Sun Directory Server 6.x and SSL - once and for all! :)

Sun Directory Server 6 and SSL

I have seen several postings requesting help for communicating with Sun Directory Server over SSL.

This posting serves to clarify confusion and provide tools and tips for testing SSL communication between Sun Directory Server and clients. This blog posting assumes basic SSL knowledge.Links to background information is provided in the references below.

For purposes of this blog posting assume:

Sun Directory Server commands: /opt/SUNWdsee/ds6/bin

Sun Directory Server instance: /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1

Consequently, the Sun Directory Server certificate directory is : /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1/alias

The following files are in the certificate directory:

cert8.db key3.db slapd-cert8.db

certmap.conf secmod.db slapd-key3.db



This blog posting uses

  • The Sun Directory commands located in /opt/SUNWdsee/ds6/bin

  • Certutil located in /usr/sfw/bin on Solaris 10. If certutil is not on your server, download the Sun Directory Resource kit

# unzip dsrk52-SunOS5.8_OPT.zip

# java DSRK


You can install the resource kit into any directory you choose. The following notes assume that the installation location is: the /opt/dsrk directory. Add /opt/dsrk/lib to your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable.

Server configuration

List certificates in the database

Using dsadm:

# ./dsadm list-certs -i /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1

Alias Valid from Expires on Self-signed? Issued by Issued to

----------- ---------------- ---------------- ------------ ------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

defaultCert 2008/01/22 19:15 2008/04/22 19:15 y CN=myserver,CN=636,CN=Directory Server,O=Sun Microsystems Same as issuer



Using certutil


# /usr/sfw/bin/certutil -L -P slapd- -d /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1/alias

defaultCert CTu,u,u


The certificate listed above, defaultCert, is the self-signed certificate, valid for 90 days, that is installed with the Directory Server.


View certificates

View the certificates in the certificate database as follows

Using dsadm


In humanly readable format

# cd /opt/SUNWdsee/ds6/bin

# ./dsadm show-cert -F readable /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1 defaultCert


click here to view the certificate



In ASCII format


# ./dsadm show-cert -i -F ascii /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1 defaultCert

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----

MIICJjCCAY+gAwIBAgIFAIiKjf8wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQAwVzEZMBcGA1UEChMQ

U3VuIE1pY3Jvc3lzdGVtczEZMBcGA1UEAxMQRGlyZWN0b3J5IFNlcnZlcjEMMAoG

A1UEAxMDNjM2MREwDwYDVQQDEwhzczcyZWQwMTAeFw0wODAxMjIxOTE1NTNaFw0w

ODA0MjIxOTE1NTNaMFcxGTAXBgNVBAoTEFN1biBNaWNyb3N5c3RlbXMxGTAXBgNV

BAMTEERpcmVjdG9yeSBTZXJ2ZXIxDDAKBgNVBAMTAzYzNjERMA8GA1UEAxMIc3M3

MmVkMDEwgZ8wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADgY0AMIGJAoGBAOGafiLwFn+EK9T2w6+/

+165oUnLDm4c8XP+AOIxLJJzqEtP5Avti4294JBdcwTKnKoJ2Fn8xKnhwwOsH8/K

LzmbKh+GwGQ/4LMwmSo1CQBoDerqk6q6OqEdjdz3TFR/yy7bY4arrPSvcegizzfp

cJHH1pkm1tRyGu8b+8Dvtk7FAgMBAAEwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQADgYEAa3c6RN/E

X/rxR12c/LetR2Cwxw6lxmEE13zMkOg7HC1xxKvVrhvhV2/Zeen0cJyla3udu7aT

IwwItZgKJhupESFZtQR4GXETmJT/W3ctyJyUMf9HjELYqc2v8R/o+t3QaF16g6ZY

qyJXWHPSe45blfTKoXG6afXi2XJfvfzQ4jg=

-----END CERTIFICATE-----


(note that der format, ./dsadm show-cert -i -F der /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1 defaultCert, the output is not humanly readable and thus not demonstrated here.)

Using Certutil

The CertUtil utility will also display the certificates

# /usr/sfw/bin/certutil -L -n defaultCert -P slapd- -d /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1/alias



Request and install certs from your Certificate Authority

This procedure describes how you request and install digial certificates from a Certificate Authority.

Certificate request

To install certificates from a certificate authority, proceed as follows:

Generate the certificate request. The format of the request, der or ascii, may depend on your certificate authority. The example below is in der format which is not humanly readable. The request is PKCS 10 format.



/opt/SUNWdsee/ds6/bin/dsadm request-cert --city "My City" --country "US" -F der --name myserver --org "my org" -o /tmp/CertReq --state CA /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1



The above request is in “DER” format (-F der) which is not humanly readable. If the request above was in ascii format (-F ascii) then the output file would read as follows:

# more /tmp/CertReq


Certificate request generated by Sun-Java(tm)-System-Directory/6.2

Common Name: myserver

Email: (not specified)

Phone: (not specified)

Organization:my organization

State: CA

Country: US

 

-----BEGIN NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----

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

-----END NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----



Send the above to your certificate authority (CA)

The CA will then send a digital certificate for you to install in your Directory Server. This certificate allows clients to communicate with your server over SSL.

You should also request the signing certificate from your CA. This allows clients to trust the server certificate requested above. You may need multiple signing certificates, the rootCA certificate and any intermediary signing certificates, depending on the configuration of your CA.

Install CA certificates

To install the server and CA signing certificates proceed as follows


Upload the file to the Directory Server as /tmp/CertFile

Upload these to the Directory Server as /tmp/CACert

Installing the server certificate:



Using certutil

# /usr/sfw/bin/certutil –A –n exampleCert –t u,u,u -d /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1/alias –i /tmp/CertFile



Using dsadm:

#/opt/SUNWdsee/ds6/bin/dsadm add-cert /var/opt/sun/dsins1 server-cert /tmp/CertFile


Setting the default certificate

Set the above server certificate as the default server certificate. This is required so that when the client communicates with the server, the server will present the CA certificate to the client. The client can then authenticate the certificate presented:

/opt/SUNWEdsee/ds6/bin/dsconf set-server-prop -e -p 389 ssl-rsa-cert-name:exampleCert

 

Installing the CA signing certificates:

 Using dsadm

/opt/SUNWdsee/ds6/bin dsadm add-cert -C /var/opt/sun/dsins1 CACert /tmp/CACert

 

Using certutil

# /usr/sfw/bin/certutil –A –n CA –t CT,, -d /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1/alias –i /tmp/CACert



View the certificates :

Using certutil

/usr/sfw/bin/certutil -L -P slapd- -d /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1/alias


defaultCert                                                  Ctu,u,u – default self signed certificate installed with Directory Server

ServerCert                                                     u,u,u – server certificate provided by your Certificate Authority

Root CA                                                 CT,, - RootCA signiing certificate




Using dsadm

# /opt/SUNWdsee/ds6/bin/dsadm list-certs /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1



Restart Directory Server

/opt/SUNWdsee/dsadm restart /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1



Clients

Now, you need to install the server and rootCA certificates on each client that wishes to communicate with the server over SSL

Create the certificate database.


Execute these commands as root to create the database in the directory: /var/ldap.


/opt/dsrk/lib/nss/bin/certutil -N -d /var/ldap


Set permissions to be readable by all.

chmod 644 /var/ldap/\*.db



Note that Solaris 8 & 9 use certificate databases in cert7.db format. The certutil utility that ships with the Solaris 9 OS in /usr/sfw/bin creates a cert8.db database. To create a cert7.db database, you must use the certutil utility in the Sun Directory Resource Kit. See introduction to this blog posting.

Retrieve the certificates from your Directory server as follows:

Export the server certificate and CA signing certificate.

./dsadm export-cert -o /tmp/ServerCert /var/opt/SUNWdsee/dsins1 myserver

Choose the PKCS#12 file password:

Confirm the PKCS#12 file password:



Copy the certificates to each client

Copy the from the file /tmp/ServerCert from the Directory server to the client.

Also copy the RootCA certificate you received from your CA above to the client

Import the certificates into the databases created above


Import both the Directory Server SSL certificate and the CA signing certificate into the certificate database created above. The example’s certificates are in ASCII PEM format.


certutil -A -a –i /tmp/RootCert -n “RootCA” -t “CT” -d /var/ldap


certutil -A -n "ServerCertificate" -i /var/tmp/ServerCert-a -t “CT” -d /var/ldap




List the newly imported certificates

To List the certificates you have stored in the key database:

# /usr/sfw/bin/certutil -L -d /var/ldap

RootCA CT,,

ServerCertificate CT,,


Test SSL connectivity

Using openSSL


Use the openSSL utility to test connectivity, where myserver.example.com is the name of your Directory Server. This command verifies connnectivity and displays all certificates, as I have highlighed in red font.


# /usr/sfw/bin/openssl s_client -host myserver.example.com -port 636 -showcerts -verify 3


verify depth is 3

CONNECTED(00000004)

depth=2 /C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=Root CA

verify error:num=19:self signed certificate in certificate chain

verify return:1

depth=2 /C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=Root CA

verify return:1

depth=1 /C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=servercert

verify return:1

depth=0 /L=my City/ST=CA/C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=myserver.example.com

verify return:1

---

Certificate chain

0 s:/L=my City/ST=CA/C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=myserver.example.com

i:/C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=servercert

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----

MIID5jCCA0+gAwIBAgIQCTh7EiukoaUCIo4JE4L9ZTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFADBi

MQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzENMAsGA1UEChMEVklTQTEvMC0GA1UECxMmVmlzYSBJbnRl

cm5hdGlvbmFsIFNlcnZpY2UgQXNzb2NpYXRpb24xEzARBgNVBAMTClZJIENBVGVz

dDIwHhcNMDcwNzE3MTI1MTIxWhcNMTYwODIxMjI0NDQ1WjB8MRQwEgYDVQQHEwtG

b3N0ZXIgQ2l0eTELMAkGA1UECBMCQ0ExCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVTMRAwDgYDVQQKEwdJ

bm92YW50MRkwFwYDVQQLExBVTklYIEVuZ2luZWVyaW5nMR0wGwYDVQQDExRzczU1

c2pzZHNxMS52aXNhLmNvbTCBnzANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOBjQAwgYkCgYEAxjCg

g3ajsBRadLJo3pqlPyPT4Y4b/5NKA1qWYIEDdsbbL6yJ1hcFfvPrsklaku9yR2Tu

I8bD6jpSRzgI1y3dGijepKYjSVsHLRlOmS6o2+FuxjJ+/F01K2+Rf6xMkdxBzvtx

8ozbgXRJvpzqYno9Y9rX0fOR/xR1042nt5zHGRsCAwEAAaOCAYEwggF9MB8GA1Ud

IwQYMBaAFOU0kJQJkbC6bQoi16wbr80+rYdyMAwGA1UdEwEB/wQCMAAwZQYDVR0g

BF4wXDBaBgQqAwQFMFIwFQYIKwYBBQUHAgEWCTEuMi4zLjQuNTA5BggrBgEFBQcC

AjAtMBgWEVJlcGxhY2UgVGhpcyBUZXh0MAMCAQEaEVJlcGxhY2UgVGhpcyBUZXh0

MIG1BgNVHR8Ega0wgaowKaAnoCWGI2h0dHA6Ly8xMC4yMDMuMTAxLjE5Ni9WSUNB

VEVTVDIuY3JsMH2ge6B5hndsZGFwOi8vMTAuMjAzLjEwMS4xOTY6Mzg5L2NuPVZJ

IENBVEVTVDIsYz1VUyxvdT1WaXNhIEludGVybmF0aW9uYWwgU2VydmljZSBBc3Nv

Y2lhdGlvbixvPVZJU0E/Y2VydGlmaWNhdGVSZXZvY2F0aW9uTGlzdDAOBgNVHQ8B

Af8EBAMCAzgwHQYDVR0OBBYEFC+QNOgvl88QGNULG/a3qD6ZhdeCMA0GCSqGSIb3

DQEBBQUAA4GBAF4VU0P7Y77FCFePK7nWzO3up6rmKiclucbFnzLiplX3bGrjsowK

GhMQObZz8oqJUvxNYIj5NfE+yOv1a/pRCGl3ss0+oyomYs9HcYVUTWiZwz4xEzDq

rzlIN/RzR4COQoYjDKmhLjcM6y1NKi7FiAXoUNsrwgU1jimMfzKMes47

-----END CERTIFICATE-----

1 s:/C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=servercert

i:/C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=Root CA

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----

MIIEGjCCAwKgAwIBAgIQdtBxrG5ZtJqGl96G5ZEtMzANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFADB3

MQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzENMAsGA1UEChMEVklTQTEvMC0GA1UECxMmVmlzYSBJbnRl

cm5hdGlvbmFsIFNlcnZpY2UgQXNzb2NpYXRpb24xKDAmBgNVBAMTH1RFU1QgVmlz

YSBJbmZvIERlbGl2ZXJ5IFJvb3QgQ0EwHhcNMDYwNTIyMTgyNzAyWhcNMjUwODEy

MjI0OTE0WjBiMQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzENMAsGA1UEChMEVklTQTEvMC0GA1UECxMm

VmlzYSBJbnRlcm5hdGlvbmFsIFNlcnZpY2UgQXNzb2NpYXRpb24xEzARBgNVBAMT

ClZJIENBVGVzdDIwgZ8wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADgY0AMIGJAoGBAJRgW5/5yLoo

hjTS2Z0fQdDWokTVZ5klhOty8X+VjfaZBaYwCMjVQFv5g8c23I17PB80kfXaOgte

/PTKFpnSUSOTkGby8IX0dbay+wuoCSLtyOziJvMsbuuru54HMZCcgG6BbfO0WoOD

ZINeuDGD7MvJwnXFFp0CedqrvqkXbHeXAgMBAAGjggE5MIIBNTAfBgNVHSMEGDAW

gBS9YtV/j2zkYg7yp/mhmOrCuJ7nBTASBgNVHRMBAf8ECDAGAQH/AgEAMBIGA1Ud

IAQLMAkwBwYFZ4EDAgEwgboGA1UdHwSBsjCBrzB0oHKgcIZuTERBUDovL3N3NTUw

cWFwa2lsZG0xLnFhY2EuY29tOjM4OS9DTj1WSSUyMENBVGVzdDIsT1U9VmlzYSUy

MEludGVybmF0aW9uYWwlMjBTZXJ2aWNlJTIwQXNzb2NpYXRpb24sTz1WSVNBLEM9

VVMwN6A1oDOGMWh0dHA6Ly93d3cuaW50bC52aXNhY2EuY29tL2NybC9URVNUVklT

QVJPT1RDQS5jcmwwDgYDVR0PAQH/BAQDAgEGMB0GA1UdDgQWBBTlNJCUCZGwum0K

ItesG6/NPq2HcjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFAAOCAQEArgbWFm1MJ22W/+M/M1Dg9eij

ecRsa7rj+Lw+/60ajssjzYcQlwWSOOnlpp8aMFYEojUABcPtSzb81SQy2kkONJw2

GtPNTkFeCKnO0O+EraPZ+YETPkOJhM8xzr0lkeisfIg7+i4PCJcWHLZpJAUB9LGW

ZaoAe/XhXiiU1bOKSmyGHx5cUKYiKHuETou6EgEOeHWr9zlZiP5kdiO/JieG/Fft

fLClx2uJslKXzbnOlxEZ2gPBg20Bz3ykUgVL3mgHSchAwSTFjn6ZD7A4LkAuSLiA

7k4DEQXqwT7nX8c92WbKTTwWIrRIPMwUv2FcYPUkSwrqrbDJEWS9KsXv6oVymA==

-----END CERTIFICATE-----

2 s:/C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=Root CA

i:/C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=Root CA

-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----

MIID7zCCAtegAwIBAgIQU1BiyIG7uNak0ERa1HN39TANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQUFADB3

MQswCQYDVQQGEwJVUzENMAsGA1UEChMEVklTQTEvMC0GA1UECxMmVmlzYSBJbnRl

cm5hdGlvbmFsIFNlcnZpY2UgQXNzb2NpYXRpb24xKDAmBgNVBAMTH1RFU1QgVmlz

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VmlzYSBJbnRlcm5hdGlvbmFsIFNlcnZpY2UgQXNzb2NpYXRpb24xKDAmBgNVBAMT

H1RFU1QgVmlzYSBJbmZvIERlbGl2ZXJ5IFJvb3QgQ0EwggEiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEB

AQUAA4IBDwAwggEKAoIBAQDcvYrZ3WNJc/H6UOhuu2im3KY18IZlTo86wn9ICgF8

KPqnmOZPLY1Ehn9xoxZNag7mCMBnvAdwW3/N/mWFPa+S023KvikhgYYwDnLXnwwN

cG1pZdETx6w9OVRl/C8xHoQUYIJ/HNSn/mDUELpljhs8uavAXYkOBQtRX3pD/9h4

uJSZWm8R/1QUx51AIq+ly9a6/AWn7qj+bwD8XxjPRVRyYs71MEmIlmkIz3jAfA2p

xH8ZZ3I820VvdhE1AL/ffwFiy7AgN+oVomIlZPwB06L20zL7+1EVp61pTWDF9nmp

bo3r0lKeyRy+81NL675sylzePjPN4z/5Qo1N9pVOH551AgMBAAGjdzB1MA8GA1Ud

EwEB/wQFMAMBAf8wEgYDVR0gBAswCTAHBgVngQMCATAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCAQYw

HwYDVR0jBBgwFoAUvWLVf49s5GIO8qf5oZjqwrie5wUwHQYDVR0OBBYEFL1i1X+P

bORiDvKn+aGY6sK4nucFMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEBBQUAA4IBAQAa0cCJEFGiDSF9D4UT

BPXkBrvGGZy94MwsN0YKsvLJTBxCXX/PQXS9JX29nsY4a5PAAhgdNV76tUiqUSkb

VEULQfNz8HtlBSVRxkQoglxu2zOGdXeXpsxzr2xoZP3NVLleBntcb3YfA3E3caHB

6I2V1MIS1scOw4xwmz9VOM1I9FnLEbNuNJsgXmpdO1YoSs0mgf+XpsxM00sQXuYO

4bFqv/GIDHd6z0mzKiXYytcF6bXRwoQr2LUBs5LwvpErcgiDDzCMyyXDI/2MJdPZ

Mkko/VaTlXMCX9dMY5d3fxZAlHTLA7OcJbeZjqV2SWeKSaVXjgmvNJNytfx/pZ3M

5qcy

-----END CERTIFICATE-----

---

Server certificate

subject=/L=my City/ST=CA/C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=myserver.example.com

issuer=/C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=servercert

---

Acceptable client certificate CA names

/C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=servercert – CA signed server certificate received with our request

/C=US/O=example.com/OU=my organization/CN=Root CA – root CA signing certificate

/O=Sun Microsystems/CN=Directory Server/CN=636/CN=myserver – default self signed certificate

---

SSL handshake has read 3554 bytes and written 334 bytes

---

New, TLSv1/SSLv3, Cipher is AES256-SHA

Server public key is 1024 bit

Compression: NONE

Expansion: NONE

SSL-Session:

Protocol : TLSv1

Cipher : AES256-SHA

Session-ID: 5DBEF47FCD5B642D41F4974690EA4A8FA1B7964242C39898E86AA3492496C6BB

Session-ID-ctx:

Master-Key: 75B8E8BA280D6794F7177416679C3170B7F1A45F21EF1461D230221872E157EF5F1822C28E5FFF327244E8B818FAAB7C

Key-Arg : None

Start Time: 1214502072

Timeout : 300 (sec)

Verify return code: 19 (self signed certificate in certificate chain)



---

Using secure LDAP search



  • Solaris 8 default ldapsearch does not have SSL capability, unless you have the the ldapclient patch 108993

  • Solaris 9 default ldapsearch does not have SSL capability, but the iplanet ldapseach does in /usr/iplanet/ds5/shared/bin/ldapsearch

  • Solaris 10 default ldapsearch does have SSL support .


/usr/bin/ldapsearch -v -h myserver.example.com -p 636 -Z -P /var/ldap/cert8.db -b "dc=example,dc=com"  -D "cn=directory manager" -w <password> "objectclass=\*"



Reference

OpenSSL


PKI reference guide


Formats

PEM

Can contain all of private keys (RSA and DSA), public keys (RSA and DSA) and (x509) certificates. It stores data Base64 encoded DER format, surrounded by ascii headers, so is suitable for text mode transfers between systems.

DER

Can contain all of private keys, public keys and certificates. It stored according to the ASN1 DER format. It is headerless - PEM is text header wrapped DER. It is the default format for most browsers.

PKCS#12

Also known as PFX files. Can contain all of private keys, public keys and certificates. It stores in a binary format.


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