By Jim Connors on Jul 23, 2008
A veteran Java ONE keynote presenter, Perrone Robotics has developed some real interesting technologies which take the concept of using autonomous (i.e. unmanned) vehicles to a whole new level. One of their key ingredients is the MAX software platform which utilizes common commercially available components to enable Perrone to very quickly and cost-effectively retrofit nearly any vehicle in short order.
The MAX robotics platform runs on a (roughly 4" x 6") low-power PC board atop Solaris and Sun's Java Real-Time System (Java RTS). This combination gives Perrone the ability to leverage the huge Java development community, and assures that their critical software components behave in a predictable and deterministic fashion.
During the Java ONE 2007 conference, I was speaking with Paul Perrone about the notion of creating a minimized version of Solaris over which his platform might run. The helicopter pictured above, boots from a relatively small (4-8Gb) IDE flash drive, where standard Solaris takes up a substantial chunk. It leaves them precious little space to collect valuable information like telemetry or terrain data. Paul asked to revist this idea for a future project. That's where we left off.
Not that we've ignored them since, but it wasn't until a year later that small Solaris reared its head again. In addition to saving space, their main interest in this environment was in seeing how much faster Solaris might boot up. The ability to be fully functional from power-up in as short a time as possible is of critical importance.
So before investigating what advantages there might be, let's provide some background information:
Two separate systems were used, and for argument's sake, represent two ends of the x86 compute spectrum.
Embedded Profile Modern Profile System iGologic i84810 Panasonic Toughbook CF-30 (Rev. F) CPU 1GHz Celeron M Core 2 Duo L7500 1.60GHz RAM 512MB 1GB Disk 4GB Flash IDE Drive Solid State SATA Drive
Minimal configurations were created for Solaris 10 08/07 (Update 4) and OpenSolaris Nevada build 93. These configurations boot entirely into RAM and consume less than 100MB ramdisk space. With a little more effort they can be may significantly smaller. The original blog post describing the environment is here. You can download the framework for these hardware/OS combinations here, and can get a feel for the build environment by taking a look at this README.
Within the context of this discussion, here are the key terms along with their meanings.
Total Boot Time: This is the time it takes from power-up till a user is prompted to log in. Typically for a full Solaris installation, the windowing system must first start up and present the user with a login screen. In a minimal Solaris environment, there is no windowing system. Instead, the total boot time is defined as the time it takes from power-up till a user is prompted with the console login: prompt.
POST Time: POST or Power On Self Test is the time taken by the system at pre-boot to handle things like diagnostics, BIOS and device initialization. For this discussion, we'll define POST time as the time it takes from power-up until the user is presented with a GRUB boot menu. We call out this segment of the total time because in many cases we are at the mercy of the PC/BIOS manufacturer and can't overly influence how quickly or slowly this proceeds.
Solaris Boot Time: The time it takes from being presented with a GRUB boot menu till a Solaris user is prompted to log in. Again, depending upon whether a windowing system is configured or not, this may represent the time it takes to be prompted with a login screen or console login: prompt respectively. This represents the segment of time that we can influence.
We can conclude from these definitions that:
Total Boot Time = POST Time + Solaris Boot Time
Embedded Profile: iGoLogic i84810 system
OS Post Time Solaris Boot Time Total Boot Time Solaris 10 08/07 13 sec 26 sec 39 sec OpenSolaris Nevada Build 93 13 sec 18 sec 31 sec
Modern Profile: Panasonic Toughbook CF-30
OS POST Time Solaris Boot Time Total Boot Time Solaris 10 08/07 6 sec 18 sec 24 sec OpenSolaris Nevada Build 93 6 sec 9 sec 15 sec
1. These times were taken by hand with the stopwatch feature on my Timex. If anything, the times might be slightly shorter than actually recorded as there is a human delay in reacting to seeing the necessary prompts. I ran the tests several times, and the same numbers consistently appear.
2. The version of the OS appears to matter a lot, as OpenSolaris nvx_93 boots up nearly twice as fast as Solaris 10 U4 on the same hardware.
3. The type of I/O device subsystem seems to be a big factor too. For example, by switching out the IDE Flash Drive with a 5400 RPM IDE hard disk, i84810 total boot time decreased by about 6 seconds for both Solaris 10 and OpenSolaris.
4. The minimal Solaris environment is currently only available in 32-bit mode.
5. With relative ease, Solaris can be configured to boot in less that 10 seconds on modern x86 hardware. My unofficial record stands at 9 seconds (or slightly less). No doubt it could boot faster on more robust hardware (eliminating POST time). Any takers?