Sunday Apr 26, 2009


The image below is an advertisement for an English school here in Japan. I shot it on a train a few weeks ago in Tokyo. I was struck by the piercing, obnoxious, pompous looks from those western dudes staring at, presumably, a Japanese person in some mythical meeting someplace. Nothing like scaring the hell out of someone to prompt them to take a class, eh? My goodness. Look at those guys.

Anyway, the text actually expresses an important concept, and it goes something like this: when you don`t agree with something while talking to these guys, you`ll be asked why you don`t agree, you`ll be expected to state your opinion, and, probably, you`ll have to defend that opinion. So, if that dynamic is a problem, many people just say yes and go along with the crowd in the meeting. I know many Japanese people do this in international meetings because expressing contrary opinions is done quite differently in English and Japanese. Westerners (Americans specifically) tend to be direct and Japanese tend to be indirect. But it goes beyond preference. Those styles are hard coded right into the structures of the languages themselves, and they are expressed in the cultures as well. There are exceptions both ways, of course, but the tendencies are pervasive and obvious, and a great deal of confusion can occur as a result. When communicating across languages, go out of your way to make sure your ideas resonate in the other language. Many times, they don`t. And you`ll miss that rather inconvenient fact if the other person is just saying yes. Yes doesn`t always mean yes, right? And there are a hundred different ways of saying no, right?

But here`s the kicker for me: this issue is also a problem within English; it`s not just a problem when communicating across English and Japanese. Many times native English speakers just say yes when confronted with aggressive people like the dudes in the image below. I mean, really, why would anyone want to talk to these guys? Especially outnumbered four on one. I think there are probably just as many communication problems stemming from command and control types within a language as there are resulting from distinctions in communication styles across languages. What always gets me, though, is why do these guys have meetings in the first place? They obviously don`t want other opinions. So, they deserve the yes they get -- and the problems resulting from that yes.

This is why it`s a pleasure working on teams that value open communication, and working for leaders who use communication to discover ideas and implement ideas. Human communication is an imperfect art. You have to use it as a tool to iterate so understanding emerges over time. Teams that don`t value this painfully simple concept aren`t worth your time no matter what language you speak.

Monday Oct 20, 2008

The Individual vs The Context

Harmony and China's dream, from David Brooks, columnist at the NY Times:
If you show an American an image of a fish tank, the American will usually describe the biggest fish in the tank and what it is doing. If you ask a Chinese person to describe a fish tank, the Chinese will usually describe the context in which the fish swim.

These sorts of experiments have been done over and over again, and the results reveal the same underlying pattern. Americans usually see individuals; Chinese and other Asians see contexts.

Interesting distinction in perspective. I wonder how the Chinese language fits into this notion of context. In other words, how does the language itself express context and not individualism. I'll have to ask some Chinese friends because it seems the concept is pretty similar in Japan. In fact, I'm reading a book on Japanese linguistics that would tend to support this view from Brooks. The book documents how the Japanese language is used to create context vs how the English language is used to do the exact opposite -- topics vs subjects, passive voice vs active voice, nominalized verbs vs action verbs, etc. There are probably a lot of exceptions among people on both sides of the language/culture line, but the tendencies seem pretty clear.

Saturday Oct 11, 2008

Engineering Across Languages and Cultures

I had great fun earlier today participating on the cross-cultural engineering panel at the Pasona Tech conference in Tokyo (here, here). We addressed cultural, language, and career issues facing Japanese engineers as they engage employers and developers around the world. This is not only an interesting subject for me, but it's also an important issue since economies are globalizing and software development is moving to open source community development. Dealing with people from around the world every day is now normal. It's not an occasional interaction. So, having a sense of language and cultural issues is critical since these things pervade our jobs -- even if you work in the country in which you were born and even if you work in your native language.

Since I have an interest in China, I talked a bit about the changes occurring in Chinese technology universities, and especially how students, professors, and administrators are now assertively engaging westerners in English. That was not necessarily true a few years ago in China, and it's not especially true in Japan today so it will be interesting to see where those trends lead in the future. A side note: when I'm in China I talk a lot about what the Japanese are doing to build community here and how they contribute to communities in Japan and around the world (their contributions are substantial but many times difficult to find at first). So the learning can go both ways since both sides have a great deal to offer.

At the event, we also talked about different communication styles (face-to-face vs online) among Japanese and American developers. Again, both sides could do a bit more reaching out to each other in these areas. Americans tend to be direct and Japanese tend to be indirect, and this very obvious difference can lead to some rather interesting situations. Balance is critical. If you have too many Japanese in a given situation, it's too far skewed to the Japanese language and thought processes. The opposite is true, too. When you have too many Americans in the room there is too much English and American thinking going on. You need both to balance things. You should try to offer enough communication channels for everyone to participate at some level, while encouraging the bilingual people to serve as conversation facilitators reaching out to both sides simultaneously. I think Tokyo2Point0 and the Tokyo Linux User Group are good examples of communities who recognize this issue and address it very well. I'm sure there area others, too. This is how I'd like to work with the OpenSolaris community in Japan. If the community is built with an international focus as its foundation, then it has a good shot at growing large and connecting globally.

Many opinions were shared on the panel and at the nomikai afterwards and they all had validity. No single person has all the answers covering such subtle issues like these, and there is lots of room for humility and opportunity to rule the day. I look forward to the next cross-cultural engineering event in Tokyo. We should meet quarterly to continue these conversations. All posts on cross-cultural engineering will be here

Thanks to Toshiharu Harada, Edward Middleton, Gosuke Miyashita, Iwasa Takuma, Hiroumi Mitani, and Tomoyuki Sakurai for their participation at the event. And thanks to Shoji Haraguchi for snapping this image.

Wednesday Sep 03, 2008


Fascinating little article about the English word "I" -- On Language: Me, Myself and I -- by Caroline Winter in the New York Times. Really good read.

I didn't know where the capital "I" came from. I'm not surprised by the answer, though. The article says, in part, that the single letter, lower case "i" was just not hefty enough to stand on it's own and carry the significance of what "I" truly represents in English. So, scribes made it bigger. And it became a capital letter. Great story. And it seems reasonable given the evolution and structure of the English language.

The article goes beyond that, though. Winter suggests that capitalizing the first-person pronoun "I" may lead to excessive ego, and she cites examples of other languages that don't capitalize I. She also says that some languages, such as Japanese, make it possible to leave out pronouns altogether. Well, sure, but you don't really need subjects in Japanese, either. And in Japanese the emphasis is on the "topic" of the sentence, not the subject. Also, Japanese verbs are usually passive and/or nominalized and buried at the end of sentences well after all the context is explained in painfully long detail. But in English, a centralized subject performing an action is the focus right up front. And while English can structurally handle a "topic" it has no grammatical role and is generally left out -- just as Japanese leaves out subjects and pronouns and whatever else.

I'm not sure about the other languages Winter cites, but Japanese and English seem polar opposites to me. I also don't see how comparing the languages supports the argument that using "i" instead of "I" can make "our individualistic, workaholic society ... more rooted in community and quality and less focused on money and success if we each thought of ourselves as a small “i” with a sweet little dot." Japanese has a lot of what Winter is looking for, yet many Japanese people are workaholics, many express a lot of individuality (though not as much as the US), many are focused on money, and much of their famous humility/politeness is locked inside a rather rigid group structure with rules that would greatly stress the Western definition of community. Of course, many Japanese people are lovely and kind and genuinely community-oriented and all that, just as many English-speaking people are as well. It's extremely difficult to judge languages/cultures out of their context. Definitions of "community" and "individual" are expressed, perceived, and internalized very differently in the East and West.

Interesting article, but I think it goes a tad too far. I don't see why the capital I can't just be a quirk of linguistic history rather than a statement on individual ego -- and a pejorative one at that. Actually, I'd go further. I think it's perfectly fine to express "I" as a capital letter to reflect the centrality of a person articulating a perspective. That's how English is structured, and it makes sense in the context of that language. It may not make sense in another language, sure, but does that make it bad?

Wednesday Jul 30, 2008

Multi Lingual IPS Screencast

Sun Japan's Ikuko Kagaya announced that we now have a multi lingual screencast explaining the OpenSolaris IPS GUI. It's about an eight minute review of IPS in 11 languages: English, German, Spanish, French, Italian, Russian, Brazilian Portuguese, Japanese, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, and Korean.

Monday Jul 28, 2008

Japanese or Chinese?

Ok, what language is more difficult to learn for western adults -- Japanese or Chinese? The consensus seems to be that Japanese grammar is more difficult than Chinese grammar, but Chinese pronunciation is more difficult than Japanese pronunciation. I would agree. Now, can you imagine a language that combines the most difficult aspects of Japanese and Chinese and includes the complexity of their character-based writing systems? I still think telepathy is the way to go.

Tuesday Jul 08, 2008

Different Language, Different People

Are you a different person when you speak a different language?: "People who are bicultural and speak two languages may actually shift their personalities when they switch from one language to another, according to new research in the Journal of Consumer Research. The authors studied groups of Hispanic women, all of whom were bilingual, but with varying degrees of cultural identification. They found significant levels of "frame-shifting" (changes in self perception) in bicultural participants — those who participate in both Latino and Anglo culture. While frame-shifting has been studied before, the new research found that biculturals switched frames more quickly and easily than bilingual monoculturals. -- eScience News.

Interesting report. I buy the language switching bit because I see that affect personalities every day in bilingual people around me and also in my own kid as well. But I'm not sure I buy the notion of "biculturals" that much. True bicultuals seem rare to me or superficial at best. Perhaps that's because I live in a culture that has such a low level of diversity and mixes very little with the west, I'm not sure. There are many shades of culture within cultures, too, so it's difficult to draw conclusion that apply across larger cultural differences. For instance, I think it's reasonable to say that the distinction between cultures within Europe and the United States (where this study took place) are much more narrow than the distinction between the East and West. I don't doubt the study, per say, but I just question how deep it goes. I've met westerners living in Japan for 30 years who are totally fluent in writing and speaking, yet they haven't even scratched the surface of being Japanese, and I'm told this is quite common.

Sunday Jun 08, 2008

English Required

Every time I read an article about how Japan wants to make Tokyo competitive as global financial center, the issue of the obvious lack of English language skills here comes up. Every time. Here it is again -- Japan increases push for Tokyo as finance centre. I doubt China will make this mistake. China's economy is emerging now during a time of globalization, whereas Japan's emerged prior to globalization.

Monday Feb 11, 2008

Too Early

The delivery guy came to pick up some stuff early this morning. Too early. This is typical. But this time he was so early we weren't ready, and we had to send him away and have him return later. So, he said he'd do some other things and return at 12 noon. To me 12 noon means12 noon give or take five minutes before or after. Or just 12:00 pm is fine, too. But this is Japan, and time is different here. So, what time did he return? 11:30 am. Early again. Typical. I expected this, of course, so we were ready this time. But I have to wonder. This desire to be hyper efficient to provide extreme service by being too early actually leads to inefficiency. And it's potentially dangerous, too. My delivery dude, after all, had to make two trips, right? That's not efficient. I certainly appreciate the intent, though. Anyway, after we set the delivery guy free, we started walking out to the store -- where we were promptly almost run over by a pizza delivery guy flying by on his jet-fast, three-wheel motor scooter. Rushing to be early, I'm sure. These guys nearly clip me at least once a week. I wonder what a death here and there does to their on-time- delivery rating?

Thursday Feb 07, 2008

OpenSolaris and Apache Roller

OpenSolaris Evangelist, Hisayoshi Kato -- Building an Apache Roller Server using SAMP with Cool Stack. In Japanese. More here.

Saturday Jan 12, 2008

Why Early?

I've lived in Japan for about 18 months. Why is it that the service guys -- you know, the people who come to your house to fix something or install something or deliver something or whatever -- are always early? It drives me nuts. I can see being on time or even a few minutes late, even, but why early? And why early every time? How is this possible? Is it genetic, or something? If you say you'll be there at 9 am, and we all agree, why must I then have to do a mental calculation that goes something like this: ok, this dude is Japanese, so 9 am doesn't actually mean 9 am, it actually means any time between 8:45 and 9 am but most certainly before 9 am. That's when the phone rings. He's "just around the corner" or even "already waiting outside" my front door. Every. Single. Time. Absolutely insane. This was never a problem in California, by the way. Or Boston. Or New York. Why here?

Saturday Dec 29, 2007

The Samurai and the Cowboy

I'm reading a really interesting linguistics book on how the Japanese communicate and think and how their language differs from the English spoken by Americans -- Japanese Communication: Language and Thought in Context. It's very much a Venus and Mars sort of thing since the two cultures and languages are so different. Instead of planets, though, the author uses the cultural myths of the samurai and the cowboy to juxtapose the two. It's a miracle any information survives this barrier. But it's fascinating to peel back the layers to figure out why. More on this when I'm done.

Sunday Nov 04, 2007

Japanese Contribution Coming

Very cool. A second translation contribution is on the way from a member of the Japanese OpenSolaris Community. See Reiko Saito's blog for both Japanese and English commentary on the issue. By the way, if you are interested in the Japanese community but don't read Japanese, Reiko's blog is a good place to go since she writes in English as well. I notice that many of the Sun China bloggers are writing in English now, too. That's an excellent way to invite the entire English speaking open source world in to your community.

Tuesday Oct 02, 2007

Excellent Online Japanese Translator

Here's an absolutely outstanding Japanese to English translator -- It's the best I've seen by far. Thanks, Kevin. 

Thursday Sep 27, 2007

Japanese Contribution

It's great to see being expanded with newly translated Japanese material. Check out Reiko Saito's 祝! はじめての翻訳 (Congrats on 1st contribution!) about the latest translation. But what's cool for me is that the document that was translated focuses on how to participate in OpenSolaris. Hirano-san, the contributor here in Japan, started out in probably the best place -- the beginning! The request-sponsor program is part of that document, so I'd really love to see come code contributions resulting from Japan. Test and Docs are also part of that document, so it would be great to see Japanese contributions in those areas as well.

Friday Aug 03, 2007

Barton's Japanese

Check out the Barton George interviews from Ubuntu Live. It's great to here him talking Japanese in interview #3 with Sadanori Horiguchi of Hitachi America. You sound great, Barton! Very impressive!

Thursday May 31, 2007

OpenSolaris Student Guide in Japanese

Here's the OpenSolaris Student Guide in Japanese from the Academic and Research Community. I have hundreds of copies in my office, and we are going to give them out at various developer events here in Japan over the next few months. The Internationalization and Localization Community has translated the book into a bunch of languages, so they should start showing up at conferences around the world.

OpenSolaris Handbook: Japanese

Monday May 28, 2007

Tokyo Financial Hub

The Japanese are responding to pressure from global and other Asian competitors in the financial industry -- Japan aims to reinvigorate Tokyo as global finance hub. But they will have to overcome not only challenges such as regulation, taxation, and transportation but also language issues: "Foreign managers in Tokyo often bemoan the lack of sufficient staff who are fluent in English." -- AFP

Thursday May 24, 2007

OpenSolaris Principles

I often talk (here, here) about the value of the OpenSolaris Community Principles, and thanks to the Country Portal Project we now have the principles expressed in a few different languages around the world. When we started the portal project, we offered each portal team a certain number of pages to translate initially so each portal would open with basically the same information. Over time, however, we want each portal to grow in ways specific to each region. But as the portals diversify, we'd also like to keep some things consistent across all regions -- The Principles being one of those obvious items.

In English

Project Overview: Our principles
  • The project will evolve in full view of the world. By opening our code, processes, documentation, and historical information to everyone, we offer a real opportunity for others to join our community and contribute from an equal footing. Technical information will be withheld if there are legal restrictions, never because it is incomplete or of poor quality.
  • We will be inclusive. Proposals will be evaluated based on technical merit and consistency with overarching design goals, constraints, and requirements.
  • We will be respectful and honest. Developers and users have the right to be treated with respect. We do not make ad hominem attacks, and we encourage constructive criticism. Our commitment to civil discourse allows new users and contributors with contrarian ideas an opportunity to be heard without intimidation.
  • Quality is always a top priority. The OpenSolaris project will continue the long tradition of quality engineering established by the Solaris Operating System (OS).
  • We are independent. Decisions within the project are made independently from those concerning Sun's business. Sun's management controls the business aspects of the Solaris product, but will not exert undue influence within the OpenSolaris community.

From Japan ...

プロジェクトの概要: 基本方針
  • プロジェクトはすべての人々に開かれている ― このプロジェクトは、コードやプロセス、ドキュメント、履歴情報を一般に公開することによって、だれもが対等の立場から貢献できる機会を提供するもので す。法的な制約のために技術情報の提供を差し控える場合がありますが、情報が不完全である、または情報の質が劣るということを理由に提供を差し控えること はありません。
  • 包括的である ― いかなる提案も、全体的な設計目標や制約、要件との整合性や技術的なメリットに基づいて評価されます。
  • 謙虚、かつ誠実である ― 開発者やユーザには、尊重されるべき権利があります。われわれは、個人的な攻撃を行いませんが、建設的な批判は歓迎します。ここでは社会的秩序に則ったや りとりが保証されているため、反対の考えをもつ新しいユーザや関係者でも躊躇せずに意見を述べることができます。
  • 品質がすべてに優先する ― OpenSolaris プロジェクトは、Solaris オペレーティング・システム (OS) によって確立された高品質のエンジニアリングの伝統を受け継ぎます。
  • 独立している ― プロジェクト内の意思決定は、Sun のビジネス関係者から独立して行われます。Sun の管理者は Solaris 製品のビジネス面を統括するだけであり、OpenSolaris コミュニティ内で不当な権力を行使することはありません。

From Poland ...

Przegląd projektu: Nasze zasady
  • Projekt będzie rozwijał się na oczach świata. Otwierając źródła, procesy, dokumentację oraz historyczne informacje dla każdego, wręczamy możliwość przyłączenia się do społeczności OpenSolarisa. Wstrzymujemy się z ujawnieniem technicznych informacji w wyniku restrykcji wynikających z warunków licencji, ale nigdy z racji niekompletności lub niskiej jakości.
  • Jesteśmy otwarci. Propozycje będą oceniane na podstawie technicznych wartości i spójności projektu z uwzględnieniem założeń projektowych, ograniczeń oraz wymagań.
  • Szacunek i uczciwość. Deweloperzy i użytkownicy powinni być traktowani z szacunkiem. Nie atakujemy ludzi i zachęcamy do konstruktywnego krytycyzmu. Zobowiązujemy się dać możliwość bycia wysłuchanym nowym użytkownikom z odmiennymi koncepcjami.
  • Jakość jest zawsze najważniejsza. Projekt OpenSolaris kontynuuje długą tradycję bardzo dobrej jakości utrzymanej przez system operacyjny Solaris.
  • Jesteśmy niezależni. Kierownictwo Suna bierze pod uwagę interesy związane z produktem jakim jest Solaris, lecz zobowiązuje się nie wywierać wpływu na społeczności OpenSolarisa. Decyzje, które podejmujemy są zatem niezależne.

From China ...

项目概况: 我们的原则
  • 项目将会 吸引世界的所有目光。通过开放我们的代码、过程、文档和历史信息,我们给其他人提供了���个真正的机会���公平的参与我们的社区并贡献其 中。如 果存在法律约束,技术方面的信息会被保留,绝不会因为它未完成或尚未完善的质量而被泄露出去。

  • 我们将会 包含其中。对一个提案的评估,我们会从技术的价值和一致性对设计目标、局限性和需求的覆盖等方面来进行。

  • 我们会负 责并诚实。开发者和使用者都有权利面对责任问题。我们不会制造个人攻 击,我们鼓励有建设性的批评。我们承诺允许所有持相反意见的新的使用者和贡献者,在不受威胁的条件下听到内部讨论。

  • 质量永远 第一。OpenSolaris项目会一如既往的秉承由Solaris操作系统制定的的质量工程的传统。

  • 我们是独 立的。项目内部的决策制定是独立于Sun的商业运作的。Sun的管理控制了Solaris生 产方面的事物,但不会对OpenSolaris社区施加什么不适当的影响。

From France ...

Vue d'ensemble du projet: Nos principes
  • Le projet évoluera au vu et au su du monde entier. En ouvrant notre code, nos processus, notre documentation, et notre information historique à tout le monde, nous offrons réellement à chacun la possibilité de rejoindre notre communauté et de contribuer, sur un pied d'égalité. L'information technique ne sera retenue que si des raisons légales l'exigent et en aucun cas parce qu'elle serait incomplète ou de mauvaise qualité.
  • Nous serons ouverts. Les propositions seront évaluées sur des critères techniques et de conformité avec les pré-requis, contraintes et objectifs d'architecture globale.
  • Nous serons respectueux et honnêtes. Les développeurs et les utilisateurs ont le droit d'être traités avec respect. Nous ne faisons aucune attaque ad hominem, et nous encourageons les critiques constructives. Notre engagement à un discours courtois permet aux nouveaux utilisateurs et contributeurs de faire entendre leurs idées différentes, sans être intimidés.
  • La qualité est toujours la priorité maximale. Le projet OpenSolaris continuera la longue tradition d'ingéniérie de qualité établie par le système d'exploitation Solaris.
  • Nous sommes indépendants. Les décisions au sein du projet sont prises indépendamment de celles concernant les affaires de Sun. La direction de Sun contrôle le produit Solaris, mais n'exercera pas d'influence indésirable sur la communauté OpenSolaris.

From India ...

परियोजना सिंहावलोकन: हमारा मूल तत्व
  • ये परियोजन पूरी दुनिया कि दृष्टि में सुलझ जाएगा हर एक को हमारे कोड, क्रिया, प्रलेखीकरण और ऐतिहासिक जानकारी के द्वारा, हम दूस्रोंको हमारा  समुदाय में सम्मिलन होने का  असली  मौका देते हैंहर एक को हमारे कोड, क्रिया, प्रलेखीकरण और ऐतिहासिक जानकारी के द्वारा, हम दूस्रों को हमारा  समुदाय में सम्मिलन होने का  असली  मौका देते हैं। अगर वहां कोई कानून सीमा बंधन हैतो टेक्नीकल  जानकारियों को रोक दिया जाएगा, लेकिन इसलिये नहीं कि ये अपर्याप्त है या ये  ग़रीब गुणता कि है
  • हम सम्मिलित रहेंग प्रस्ताव को पारिभाषिक योग्यत और लटके रहने का नमूना, कमी और ज़रूरत से भरा अनुरूपता  से मूल्यांकन किया जाएगा
  • हम आदरकार और ईमानदार रहेंगे डेवलपर और उपयोगकर्तावों का गोव्राव से व्यवहार करवाने का हक बनता हैहम ad hominem धाव नहीं करते हैं, और हम रचनात्मक  आलोचनावों का उत्साहित करते हैं। वचनबद्धता ओर  हमारी सभ्य संभाषण विचार नए उपयोगकर्त और सहयोगीयों को बिना सूचन के मौका को सुनाने के लिए मुजरा करती है
  • गुणवत्ता ही हमेशा उच्च प्राथमिकता है सोलारिस प्रचालन तंत्र(एस) से प्रमाणित हुवा ओपेंसोलारिस गुनात्व इंजीनीयरिंग कि लंबी परम्परा को आगे बढ़ायेगी
  • हम  स्वतंत्र है परियोजना के अन्दर का फैसला के व्यवहारों से स्वतंत्र होता है का प्रबंधन सोलारिस का व्यवहार अभिमुखता को नियांथ्रिथ कराती है, लेकिन सोलारिस समुदाय के अन्दर अनुचित उद्योग असर नहीं कराती है

From Spain ...

Visión del proyecto: Nuestros pricipios
  • El proyecto evolucionará de forma visible a todo el mundo. Abriendo nuestro código, procesos, documentación e información histórica a todos, ofrecemos una oportunidad real para que otros se unan a nuestra comunidad y contribuyan desde una misma posición en esta carrera. La información técnica será retenida si hay restricciones legales, pero nunca si está incompleta o es baja calidad.
  • Somos gregarios. Las propuestas serán evaluadas desde el punto de vista de los méritos y contenidos técnicos; teniendo en cuenta su diseño, restriciones y requerimientos.
  • Somos respetuosos y honestos. Desarrolladores y usuarios tendran todos los derechos para ser tratados con todo respeto. No realizaremos ataques humanos, y promoveremos las criticas constructivas. Nuestro compromiso permite a los nuevos usuarios y aportadores de ideas incorformistas la oportunidad para ser escuchados sin ninguntipo de intimidacion.
  • La calidad es siempre la maxima prioridad. El proyecto OpenSolaris continuara la larga tradicion de calidad en su ingenieria fijada por el sistema operativo Solaris (OS).
  • Somos independientes. Las decisiones dentro del proyecto son realizadas indepenientemente del negocio de Sun. La gestión de Sun unicamente controlará los aspectos de Solaris como producto, pero nunca ejercerá influencias impropias dentro de la comunidad OpenSolaris.

From Mexico ...

Visiòn del Proyecto: Nuestros principios
  • El proyecto evolucionará de forma visible a todo el mundo. Abriendo nuestro código, procesos, documentación e información histórica a todos, ofrecemos una oportunidad real para que otros se unan a nuestra comunidad y contribuyan desde una misma posición en esta carrera. La información técnica será retenida si hay restricciones legales, pero nunca si está incompleta o es baja calidad.
  • Somos inclusivos. Las propuestas serán evaluadas desde el punto de vista de los méritos y contenidos técnicos; teniendo en cuenta su diseño, restriciones y requerimientos.
  • Somos respetuosos y honestos. Desarrolladores y usuarios tendran todos los derechos para ser tratados con todo respeto. No realizaremos ataques humanos, y promoveremos las criticas constructivas. Nuestro compromiso permite a los nuevos usuarios y aportadores de ideas incorformistas la oportunidad para ser escuchados sin ningun tipo de intimidaciòn.
  • La calidad es siempre la maxima prioridad. El proyecto OpenSolaris continuara la larga tradiciòn de calidad en su ingenieria fijada por el sistema operativo Solaris (OS).
  • Somos independientes. Las decisiones dentro del proyecto son realizadas independientemente del negocio de Sun. La gestión de Sun unicamente controlará los aspectos de Solaris como producto, pero nunca ejercerá influencias impropias dentro de la comunidad OpenSolaris.

From Brazil ...

Visão Geral do Projeto
: Nossos princípios

  • O projeto evoluirá em plena vista do mundo. Ao abrir o nosso código, processos, documentações e informações históricas a todos, nós oferecemos uma oportunidade real para que outros entrem em nossa comunidade e contribuam de igual para igual. Informações técnicas serão omitidas se houver motivos legais, nunca por estarem incompletas ou por serem de baixa qualidade.
  • Nós seremos inclusivos. Propostas serão avaliadas com base no seu mérito técnico e consistência com metas abrangentes de design, restrições e requerimentos.
  • Nós seremos respeitosos e honestos. Desenvolvedores e usuários tem o direito de serem tratados com respeito. Nós não praticamos ataques pessoais e encorajamos criticas construtivas. Nosso comprometimento com o discurso civil permite que novos usuários e contribuidores com idéias contrárias tenham uma oportunidade de serem ouvidos sem intimidação.
  • Qualidade é sempre alta prioridade. O projeto OpenSolaris continuará a longa tradição de engenharia de qualidade estabelecida pelo Sistema Operacional Solaris.
  • Nós somos independentes. Decisões internas ao projeto são tomadas independentemente daquelas que dizem respeito a negócios da Sun. A gerência da Sun controla o lado dos negócios do produto Solaris, mas nunca exercerá influencia indevida dentro da comunidade OpenSolaris.

From Germany ...

Projektüberblick: Grundsätze
  • Die Weiterentwicklung des Projektes erfolgt unter den Augen der Öffentlichkeit. Durch die Öffnung des Quelltextes, der Prozesse, Dokumentation und Projekthistorie bieten wir die Gelegenheit unserer Gemeinschaft als gleichwertiges Mitglied beizutreten und zum Projekterfolg beizutragen. Technische Informationen werden nur zurückgehalten wenn rechtliche Maßgaben das erfordern, jedoch nicht wenn sie nur unvollständig oder von schlechter Qualität sind.
  • Das Projekt ist offen. Vorschläge werden auf technischer Grundlage und entsprechend ihrer Übereinstimmung mit der Systemarchitektur bzw. anderen übergeordneten Beschränkungen und Anforderungen bewertet.
  • Wir agieren respektvoll und ehrlich. Entwickler und Anwender haben das Recht mit Respekt behandelt zu werden. Persönliche Angriffe sind zu unterlassen, wir ermutigen konstruktive Kritik. Unser Bekenntnis zu einem höflichen Umgang erlaubt es neuen Mitgliedern und Anwendern auch kontroverse Ideen vorzubringen.
  • Qualität hat oberste Priorität. Qualität hat eine lange Tradition beim Solaris Betriebssystem. Das OpenSolaris Projekt ist dieser Tradition verpflichtet.
  • Das Projekt ist unabhängig. Entscheidungen werden unabhängig von Suns Geschäftsanforderungen getroffen. Sun kontrolliert den geschäftlichen Aspekt des Solaris Produktes, wird aber keinen unangemessenen Einfluss auf die OpenSolaris Gemeinschaft ausüben.

From Russia ...

О проекте: Наши принципы
  • Проект будет развиваться на глазах у всего мира. Открывая наш код, процессы, документацию и историческую информацию для каждого, мы предлагаем всем реальную возможность присоединиться к нашему сообществу и пополнять проект на равных условиях. Техническая информация не будет раскрываться только при наличии юридических ограничений, но не потому что она неполная или низкого качества.
  • Мы будем учитывать все мнения. Предложения будут оцениваться только по их техническим достоинствам и соответствию общим принципам дизайна, ограничениям и требованиям.
  • Мы будем почтительными и честными. Разработчики и пользователи имеют право на почтительное отношение. Мы не переходим на личности и поощряем конструктивную критику. Наша приверженность цивилизованному дискурсу даст новым пользователям и участникам проекта, думающим не так, как другие, возможность быть услышанными без страха.
  • Качество - наш высший приоритет. Проект OpenSolaris продолжит давние традиции качественной инженерии, заданные операционной системой (ОС) Solaris.
  • Мы независимы. Решения внутри проекта принимаются независимо от решений, касающихся бизнеса компании Sun. Менеджмент компании Sun контролирует бизнес-аспекты продукта Solaris, но не будет оказывать недолжное влияние на сообщество OpenSolaris.

From Czech Republic ...

Přehled o projektu
: Naše principy
  • Tento projekt bude vyvíjen zcela otevřeně. Otevřením našeho zdrojového kódu, procesů, dokumentace a historických informací nabízíme každému reálnou příležitost, aby se spojil s komunitou a přispíval z rovnocenné pozice. Technické informace nebudou poskytnuty pouze kvůli zákonným omezením, nikoliv pro nekompletnost nebo špatnou kvalitu.
  • Budeme objektivní. Návrhy budou vyhodnoceny podle technických aspektů, konzistence a s přihlédnutím k vytyčeným cílům, omezením a nárokům.
  • Budeme zdvořilí a čestní. Vývojáři a uživatelé mají právo, aby s nimi bylo zacházeno s respektem. Neděláme osobní útoky a podporujeme konstruktivní kritiku. Náš závazek k zdvořilým rozpravám zaručuje novým uživatelům a přispěvatelům s jinými názory bezproblémové vyslechnutí.
  • Kvalita je vždy nejvyšší prioritou. OpenSolaris projekt bude pokračovat v dlouhé tradici kvalitní inženýrské práce zavedené operačním systémem Solaris.
  • Jsme nezávislí. Rozhodnutí uvnitř projektu jsou nezávislá na obchodních záležitostech společnosti Sun. Sun management řídí obchodní aspekty Solaris produktů, ale neuplatňuje vliv uvnitř komunity OpenSolarisu.

From Korea ...

프로젝트 개요
: 기본 철학
  • 프로젝트는 외부에 완벽히 공개된 체 발전해 나갈 것입니다. 소스 코드와 프로세스, 문서와 기존의 모든 정보들을 공개 함으로써 다른 사람들이 커뮤니티에 참여하고 기여할 수 있는 진정한 기회를 제공하려고 합니다. 기술적인 정보의 공개는 법적인 제약으로 인해 보류 될 수 있고 수준이 낮거나 불완벽한 것들은 공개되지 않을 것입니다.
  • 모든 사람들에게 열려있을 것입니다. 제안사항들은 기술적인 메리트와 전체 디자인 목적, 그리고 제약사항 및 요구사항에 영향을 미칠 수 있는 일관성 이라는 관점에서 검토 될 것입니다.
  • 모든 사람들을 존경할 것이고 정직할 것입니다. 개발자들과 사용자들은 대우받을 권리가 있습니다. 우리들은 어떠한 종류의 인신공격도 하지 않을 것이고 건설적인 비평을 장려합니다. 사회적인 토론에 대한 공약을 통해서 새로운 유저들과 공헌자들이 어떠한 종류의 압력 없이 반대 의견을 낼 수 있는 기회를 제공받을 것입니다.
  • 품질은 항상 최상위의 우선순위 입니다. OpenSolaris 프로젝트는 Solaris 운영체제에 의해 오랫동안 유지되어 왔던 고품질의 엔지니어링 전통을 계속해서 이어나갈 것입니다.
  • 독립적입니다. 프로젝트에 관한 결정은 Sun의 비지니스와 관계된 사람들과는 완전히 독립적으로 이루어집니다. Sun의 매니지먼트는 Solaris 제품의 비지니스적인 측면을 조종하지만 OpenSolaris 커뮤니티에 어떠한 영향도 미치지 않을 것입니다.

Wednesday Dec 20, 2006

Solaris パーフェクトガイド 2007

Solaris: Perfect Guide 2007: Software Design. This magazine just came out here in Japan. (Better cover here.) My homework is to translate the article. Right. A 40 page special section. That's a lot of Japanese. And a lot of Solaris and OpenSolaris, too ...



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