Wednesday Feb 11, 2009

zones p2v

About two years ago the zones team sat down and began to create the solaris8 brand for zones. This brand allows you to run your existing Solaris 8 system images inside of a branded zone on Solaris 10. One of the key goals for this project was to easily enable migration of Solaris 8 based systems into a zone on Solaris 10. To accomplish this, as part of the project we built support for a "physical to virtual" capability, or p2v for short. The idea with p2v is that you can create an image of an existing system using a flash archive, cpio archive, a UFS dump, or even just a file system image that is accessible over NFS, then install the zone using that image. There is no explicit p2v tool you have to run; behind the scenes the zone installation process does all of the work to make sure the Solaris 8 image runs correctly inside of the zone.

Once we finished the solaris8 brand we followed that with the solaris9 brand which has this same p2v capability. Of course, while we were doing this work, we understood that having a similar feature for native zones would be useful as well. This would greatly simplify consolidation using zones, since you could deploy onto bare metal, then later consolidate that application stack into a zone with very little work.

The problem for p2v with native zones is that there is no brand module that mediates between the user-level code running in the zone and the kernel code, as we have with the solaris8 and solaris9 brands. Thus, the native zones must be running user-level code that is in sync with the kernel. This includes things like libc, which has a close relationship with the kernel. Every time a patch is applied which impacts both kernel code and user-level library code, all of the native zones must be kept in sync or unpredictable bugs will occur.

Just doing native p2v, as we did for the solaris8 and solaris9 brands, doesn't make sense since the odds that the system image you want to install in the zone will be exactly in sync with the kernel are pretty low. Most deployed systems are at different patch levels or even running different minor releases (e.g. Solaris 10 05/08 vs. 11/08), so there is no clean way to reliably p2v those images.

We really felt that native p2v was important, but we couldn't make any progress until we solved the problem of syncing up the system image to match the global zone. Fortunately I was able to find some time to add this capability, which we call update on attach. This was added into our zone migration subcommands, 'detach' and 'attach', which can be used to move zones from one system to another. Since zone migration has a similar problem as p2v, where the source and target systems can be out of sync, we do a lot of validation to make sure that the new host can properly run the zone. Of course this validation made zone migration pretty restrictive. Now that we have "update on attach", we can automatically update the zone software when you move it to the new host.

While "update on attach" is a valuable feature in its own right, we also built this with an eye on p2v, since it is the enabling capability needed for p2v. In addition, we leveraged all of the work Dan Price did on the installers for the solaris8 and solaris9 brands and were able to reuse much of that. As with the solaris8 and solaris9 brands, the native brand installer accepts a variety of image inputs; flar, cpio, compressed cpio, pax xustar, UFS dump or a directly accessible root image (e.g. over NFS). It was also enhanced to accept a pre-existing image in the zone root path. This is useful if you use ZFS send and receive to set up the zone root and want to then p2v that as a fully installed zone.

I integrated the native p2v feature into NV build 109 this morning. The webrev from the code review is still available if anyone is interested in seeing the scope of the changes. At over 2000 lines of new code this is a pretty substantial addition to zones which should greatly improve future zone consolidation projects.

Tuesday Jan 20, 2009

OpenSolaris Bible Samples

A comment on my last post noted that there were no sample chapters available for the book, however I just noticed that Wiley has posted some samples on the book's webpage.

The samples include chapter one, the index, and the detailed table of contents.

The index and TOC are probably the best sections for getting a feel for the material in the book. This is actually the first time I've seen the index myself, since it was produced after we finished writing and the final pages were nailed down. I haven't reviewed it closely yet, but at first glance it looks to be pretty comprehensive at 35 pages. I've always thought that the index was critical for a book like this. The detailed TOC is also useful for getting a sense of the topics covered in each chapter.

Tuesday Jan 06, 2009

Writing the OpenSolaris Bible

2008 was a busy year for me since I spent most of my free time co-authoring a book on OpenSolaris; the OpenSolaris Bible.

Having never written a book before, this was a new experience for me. Nick originally had the idea for writing a book on OpenSolaris and he'd already published Professional C++ with Wiley, so he had an agent and a relationship with a publisher. In December 2007 he contacted me about being a co-author and after thinking it through, I agreed. I had always thought writing a book was something I wanted to do, so I was excited to give this a try. Luckily, Dave agreed to be the third author on the book, so we had our writing team in place. After some early discussions, Wiley decided our material fit best into their "Bible" series, hence the title.

In early January 2008 the three of us worked on the outline and decided which chapters each of us would write. We actually started writing in early February of 2008. Given the publishing schedule we had with Wiley, we had to complete each chapter in about 3 weeks, so there wasn't a lot of time to waste. Also, because this project was not part of our normal work for Sun, we had to ensure that we only worked on the book on our own time, that is evenings and weekends. In the end it turned out that we each wrote exactly a third of the book, based on the page counts. Since the book came out at around 1000 pages, with approximately 950 pages of written material, not counting front matter or the index, we each wrote over 300 pages of content. Over the course of the project we were also fortunate that many of our friends and colleagues who work on OpenSolaris were willing to review our early work and provide much useful feedback.

We finished the first draft at the end of August 2008 and worked on the revisions to each chapter through early December 2008. Of course the OpenSolaris 2008.11 release came out right at the end of our revision process, so we had to scramble to be sure that everything in the book was up-to-date with respect to the new release.

From a personal perspective, this was a particularly difficult year because we also moved to a "new" house in April of 2008. Our new house is actually about 85 years old and hadn't been very well maintained for a while, so it needs some work. The first week we moved in, we had the boiler go out, the sewer back up into the basement, the toilet and the shower wouldn't stop running, the electrical work for our office took longer than expected, our DSL wasn't hooked up right, and about a million other things all seemed to go wrong. Somehow we managed to cope with all of that, keep working for our real jobs, plus I was able to finish my chapters for the book on schedule. I'm pretty sure Sarah wasn't expecting anything like this when I talked to her about working on the book the previous December. Needless to say, we're looking forward to a less hectic 2009.

If you are at all interested in OpenSolaris, then I hope you'll find something in our book that is worthwhile, even if you already know a lot about the OS. The book is targeted primarily at end-users and system administrators. It has a lot of breadth and we tried to include a balanced mix of introductory material as well as advanced techniques. Here's the table of contents so you can get a feel for whats in the book.
I. Introduction to OpenSolaris.
    1. What Is OpenSolaris?
    2. Installing OpenSolaris.
    3. OpenSolaris Crash Course.

II. Using OpenSolaris
    4. The Desktop.
    5. Printers and Peripherals.
    6. Software Management.

III. OpenSolaris File Systems, Networking, and Security.
    7. Disks,  Local File Systems, and the Volume Manager.
    8. ZFS.
    9. Networking.
    10. Network File Systems and Directory Services.
    11. Security.

IV. OpenSolaris Reliability, Availability, and Serviceability.
    12. Fault Management.
    13. Service Management.
    14. Monitoring and Observability.
    15. DTrace.
    16. Clustering for High Availability.

V. OpenSolaris Virtualization.
    17. Virtualization Overview.
    18. Resource Management.
    19. Zones.
    20. xVM Hypervisor.
    21. Logical Domains (LDoms).
    22. VirtualBox.

VI. Developing and Deploying on OpenSolaris.
    23. Deploying a Web Stack on OpenSolaris.
    24. Developing on OpenSolaris. 
If this looks interesting, you can pre-order a copy from Amazon here. It comes out early next month, February 2009, and I'm excited to hear peoples reaction once they've actually had a chance to look it over.

Tuesday Dec 23, 2008

Updating zones on OpenSolaris 2008.11 using detach/attach

In my last post I talked a bit about the new way that software and dataset management works for zones on the 2008.11 release.

One of the features that is still under development is to provide a way to automatically keep the non-global zones in sync with the global zone when you do a 'pkg image-update'. The IPS project still needs some additional enhancements to be able to describe the software dependencies between the global and non-global zones. In the meantime, you must manually ensure that you update the non-global zones after you do an image-update and reboot the global zone. Doing this will create new ZFS datasets for each zone which you can then manually update so that they match the global zone software release.

The easiest way to update the zones is to use the new detach/attach capabilities we added to the 2008.11 release. You can simply detach the zone, then re-attach it. We provide some support for the zone update on attach option for ipkg-branded zones, so you can use 'attach -u' to simply update the zone.

The following shows an example of this.
# zoneadm -z jj1 detach
# zoneadm -z jj1 attach -u
       Global zone version: pkg:/entire@0.5.11,5.11-0.101:20081119T235706Z
       Non-Global zone version: pkg:/entire@0.5.11,5.11-0.98:20080917T010824Z
Updating non-global zone: Output follows
                     Cache: Using /var/pkg/download.
PHASE                                          ITEMS
Indexing Packages                        54/54 
DOWNLOAD                                    PKGS           FILES       XFER (MB)
Completed                                     54/54   2491/2491   52.76/52.76 

PHASE                                        ACTIONS
Removal Phase                            1253/1253 
Install Phase                                 1440/1440 
Update Phase                               3759/3759 
Reading Existing Index                            9/9 
Indexing Packages                               54/54 
pkg:/entire@0.5.11,5.11-0.98:20080917T010824Z

Here you can see how the zone is updated when it is re-attached to the system. This updates the software in the currently active dataset associated with the global zone BE. If you roll-back to an earlier image, the dataset associated with the zone and the earlier BE will be used instead of this newly updated dataset. We've also enhanced the IPS code so it can use the pkg cache from the global zone, thus the zone update is very quick.

Because the zone attach feature is implemented as a brand-specific capability, each brand provides its own options for how zones can be attached. In addition to the -u option, the ipkg brand supports a -a or -r option. The -a option allows you to take an archive (cpio, bzip2, gzip, or USTAR tar) of a zone from another system and attach it. The -r option allows you to receive the output of a 'zfs send' into the zone's dataset. Either of these options can be combined with -u to enable zone migration from one OpenSolaris system to another. An additional option, which didn't make it into 2008.11, but is in the development release, is the -d option, which allows you to specify an existing dataset to be used for the attach. The attach operation will take that dataset and add all of the properties needed to make it usable on the current global zone BE.

If you used zones on 2008.11, you might have noticed that the zone's dataset is not mounted when the zone is halted. This is something we might change in the future, but in the meantime, one final feature related to zone detach is that it leaves the zone's dataset mounted. This provides and easy way to access the zone's data. Simply detach the zone, then you can access the zone's mounted file system, then re-attach the zone.

Wednesday Dec 10, 2008

zones on OpenSolaris 2008.11

The OpenSolaris 2008.11 release just came out and we've made some significant changes in the way that zones are installed on this release. The motivation for these changes are so that we can eventually have software management operations using IPS work in a non-global zone much the same way as they work in the global zone. Global zone software management uses the SNAP Upgrade project along with IPS and the idea is to create a new Boot Environment (BE) when you update the software in the global zone. A BE is based on a ZFS snapshot and clone, so that you can easily roll back if there are any problems with the newly installed software. Because the software in the non-global zones should be in sync with the global zone, when a new BE is created each of the non-global zones must also have a new ZFS snapshot and clone that matches up to the new BE.

We'd also eventually like to have the same software management capabilities within a non-global zone. That is, we'd like the non-global zone system administrator to be able to use IPS to install software in the zone, and as part of this process, a new BE inside the zone would be created based on a ZFS snapshot and clone. This way the non-global zone can take advantage of the same safety features for rolling back that are available in the global zone.

In order to provide these capabilities, we needed to make some important changes in how zones are laid out in the file system. To support all of this we need the actual zone root file system to be its own delegated ZFS dataset. In this way the non-global zone sysadmin can make their own ZFS snapshots and clones of the zone root and the IPS software can automatically create a new BE within the zone when a software management operation takes place in the zone.

The gory details of this are discussed in the spec.

All of the capabilities described above don't work yet, but we have laid a foundation to enable this for the future. In particular, when you create a new global zone BE, all of the non-global zones are also cloned as well. However, running image-update in the global zone still doesn't update each individual zone. You still need to do that manually, as Dan described in his blog about zones on the 2008.05 release. In a future post I'll talk about some other ways to update each zone. Another feature that isn't done yet is the full SNAP Upgrade support from within the zone itself. That is, zone roots are now delegated ZFS datasets, but when you run IPS inside the zone itself, a new clone is not automatically created. Adding this feature should be fairly straightforward though, now that the basic support is in the release.

With all of these changes to how zone roots use ZFS in 2008.11, here is a summary of the important differences and limitations with using zones on 2008.11.

1) Existing zones can't be used. If you have zones installed on an earlier release of OpenSolaris and image-update to 2008.11 or later, those zones won't be usable.

2) Your global zone BE needs a UUID. If you are running 2008.11 or later then your global zone BE will have a UUID.

3) Zones are only supported in ZFS. This means that the zonepath must be a dataset. For example, if the zonepath for your zone is /export/zones/foo, then /export/zones must be a dataset. The zones code will then create the foo dataset and all the underlying datasets when you install the zone.

4) As I mentioned above, image-updating the global BE doesn't update the zones yet. After you image-update the global zone, don't forget to update the new BE for each zone so that it is in sync with the global zone.
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