Monday Jul 29, 2013

Emulating I2C Devices with Java ME Embedded 3.3

In this post, I will show you how to create an emulated inter-integrated circuit (I2C) device using the Oracle Java ME SDK 3.3 Custom Device Editor and the Embedded Support API.

Oracle's Java ME SDK 3.3 is a fantastic tool to learn how to create applications for embedded devices. The focus of ME Embedded is the Information Module Profile - Next Generation (IMP-NG) headless devices - simple micro controllers with 160KB of memory (or more) designed to read sensor input or control small mechanical devices. The embedded market is growing rapidly as more devices become connected to the "internet of things."

New in the 3.3 version of the SDK is support for a host of peripheral devices, including GPIO, ADC/DAC, UART, I2C, SPI, MMIO and more. The SDK includes an emulator (for Windows) and you can choose between one of two default devices that support IMP-NG.

While the default emulator is useful to start learning Java ME Embedded, at some point you will want an emulator that resembles the target embedded device. This is where the Java ME SDK really shines, by allowing you to design your own emulator. Through the Custom Device Editor, provided with the Java ME SDK 3.3, you select the peripheral devices your physical embedded device supports, including all of relevant information to access the peripherals: hardware port number, pin number, trigger mode, etc. Designing an emulator that matches your physical embedded device can greatly shorten the development cycle of an embedded application.

Start the Custom Device Editor from the command line C:\Java_ME_platform_SDK_3.3\bin\device-editor.exe or through NetBeans and Eclipse. Using the editor, you specify GPIO pins and ports, ADC and DAC devices, and pulse counters as needed. To add serial communication devices (I2C, SPI and MMIO), the editor provides two options: add a simple loopback that echoes back bytes as they are written to the device, or add an implementation of the device using the embedded support API.

Of the three serial bus specifications, I2C is the simplest. It is a two-wire protocol, thus requiring only four lines. For more detailed information on the specification, click here.

The installation directory of the Java ME SDK 3.3, C:\Java_ME_platform_SDK_3.3, contains the documentation and a JAR for the Embedded Support API. Expand the embedded-support-api.zip file located under \docs\api and look at the com.oracle.jme.toolkit.deviceaccess.i2c package.

To emulate an I2C device, you create a class that implements the I2CSlaveBus interface. In NetBeans (or Eclipse) create a Java ME Embedded Application project. Add the \lib\embedded-support-api.jar to the project, then add a Java class that implements the interface:

public class TMP102Device implements I2CSlaveBus { ... }

There are just four methods to implement:

  • int read(byte[] data, int len, I2CSlaveBus.I2CSlaveIdentifier id)
  • void write(byte[] data, I2CSlaveBus.I2CSlaveIdentifier id)
  • void initialize(I2CSlaveBus.I2CSlaveIdentifier id)
  • void close(I2CSlaveBus.I2CSlaveIdentifier id)

The read method writes bytes into the byte array passed to the method as an argument and returns a count of the bytes written to the array. The write method can be used to signal the device for some action. The initialize method is called every time the device is accessed through a PeripheralManager.open call - this method can be used to reset the internal state of your emulated device. Finally, the close method should release any resources the emulated device is using.

I choose to emulate a simple I2C temperature device, the Texas Instruments TMP102, a digital temperature sensor with I2C communication capability. After power-on, this device returns two bytes from an internal buffer every time it is read. The first byte contains the left-most 8 bits of a 12-bit word, and the second byte contains the 4 least significant bytes.

This 12-bit value represents a count of 0.0625 degree (Celsius) increments, using the first high order bit to indicate values below 0. Positive temperature values are converted directly to an integer and multiplied by the increment to get the temperature value. For example, if the 12-bit word is 0x320 (0011 0010 000), the temperature is calculated as 0x320 = 800 * 0.0625 = 50 degrees Celsius.

Negative temperature values have a 1 in the high-order bit, and the temperature value is calculated by the 2's complement of the count minus 1. For example, if the 12-bit word is 0xE70 (1110 0111 0000), the temperature is calculated as 0xE70 - 1 = 0xE6F (1110 0110 1111), 2's complement = 0001 1001 000 = 400 * (-0.0625) = -25 degrees C.

Rather than just create a static TMP102 device (returning the same temperature over and over), the class I wrote simulates temperature fluctuations with a thread that randomly changes the "temperature" value by a maximum of +/- .5 degree C every 5 seconds. I start this thread in the initialize method and kill it through the close method. The timing and range of temperature fluctuations is adjustable. To see the complete code, click here to download the NetBeans project for the TMP102 emulator.

 To add the TMP102 device to a custom emulator, start by creating a jar file of the project. In NetBeans, you can right-click the project and select Build. A jar file will be created in the dist folder of your NetBeans project.

Next create or modify an existing custom IMP-NG emulator. Start the Custom Device Editor from the command line or through your IDE. Select IMP-NG in the Custom Device Editor Dialog and click New to create a new IMP-NG emulator device, or select one you already have and click Edit.

In the IMP-NG Device editor window, select the I2C tab. Click Custom, then click the Browse button to navigate to the directory where the jar file is located. The implementation class name is the fully qualified name of the I2CSlaveBus class. Enter oracle.example.TMP102Device in the Implementation Class Name field. Click the Add button in the lower right to create a Slave entry.

At this point, you can choose to modify the ID, Name, Bus Number, Address Size and Address of the slave device by clicking in each field and typing. Since my design goal is to emulate a TMP102 device connected to a Raspberry Pi, Model B, I changed the bus number to 1 and the address to 48 (this is a hex number). I2C devices on the Pi use bus 1, and the default address and address size of the TMP102 is 0x48 (72) and 7-bit.

Finally, click OK, and in a few minutes you will see a message that the new/updated emulator is registered with the Device manager. Next, write some code to test the emulated I2C device. You could open the device using the String name of the emulated device like this:

I2CDevice tmp102 = (I2CDevice) PeripheralManager.open("Slave0", I2CDevice.class, null);

However, to emulate opening the device the way it would be opened when attached to a Raspberry Pi, you need to create an I2CConfig object first and pass that to PeripheralManager to open the device:

I2CDeviceConfig config = new I2CDeviceConfig(1, 0x48, 7, 10000); // Bus 1, address 0x48, 7-bit addressing, 10KHz clock

I2CDevice tmp102 = (I2CDevice) PeripheralManager.open(config);

If you prefer, you can run this small NetBeans embedded application project I created to test the emulated TMP102 device.

Enjoy!

Tuesday Jul 02, 2013

OLL-Live Java EE 7: Using WebSockets for Real-Time Communication

OLL-Live offers FREE, one-hour interactive webinars from Oracle. At an OLL Live webinar, you will experience an information packed session led by an Oracle expert showing you ways you can use Oracle products. Our speaker this time is Eduardo Moranchel, Java Curriculum Developer. Eduardo's topic is Using WebSockets for Real-Time Communication.

See how WebSocket and JSON technologies can help you build more interactive Java EE applications. You will also learn how to build an application using HTML 5 for the front end and WebSocket with JSON in the back end. The application that will be demoed is a collaborative sticker book application that was featured in the Java EE 7 embracing HTML 5 article in May/June edition of the Java Magazine.

July 10, 2013, at 8:00 AM PT


About the speaker

Eduardo Moranchel, is a Curriculum Developer at Oracle's Mexico Development Center. Eduardo has extensive experience designing and developing applications using Java. He enjoys sharing his experience and passion for the Java platform by developing courses and tutorials for the newest Java technologies. He is co-organizer of the Java User Group in Guadalajara, Mexico. He co-authored the Java EE 7 embracing HTML 5 article in the most recent Java Magazine.

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