By user12608726 on Dec 17, 2008
Let us first examine CPU utilization in Solaris. Here are the results for network I/O using TCP transmit. Our System Under Test(SUT) is a Sun Fire X4440 server, a 16-core, 4-socket AMD Opteron based system with 64 GB memory, and 1 Myricom 10 Gig Ethernet card. It is connected to 15 Sun v20z clients (using one on-board 1 GigE NIC on each system), via a Cisco Catalyst 6500 switch. We use uperf 1.0.2 in these measurements. The profile is a bulk throughput oriented profile, while the write size is varied. The results are collected using the Network Characterization Suite (NCS) that we have developed in our group, and which will be open-sourced soon. Very briefly, the cycles per second is measured using DTrace, and describes how many CPU cycles are required to transmit every KByte of data. usr/sys/idle is measured using vmstat, while intr is measured using another Dtrace script. Throughput is reported by uperf at the end of the 120 second run.
Here are the results:
TCP Transmit tests using uperf with write size = 64K #conn Wnd (usr/sys/intr/idle) cycles/Kbyte Throughput 1 256k (0/3/0/96) 11792 928.11Mb/s 4 256k (0/4/0/95) 3365 3.71Gb/s 8 256k (0/7/1/92) 2815 7.42Gb/s 32 256k (0/8/1/91) 2793 9.22Gb/s 100 256k (0/9/1/90) 3161 9.24Gb/s 400 32k (0/24/3/74) 8392 8.93Gb/s 1000 32k (0/24/3/74) 8406 8.80Gb/s 2000 32k (0/31/4/68) 12869 7.01Gb/s 4000 32k (0/32/5/67) 14418 6.44Gb/s 6000 32k (0/35/5/63) 17053 6.37Gb/s TCP Transmit tests using uperf with msg size = 8K #conn Wnd (usr/sys/intr/idle) cycles/Kbyte Throughput 1 256k (0/4/0/95) 14259 896.23Mb/s 4 256k (0/5/0/93) 4276 3.72Gb/s 8 256k (0/10/1/89) 4385 7.13Gb/s 32 256k (0/14/2/85) 4951 8.46Gb/s 100 256k (0/16/2/83) 5515 8.11Gb/s 400 32k (0/29/3/69) 10738 7.46Gb/s 1000 32k (0/31/4/68) 11388 7.31Gb/s 2000 32k (0/36/6/62) 16818 6.44Gb/s 4000 32k (0/37/7/61) 14951 6.28Gb/s 6000 32k (1/34/5/64) 18752 6.19Gb/s Section: TCP Transmit tests using uperf with msg size = 1K #conn Wnd (usr/sys/intr/idle) cycles/Kbyte Throughput 1 256k (0/4/1/95) 13450 915.02Mb/s 4 256k (0/21/4/77) 19239 3.53Gb/s 8 256k (0/38/6/60) 20890 5.42Gb/s 32 256k (0/46/8/52) 18792 5.97Gb/s 100 256k (0/48/8/50) 21831 5.77Gb/s 400 32k (1/58/9/40) 24547 5.81Gb/s 1000 32k (1/53/9/45) 31557 4.73Gb/s 2000 32k (1/51/9/47) 38520 3.89Gb/s 4000 32k (1/58/11/40) 40116 3.98Gb/s 6000 32k (1/53/9/45) 40209 3.97Gb/sThe key metric to see above is cycles/Kbyte. We would like to spend as few cycles as possible for a bytes of transmission. So we want this number to be as low as possible. From the results above, we can infer the following about CPU utilization:
(1) The CPU utilization drops with increase in number of connections. The single connection case is an exception.
(2) The CPU utilization drops with a smaller write size.
(3) Most of the CPU is consumed in the kernel (sys). With increase in number of connection, the usr column goes up too due to the overhead of so many threads (In uperf, each connection is established on an independent thread).
(4) The throughput follows the same trend as CPU Utilization.
Most of the above is on expected lines, but to understand this better, let us profile CPU utilization for the case of 4000 connections doing 8k sized writes, and the case of 100 connections doing 32k writes. We use dtrace based er_kernel to gather the profile data, and then er_print to view the CPU utilization. er_print displays both inclusive (including function calls origination from the mentioned function), and exclusive (excluding all other function calls). The following syntax of er_print is used to list functions and sort them in order of inclusive CPU utilization.
er_print -metrics i.%kcycles:e.%kcycles -sort i.%kcycles -function pae4440oneportmyri.er/Filtering through the data, we gather the following CPU utilization for various function calls.
For 4000 connections with 8K sized writes (Throughput=6.28 Gbps):
|Function||Inclusive CPU Utilization %|
For 100 connections with 64K sized writes (Throughput=9.24 Gbps):
|Function||Inclusive CPU Utilization %|
Ratio of CPU Utilizations normalized to bandwidth:
|Function||Normalized CPU Utilization Ratio (4000 connections, 8K writes/ 100 connections, 32 K writes)|
Comparing the normalized values, the cost of the system call write() doesn't change much. Copying becomes a little more efficient with a increase in write size from 8K to 64K. Increase in number of connections is not expected to add to the cost of write().
tcp_wput_data() turns more expensive as the effectiveness of Large Segment Offload (LSO) decreases with higher number of connections, resulting in increased number of function calls and reduced efficiency. Please read my blog about LSO on the Solaris networking stack here.
The driver send routine myri10ge_one_track() turns more expensive due to a combination of smaller LSO segments, and increased cost of DMAing the higher number of segments. We observer that in terms of increase, the cost of driver send operations increases the most (>9x).
Finally, with higher number of connections, we observe a TCP ACK ratio of 2:1, instead of the maximum of 8:1 that is possible on a LAN. A lower ACK ratio leads to higher number of ACK packets and subsequently, a higher cost of tcp_rput_data().
In conclusion, CPU efficiency in the transmit path may reduce due to the following factors.
(i) Poor LSO efficiency: This causes higher number of function calls for driving the same volume of data.
(ii) Higher number of DMA calls: More number of DMA operations leads to reduced CPU efficiency since each DMA operation would require binding and later freeing DMA handles which are expensive operations.
(iii) Poor ACK ratio: A 8:1 ACK ratio leads to lower volume of TCP ACKs and frees CPU cycles. The ACK ratio is seen go reduce with increase in connections.