Monday Sep 22, 2008

Oracle Open World 2008 - Growing Green Databases with UltraSPARC CMT

The time has come present at Oracle Open World on UltraSPARC CMT performance. I decided to post the final version here in addition to the OOW site. I hope to see you there!
Session ID: S299785
     Title: Growing Green databases with Oracle on the UltraSPARC CMT processor
      Date: Monday Sept 22nd
      Time: 13:00 - 14:00
     Place: Moscone South Rm 236

Thursday May 29, 2008

Optimizing Oracle DSS operations with CMT based servers

This entry continues the Throughput Computing Series to show how a typical DSS operation can be optimized with CMT based servers. The "Create as Select" and "Insert into as Select" operations are quite common in DSS and OLTP environments as well. Unless parallelism is specified, Oracle will single thread these operations. To achieve optimal throughput, these operations can use parallel query and DML operations.

Results

I created a 20GB table on a T5240 server to serve as the source for the "Create as Select" (CAS) operations. The parallelism of the CAS operation was increased until the IO subsystem was maxed out. This resulted in a drop from 25 minutes with no parallelism to 2 minutes 40 seconds with 8 threads...thats nearly a 10x speedup by simply using parallelism built into Oracle!



This server was configured with just two HBAs, one for each the source and destination tables. This limited throughput of CAS operations to 127MB/sec, or one HBA. With this IO configuration, it took only 8 threads to reach maximum throughput. You should experiment to achieve maximum throughput of your IO configuration. If you suspect your IO configuration is not performing up to speed, look into doing some IO micro benchmarking to find the maximum throughput outside of Oracle. A topic for a later discussion :)

SQL syntax

The following shows how to use parallel DML and parallel query.
           ## Create as Select ##
           ##
           SQL> alter session enable parallel dml;
                
           SQL> create table abc
                parallel (degree 32)
                as
                select /\*+ parallel(gtest, 32) \*/ \* from gtest;
    
    
           ## Insert as Select ##
           ##
           SQL> alter session enable parallel dml;
            
           SQL> insert /\*+ parallel(abc,32) \*/
                into abc
                select /\*+ parallel(gtest,32) \*/ \* from gtest;
    
    

Wednesday May 21, 2008

Optimizing Oracle index create with CMT based servers

One of the most common ways to improve SQL performance is the use of indexes. While Oracle does have a wide variety of indexes available, these tests focus on the most commonly used B-tree index. On large tables it is important to ensure indexes get created in a timely fashion, that is why Oracle introduced several features to decrease index creation time:
  • "unrecoverable"

    This feature prevent the logging of intermediate steps of the index creation process. There is really no value to logging of intermediate steps. Index creation should be thought of as an atomic process - if it fails, you can always start over. If you create indexes as "unrecoverable" they won't be recoverable until a backup is performed on the target tablespace.

  • "parallel"

    This simply uses parallel query/dml to speed the creation of indexes.
The following index create statement shows how to use the "parallel" and "unrecoverable" features for index creation.
      create index gtest_c1 on gtest(idname)
      pctfree 30  parallel 64 tablespace glennf_i unrecoverable;
      

Results

The following test created an non-unique index on varchar(32) column of a 20GB table. Parallelism was increased from 1->64 in order to use the available IO bandwidth. With parallelism of 1 index creation took 34 minutes, while with parallelism of 64 it took only 3 minutes and 45 seconds!



These tests use the same configuration as previous posts regarding Oracle in the Throughput Computing series.

Wednesday May 14, 2008

Parallelizing Oracle backup with RMAN on CMT based servers

A backup window is important to keep in check to ensure time for batch and on-line work. With Oracle RMAN there are several ways to keep backups flowing smoothly. This example shows how you can use multiple channels and parallelism to increase the throughput of backup to the maximum of your IO configuration.

Results

This graph shows scaling in MB/sec based on the # of channels in use. The term "channels" used by Oracle does not have any relation to actual "physical" channels. In Oracle RMAN terms, a channel is simply a "connection" to a database for which to backup data. Data files are assigned to "connections" in a round-robin fashion so as to utilize all connections as evenly as possible.



By configuring a parallelism of 20 with RMAN, I was able to increase throughput from 5->80 MB/sec. Single threaded performance was limited to 5MB/sec mainly due to the high CPU component that comes with using "COMPRESSED" backups. The way to maximize IO throughput with COMPRESSION is to simply add more streams.

RMAN commands to achieve parallelism

I used the following commands to create 20 backup "channels" for RMAN. Notice that they configured to use the same directory, just with different file formats.

RMAN> configure channel 1 device type disk format
     '/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c1%d_S_%s_P_%p_T_%t' MAXPIECESIZE 1024 M;
RMAN> configure channel 2 device type disk format
     '/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c2%d_S_%s_P_%p_T_%t' MAXPIECESIZE 1024 M;
...
...
RMAN> configure channel 20 device type disk format
     '/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c20%d_S_%s_P_%p_T_%t' MAXPIECESIZE 1024 M;

After creating these channels, you must tell RMAN how to connect to these channels:

RMAN> configure channel 1 DEVICE TYPE DISK CONNECT '/as sysdba';
RMAN> configure channel 2 DEVICE TYPE DISK CONNECT '/as sysdba';
...
...
RMAN> configure channel 20 DEVICE TYPE DISK CONNECT '/as sysdba';

Next, you need to tell RMAN to use disk parallelism of 20:

RMAN> CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK BACKUP TYPE 
      TO COMPRESSED BACKUPSET PARALLELISM 20;

Finally, let's issue the backup command:

RMAN> BACKUP TABLESPACE GLENNF_RMAN;

Starting backup at 09-MAY-08
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=966 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2
channel ORA_DISK_2: sid=952 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_3
channel ORA_DISK_3: sid=940 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_4
channel ORA_DISK_4: sid=938 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_5
channel ORA_DISK_5: sid=939 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_6
channel ORA_DISK_6: sid=969 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_7
channel ORA_DISK_7: sid=961 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_8
channel ORA_DISK_8: sid=963 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_9
channel ORA_DISK_9: sid=953 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_10
channel ORA_DISK_10: sid=970 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_11
channel ORA_DISK_11: sid=920 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_12
channel ORA_DISK_12: sid=943 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_13
channel ORA_DISK_13: sid=968 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_14
channel ORA_DISK_14: sid=929 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_15
channel ORA_DISK_15: sid=960 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_16
channel ORA_DISK_16: sid=931 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_17
channel ORA_DISK_17: sid=927 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_18
channel ORA_DISK_18: sid=957 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_19
channel ORA_DISK_19: sid=958 devtype=DISK
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_20
channel ORA_DISK_20: sid=964 devtype=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00068 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_2: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00069 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn2
channel ORA_DISK_2: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_3: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_3: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00070 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn3
channel ORA_DISK_3: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_4: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_4: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00071 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn4
channel ORA_DISK_4: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_5: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_5: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00072 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn5
channel ORA_DISK_5: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_6: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_6: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00073 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn6
channel ORA_DISK_6: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_7: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_7: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00074 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn7
channel ORA_DISK_7: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_8: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_8: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00075 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn8
channel ORA_DISK_8: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_9: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_9: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00076 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn9
channel ORA_DISK_9: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_10: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_10: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00077 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn10
channel ORA_DISK_10: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_11: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_11: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00078 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn11
channel ORA_DISK_11: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_12: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_12: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00079 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn12
channel ORA_DISK_12: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_13: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_13: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00080 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn13
channel ORA_DISK_13: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_14: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_14: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00081 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn14
channel ORA_DISK_14: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_15: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_15: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00082 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn15
channel ORA_DISK_15: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_16: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_16: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00083 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn16
channel ORA_DISK_16: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_17: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_17: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00084 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn17
channel ORA_DISK_17: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_18: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_18: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00085 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn18
channel ORA_DISK_18: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_19: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_19: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00086 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn19
channel ORA_DISK_19: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_20: starting compressed full datafile backupset
channel ORA_DISK_20: specifying datafile(s) in backupset
input datafile fno=00087 name=/oracle/O6S/sapraw/glenn20
channel ORA_DISK_20: starting piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
channel ORA_DISK_2: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c2O6S_S_81_P_1_T_654270132 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:58
channel ORA_DISK_3: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c3O6S_S_82_P_1_T_654270132 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_3: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:58
channel ORA_DISK_4: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c4O6S_S_83_P_1_T_654270132 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_4: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:58
channel ORA_DISK_9: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c9O6S_S_88_P_1_T_654270133 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_9: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:57
channel ORA_DISK_11: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c11O6S_S_90_P_1_T_654270133 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_11: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:57
channel ORA_DISK_12: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c12O6S_S_91_P_1_T_654270133 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_12: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:57
channel ORA_DISK_13: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c13O6S_S_92_P_1_T_654270133 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_13: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:57
channel ORA_DISK_18: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c18O6S_S_97_P_1_T_654270134 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_18: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:56
channel ORA_DISK_20: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c20O6S_S_99_P_1_T_654270135 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_20: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:55
channel ORA_DISK_10: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c10O6S_S_89_P_1_T_654270133 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_10: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:58
channel ORA_DISK_16: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c16O6S_S_95_P_1_T_654270134 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_16: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:57
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c1O6S_S_80_P_1_T_654270132 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:00
channel ORA_DISK_5: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c5O6S_S_84_P_1_T_654270132 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_5: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:00
channel ORA_DISK_14: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c14O6S_S_93_P_1_T_654270134 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_14: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:58
channel ORA_DISK_7: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c7O6S_S_86_P_1_T_654270132 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_7: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:01
channel ORA_DISK_8: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c8O6S_S_87_P_1_T_654270132 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_8: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:01
channel ORA_DISK_6: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c6O6S_S_85_P_1_T_654270132 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_6: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:04
channel ORA_DISK_15: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c15O6S_S_94_P_1_T_654270134 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_15: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:02
channel ORA_DISK_17: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c17O6S_S_96_P_1_T_654270134 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_17: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:02
channel ORA_DISK_19: finished piece 1 at 09-MAY-08
piece handle=/o6s_data/GLENNF/d2/backup_db_c19O6S_S_98_P_1_T_654270135 tag=TAG20080509T134205 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_19: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:01
Finished backup at 09-MAY-08

Configuration

  • T5240 - "Maramba" CMT based server
    • 2 x UltraSPARC T2 Plus @ 1.4GHz
    • 128GB memory
    • 2 x 1GB fiber channel HBA
    • 1 x 6140 Storage array with 1 lun per channel.
  • Software
    • Solaris 10 Update 5
    • Oracle 10.2.0.3
    • CoolTools

Monday Apr 21, 2008

Throughput computing series: Utilizing CMT with Oracle

Since we just recently announced mutli-chip based CMT servers that provide up to 128 threads in a 1U or 2U box, it seems fitting to pick up this thread on throughput computing.

The key to fully appreciating the CMT architecture with Oracle is to exploit the available threads. As I have spoke about earlier in the "throughput computing series", this can be done through "concurrency", "parallelism", or both. Oracle, being the mature product that it is, can achieve high-levels of parallelism as well as concurrency.

Concurrent processing with Oracle

For examples of concurrent processing with Oracle, look at recent results on the Oracle Ebusiness payroll benchmark. This shows that using concurrent processes to break up the batch, you can increase batch throughput. By going from 4 to 64 processes, batch time decreased from 31.53 minutes to 4.63 minutes and throughput was increased by 6.8x!

With Oracle's Ebusiness Suite of software, you can increase the number of "concurrent manager" processes to more fully utilize the available threads on the system. Each ISV has different ways of controlling batch distribution and concurrency. You will have to check with your various software vendors to find all the ways to increase concurrency.

Parallelism in Oracle

People often associate parallelism in Oracle with parallel query. In most cases where CMT is involved, I see a lack of understanding of how to achieve parallelism with more basic administrative functions. Oracle excels in providing parallelism for important administrative tasks.

  • Schema analyze
  • Index build/rebuild
  • Parallel loader
  • Parallel export/import with datapump

    While parallelism exists for these administrative tasks, some configuration is required. I will examine the various ways to achieve optimal throughput with CMT based systems on these tasks.
  • About

    This blog discusses performance topics as running on Sun servers. The main focus is in database performance and architecture but other topics can and will creep in.

    Search

    Archives
    « April 2014
    SunMonTueWedThuFriSat
      
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    10
    11
    12
    13
    14
    15
    16
    17
    18
    19
    20
    21
    22
    23
    24
    25
    26
    27
    28
    29
    30
       
           
    Today
    News

    No bookmarks in folder

    Blogroll

    No bookmarks in folder