The Visitor Design Pattern in Depth

Perform one or more operations on a collection of different data types without disrupting existing code.

September 2, 2018

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Suppose it’s your first day at a new job at a midsize company. You’ll probably be escorted around the building and introduced to every department of the organization. At each one you’ll say “Glad to meet you” a few times and talk with the team there to discuss your common projects, and then you’ll say “Nice to have met you.” And you’ll repeat this for each department. Congratulations! You have just implemented the Visitor design pattern in humanware.

The Pattern

Visitor is a useful pattern when you have many objects of different types in your data structure and you want to apply some operation to several or all of them. The pattern is helpful when you don’t know ahead of time all the operations you will need; it gives you flexibility to add new operations without having to add them to each object type. The basic idea is that a Visitor object is taken around the nodes of a data structure by some kind of iterator, and each node “accepts” the visitor, allowing it access to that node object’s internal data. When a new function is needed, only a new visitor needs to be written. The iteration is conceptually simple:

for (Node node : collection) {

(There are two main code examples in this article; both can be found in my GitHub repository. Code from other articles in this series on design patterns can be found further up the trunk of that repository.)

The Node objects must know how to accept the Visitor, and they will usually call a method on the Visitor that is appropriate to the type of the node—for example:

class TextNode implements Node {
    void accept(Visitor v) {
    // other state and methods

Therefore, one consequence of this pattern is that the Visitor needs to know about all the node types it might encounter.

Double Dispatch

Many explanations of the Visitor pattern refer to it as double dispatch. This term sometimes makes readers think of a two-step dispatching process, as with a pointer to another pointer used in some languages. That’s not what is meant. The term refers to the fact that both the type of the visitor and the type of the node (or “receiver”) are used in sorting out which method winds up doing the work. You can see this in the accept() method above: there’s the call to accept() and the call back to visitTextNode().

Visiting the Text

Suppose I need to maintain a word processor that was written in Java. There are a few data types (text node, image node, and so on). Common operations, such as editing text, setting fonts, and setting colors, are taken care of. But there are many supplemental operations that need to be performed on the text, and new ones come along often as customers provide feedback. Here’s what the text node’s class started as:

public class TextNodeOld extends Node {
    private StringBuilder text = new StringBuilder();

    public TextNodeOld() {
        // empty

    public TextNodeOld(String s) {
        // Here, you know the StringBuilder exists and is empty

    public String getText() {
        return text.toString();

    public void setText(String text) {

    // Lots of supplemental functionality methods here 
    // that will be added below

It’s becoming annoying that all the data types need to be modified every time somebody has an idea for a new function. I know from experience that I’m unlikely to be able to predict, at the start of the maintenance, all the remaining functionality that will be needed. So I’ll introduce a Visitor pattern.

The basic data structure is still the Node, with subclasses TextNode and ImageNode. A real word processor would have more types of nodes, but I want to focus on the Visitor pattern, not compete with the well-known word processor that’s out there. Therefore, Node is now an interface with just one method:

public interface Node {
    abstract void accept(Visitor v);

I was tempted to call this interface Visitable instead of Node. On one hand, Visitable is a more descriptive name for this version. On the other hand, most formal definitions of Visitor use the term Node. I know some of you will go to Wikipedia to get a second opinion after reading this, and I don’t want to confuse anyone.

Node could alternatively be an abstract class, but that would force all the implementation classes to be related by inheritance, which may be an unnecessary restriction.

Node uses Visitor as a type, so the next step is to define Visitor:

public abstract class Visitor {
    public abstract void visitTextNode(TextNode textNode);

    public abstract void visitImageNode(ImageNode imageNode);

    // And so on for TableNode, SectionNode, VideoNode, and so forth

Note that you could make all the methods be overloads of a single method called visit(), because the argument types are unique, but I think this way is clearer. It’s a stylistic choice, so pick one way and try to be consistent.

At any rate, here you meet the one complication of the Visitor pattern: Visitors need to know how to visit every main kind of node.

The revised node classes themselves are not that interesting, so I didn’t show their code—the Text node has a Text property; the Image node has a FileName, a width, a height, and an optional Caption (which is subclassed from TextNode); and so on.

The iteration doesn’t need to be a for loop or even an iterator—any means of traversing all the nodes is fine.

With all that structure in place, it’s time to start to write visitors. First, suppose there’s a requirement to print a quick draft of the document, without trying to display the images (this capability was in the requirements from the days when graphics printers were expensive). The text stored in a TextNode might contain more characters than fit on a line, so I use an existing program called Fmt to crudely format lines to fit. Fmt wants its input as a stream (even though in this case it’s only one string), so the visitTextNode() method wraps the current TextNode’s string in an array and streams that to the format() method of Fmt.

    static Visitor draftPrinterVisitor = new Visitor() {
        public void visitTextNode(TextNode textNode) {
            String[] lines = { textNode.getText() };
            Fmt.format(Stream.of(lines), out);

        public void visitImageNode(ImageNode imageNode) {
            String caption = imageNode.caption != null ?
                imageNode.caption.getText() : "no caption";
            System.out.printf("Image: name='%s',
                caption='%s'%n", imageNode.fileName, caption);

The Fmt program requires a PrintWriter for output, so the code on the following page wraps System.out in a PrintWriter before passing the draftPrinterVisitor around to all the nodes.

The visitImageNode() method doesn’t need to use Fmt, because image captions are assumed to be one line long. The method simply gets the text from the ImageNode’s caption (which is a subtype of TextNode, so it has a getText() method), defaulting to “no caption” if there is no caption, and prints the result to System.out.

The main demo program, WordProcessorDemo, creates a demo document and iterates over its Node instances like this:

    out = new PrintWriter(System.out);
    for (Node n : nodes) {

Note that the iteration doesn’t need to be a for loop or even an iterator—any means of traversing all the nodes is fine.

Suddenly, someone from marketing rushes in and says, “Gee, this draft format is neat. But the boss wants it to show the word count as well. Can you add a function to compute that too?”

“No problem,” you can say, turning back to the code. Soon the new code takes shape. The following Visitor counts the number of words in text nodes, and it even descends into ImageNodes to get the word count of the caption, if there is one.

public class WordCountVisitor extends Visitor {

    int wordCount = 0;

    public int getWordCount() {
        return wordCount;

    public void visitTextNode(TextNode textNode) {
        wordCount += wordCount(textNode.getText());

    public void visitImageNode(ImageNode imageNode) {
        // You might say there's nothing to do, but let's try this:
        if (imageNode.caption != null) {

    /** Simplistic implementation of word counting */
    private int wordCount(String text) {
        // Replace all nonspace chars with nothing;
        // add one because "hello word" has one space,
        // but it is two words.
        return text.trim().
            replaceAll("[^\\s]", "").length() + 1;

This code is plugged into main() in a similar fashion:

Visitor wordCountVisitor = new WordCountVisitor();
for (Node n : nodes) {
System.out.printf("The document has about %d words%n",
((WordCountVisitor) wordCountVisitor).getWordCount());

And when the code is run with the sample document, it prints this, which turns out to be the correct answer:

The document has about 78 words

Revisiting the JDK

Java 8 and later versions include two sets of visitor types: ElementVisitor or TypeVisitor, and FileVisitor. The ElementVisitor types are part of the package javax.lang.model, which bills itself as “Classes and hierarchies of packages used to model the Java programming language.” I don’t have room in this article to write my own Java compiler, so I’ll skip the language-modeling types. But I’ll note that the Visitor pattern is often explained in terms of a program language compiler visiting the nodes of an abstract syntax tree (AST), which is the output of the parsing phase.

The Visitor pattern allows you to retain flexibility to add new methods at a slight cost: the reduction of encapsulation and the need for every visitor to know about all the different node types.

The FileVisitor and its solitary implementation class, SimpleFileVisitor in java.nio, are specialized for processing file hierarchies. They do follow the visit… naming pattern. A typical use is to subclass SimpleFileVisitor—overriding one or two of its four methods—and pass an instance of it to the Files.walkFileTree() method. The nodes you’re visiting this time are actual file system nodes (represented by inodes in the UNIX/Linux sense). The walkFileTree() method performs the iteration, and it calls your FileVisitor’s visitation methods to “do something” at the beginning and end of each directory and for each file in each directory. A simple directory lister, for example, can be made with just the following visitor class (this example is in the visitor.file package in the GitHub repository):

public class TrivialListerVisitor extends SimpleFileVisitor {

    public FileVisitResult preVisitDirectory(Path dir,
        BasicFileAttributes attrs) throws IOException {
        System.out.println("Start directory " + dir);
        return FileVisitResult.CONTINUE;

    public FileVisitResult visitFile(Path file,
        BasicFileAttributes attrs) throws IOException {
        return FileVisitResult.CONTINUE;

I also need to invoke the walkFileTree() method to do the iteration, using a Path object to describe the directory. This code is in the main() method of

// Set the starting path
Path startingPath = Paths.get(".");

// Instantiate the Visitor object
FileVisitor visitor = new TrivialFileVisitor();

// Use the built-in walkFileTree client to
// visit all directory and file nodes
Files.walkFileTree(startingPath, visitor);

This code works, although it’s obviously not a replacement for something like the UNIX/Linux/MacOS ls command, which sorts the entries and has a zillion options.

A slightly fancier version might indent one tab stop for each directory level. There’s a start at making such a thing in the class IndentingFileVisitor in my GitHub repository, although it doesn’t work superbly yet. To try it, just change the instantiation of the FileVisitor in the main method.


Besides the examples of the word processor add-on and directory navigation, are there other uses of the Visitor pattern? Certainly! Examples include its use in compilers (as mentioned earlier), report writing where different people need different reports, and graphics programs—in short, any application in which you need to add functionality across a hierarchy without disrupting (or even changing) the nodes in the hierarchy.

Visitor is like walking around a new company visiting all the teams and having them accept you (the introductions) and give you their impressions of your job (the visit). The Visitor pattern allows you to retain flexibility to add new methods at a slight cost: the reduction of encapsulation and the need for every visitor to know about all the different node types. It’s not a one-size-fits-all pattern. It’s optimal when the number of functionalities that you (might) have to add is significantly greater than the number of node types in your data structure. If the number of data types (node types) to be added is greater than the functions you’ll need to add or you truly know that you won’t need to add new functions very often, don’t use this pattern, but for the other cases, you’ll find Visitor to be an elegant solution.

This article was originally published in the September/October 2018 issue of Java Magazine.

Ian Darwin

Ian Darwin (@Ian_Darwin) is a Java Champion who has done all kinds of development, from mainframe applications and desktop publishing applications for UNIX and Windows, to a desktop database application in Java, to healthcare apps in Java for Android. He’s the author of Java Cookbook and Android Cookbook (both from O’Reilly). He has also written a few courses and taught many at Learning Tree International.

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