter arguments ensued from this session, especially for the comparison between Ext4 and Btrfs in different
areas, I have to spent a whole morning of the 1st day answering those questions. We basically agreed on XFS
is the best choice in Linux nowadays because:
- Stable, XFS has a good record in stability in the past 10 years. Fengguang Wu who lead the 0-day kernel test
project also said that he has observed less error than other filesystems in the past 1+ years, I own it to
the XFS upstream code reviewer, they always performing serious code review as well as testing.
- Good performance for large/small files, XFS does not works very well for small files has already been an
old story for years.
- Best choice (maybe) for distributed PB filesystems. e.g, Ceph recommends delopy OSD daemon on XFS because
Ext4 has limited xattr size.
- Best choice for large storage (>16TB). Ext4 does not support a single file more than around 15.95TB.
- Scalability, any objection to XFS is best in this point? :)
- XFS is better to deal with transaction concurrency than Ext4, why? The maximum size of the log in XFS is
2038MB compare to 128MB in Ext4.
- Misc. Ext4 is widely used and it has been proved fast/stable in various loads and scenarios, XFS just need
more customers, and Btrfs is still on the road to be a manhood.
Ceph Introduction (Led by Li Wang)
This a hot topic. Li gave us a nice introduction about the design as well as their current works. Actually,
Ceph client has been included in Linux kernel since 2.6.34 and supported by Openstack since Folsom but it seems
that it has not yet been widely deployment in production environment.
Their major work is focus on the inline data support to separate the metadata and data storage, reduce the
file access time, i.e, a file access need communication twice, fetch the metadata from MDS and then get data
from OSD, and also, the small file access is limited by the network latency.
The solution is, for the small files they would like to store the data at metadata so that when accessing a
small file, the metadata server can push both metadata and data to the client at the same time. In this way,
they can reduce the overhead of calculating the data offset and save the communication to OSD.
For this feature, they have only run some small scale testing but really saw noticeable improvements.
Test environment: Intel 2 CPU 12 Core, 64GB RAM, Ubuntu 12.04, Ceph 0.56.6 with 200GB SATA disk, 15 OSD, 1 MDS, 1 MON.
The sequence read performance for 1K size files improved about 50%.
I have asked Li and Zheng Yan (the core developer of Ceph, who also worked on Btrfs) whether
Ceph is really stable and can be deployed at production environment for large scale PB level storage, but they
can not give a positive answer, looks Ceph even does not spread over Dreamhost (subject to confirmation).
From Li, they only deployed Ceph for a small scale storage(32 nodes) although they'd like to try 6000 nodes
in the future.
Improve Linux swap for Flash storage (led by Shaohua Li)
Because of high density, low power and low price, flash storage (SSD) is a good candidate to partially replace
DRAM. A quick answer for this is using SSD as swap. But Linux swap is designed for slow hard disk storage,
so there are a lot of challenges to efficiently use SSD for swap.
- swap_map scan
swap_map is the in-memory data structure to track swap disk usage, but it is a slow linear scan. It will
become a bottleneck while finding many adjacent pages in the use of SSD. Shaohua Li have changed it to a
cluster(128K) list, resulting in O(1) algorithm. However, this apporoach needs restrictive cluster alignment
and only enabled for SSD.
- IO pattern
In most cases, the swap io is in interleaved pattern because of mutiple reclaimers or a free cluster is
shared by all reclaimers. Even though block layer can merge interleaved IO to some extent, but we cannot
count on it completely. Hence the per-cpu cluster is added base on the previous change, it can help reclaimer
do sequential IO and the block layer will be easier to merge IO.
- TLB flush:
If we're reclaiming one active page, we should first move the page from active lru list to inactive lru list,
and then reclaim the page from inactive lru to swap it out. During the process, we need to clear PTE twice:
first is 'A'(ACCESS) bit, second is 'P'(PRESENT) bit. Processors need to send lots of ipi which make the TLB
flush really expensive. Some works have been done to improve this, including rework smp_call_functiom_many()
or remove the first TLB flush in x86, but there still have some arguments here and only parts of works have
been pushed to mainline.
- Page fault does iodepth=1 sync io, but it's a little waste if only issue a page size's IO. The obvious
solution is doing swap readahead. But the current in-kernel swap readahead is arbitary(always 8 pages),
and it always doesn't perform well for both random and sequential access workload. Shaohua introduced a
new flag for madvise(MADV_WILLNEED) to do swap prefetch, so the changes happen in userspace API and leave
the in-kernel readahead unchanged(but I think some improvement can also be done here).
- SWAP discard
- As we know, discard is important for SSD write throughout, but the current swap discard implementation is
synchronous. He changed it to async discard which allow discard and write run in the same time.
Meanwhile, the unit of discard is also optimized to cluster.
- Misc: lock contention
- For many concurrent swapout and swapin , the lock contention such as anon_vma or swap_lock is high, so he
changed the swap_lock to a per-swap lock. But there still have some lock contention in very high speed
SSD because of swapcache address_space lock.
Zproject (led by Bob Liu)
Bob gave us a very nice introduction about the current memory compression status. Now there are 3
projects(zswap/zram/zcache) which all aim at smooth swap IO storm and promote performance, but they all
have their own pros and cons.
- It is implemented based on frontswap API and it uses a dynamic allocater named Zbud to allocate free pages.
Zbud means pairs of zpages are "buddied" and it can only store at most two compressed pages in one page
frame, so the max compress ratio is 50%. Each page frame is lru-linked and can do shink in memory pressure.
If the compressed memory pool reach its limitation, shink or reclaim happens. It decompress the page frame
into two new allocated pages and then write them to real swap device, but it can fail when allocating the
- Acts as a compressed ramdisk and used as swap device, and it use zsmalloc as its allocator which has high
density but may have fragmentation issues. Besides, page reclaim is hard since it will need more pages to
uncompress and free just one page. ZRAM is preferred by embedded system which may not have any real swap
device. Now both ZRAM and ZSWAP are in driver/staging tree, and in the mm community there are some disscussions
of merging ZRAM into ZSWAP or viceversa, but no agreement yet.
- Handles file page compression but it is removed out of staging recently.
From industry (led by Tang Jie, LSI)
An LSI engineer introduced several new produces to us. The first is raid5/6 cards that it use full stripe writes
to improve performance.
The 2nd one he introduced is SandForce flash controller, who can understand data file types (data entropy) to
reduce write amplification (WA) for nearly all writes. It's called DuraWrite and typical WA is 0.5. What's more,
if enable its Dynamic Logical Capacity function module, the controller can do data compression which is transparent
to upper layer. LSI testing shows that with this virtual capacity enables 1x TB drive can support up to 2x TB capacity,
but the application must monitor free flash space to maintain optimal performance and to guard against free flash
space exhaustion. He said the most useful application is for datebase.
Another thing I think it's worth to mention is that a NV-DRAM memory in NMR/Raptor which is directly exposed to
host system. Applications can directly access the NV-DRAM via a memory address - using standard system call mmap().
He said that it is very useful for database logging now. This kind of NVM produces are beginning to appear in recent
years, and it is said that Samsung is building a research center in China for related produces. IMHO, NVM will bring
an effect to current os layer especially on file system, e.g. its journaling may need to redesign to fully utilize
these nonvolatile memory.
OCFS2 (led by Canquan Shen)
Without a doubt, HuaWei is the biggest contributor to OCFS2 in the past two years. They have posted 46 upstream
patches and 39 patches have been merged. Their current project is based on 32/64 nodes cluster, but they also
tried 128 nodes at the experimental stage.
The major work they are working is to support ATS (atomic test and set), it can be works with DLM at the same time.
Looks this idea is inspired by the vmware VMFS locking, i.e,
EXT4 (led by Zheng Liu)
Zheng Liu says ext4 keeps its stable style, so the major part is bug-fixes and
cleanups while the minor is new features and improvements.
He first talked about AIO writes performance gain on ext4, it makes use of
extent status cache. So the problem is that they find the AIO path waiting on
get_block_t(), ending up some unaccepted latencies, the solution is to batch
get_block_t() with "fiemap(2) + FEMAP_FLAG_CACHE" and "ioclt(2) + EXT4_IOC_PRECACHE_EXTENT".
IOW, this just hands off latency from the kernel to the userspace.
BTRFS (led by Liu Bo)
I (Liu Bo) held the session and mainly talked about new features in the last year (2013).
People are happy to see that more features are developed in btrfs, but
are meanwhile confused about what btrfs wants to be -- generally speaking, as
a 5-year-old FS, btrfs should try to be stable firstly anyway.
CLK - 18th October 2013
Improving Linux Development with Better Tools (Andi Kleen)
This talk focused on how to find/solve bugs along with the Linux complexity growing. Generally, we can do this with the following kind of tools:
XFS: The High Performance Enterprise File System (Jeff Liu)
I gave a talk for introducing the disk layout, unique features, as well as the recent changes. The slides include
some charts to reflect the performances between XFS/Btrfs/Ext4 for small files.
About a dozen users raised their hands when I asking who has
experienced with XFS. I remembered that when I asked the same question in LinuxCon/Japan, only
3 people raised their hands, but they are Chris Mason, Ric Wheeler, and another attendee.
The attendee questions were mainly focused on stability, and comparison with other file systems.
Linux Containers (Feng Gao)
The speaker introduced us that the purpose for those kind of namespaces, include mount/UTS/IPC/Network/Pid/User,
as well as the system API/ABI. For the userspace tools, He mainly focus on the Libvirt LXC rather than us(LXC).
Libvirt LXC is another userspace container management tool, implemented as one type of libvirt driver, it can
manage containers, create namespace, create private filesystem layout for container, Create devices for container
and setup resources controller via cgroup.
In this talk, Feng also mentioned another two possible new namespaces in the future, the 1st is the audit, but
not sure if it should be assigned to user namespace or not. Another is about syslog, but the question is do
we really need it?
In-memory Compression (Bob Liu)
Same as CLSF, a nice introduction that I have already mentioned above.
0-day Linux Kernel Performance Test (Yuanhan Liu)
Based on Fengguang Wu's 0-day autotest framework, Yuanhan Liu 0-day
performance test integrates with the existing test tools and generates both
ASCII and graphic results from test numbers.
But it's not yet open sourced, only Intel internal, and the developers say that
it's a bit difficult to make it open, because:
- it's not easy to setup the whole testsuite, a lot of efforts involved
- it needs many powerful machines on where there'll be a great number
of VMs installed.
Despite that it's not open, the framework does find bugs on various code
in kernel, including btrfs, good for me :) [LB]
There were some other talks related to ACPI based memory hotplug, smart wake-affinity in scheduler etc., but my head
is not big enough to record all those things.
-- Jeff Liu & Liu Bo