The academic literature is rife with algorithms for pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs). Typically, there's a trade-off between performance and the quality of the distribution. In most cases I need PRNGs to implement very lightweight Bernoulli trials for randomized stress tests, benchmarks, or scalable probabilistic counters. My budget is usually less that 100 cycles to generate a uniformly distributed value. Marsaglia's xor-shift PRNG is one of my personal favorites. If I need better quality I'll step up to Ziff's four tap or Mersenne twister.
One variation of Marsaglia has only one word of state, a 4G-1 period, and requires just 3 shifts and 3 XOR operations to generate a new value. 0 is an absorbing state that we avoid. See MarsagliaNext(), below. Ignoring 0, the trajectory or stream of values forms a cycle -- conceptually a ring. The initialization and seeding operation should act to place different threads at different positions on that ring. In a sense the ring is shared by all threads but we start the threads at different points. Unfortunately, we can sometimes find that 2 different threads are at about the same position at about the same time through simple bad luck, and thus generate similar streams of values. (Longer PRNG cycles reduce the odds of such scenarios, of course). Ideally, to avoid such inopportune and undesirable behavior, each thread would have its own private ring of values.
A simple approach that is tantamount to giving each thread its own ring -- trajectory of values -- is shown below in NextRandom(). Hash32() is a hash function, which we'll describe later. Note that we explicitly "color" the value passed into Hash32() with the address of the thread-local PRNG state. Recall that at any one time, such an address will be associated with at most one thread, and is thus temporally unique. This approach gives us additional independence over concurrently executing threads. It also makes NextRandom() self-seeding -- explicit initialization is not required.
The Hash32() hash function is the key to this particular PRNG, and its implementation directly embodies the trade-off between performance and the quality of the resulting distribution. Conceptually, you could think of Hash32() as representing a randomized cycle with a period of 4G. We might implement Hash32() via a strong cryptographic hash, such as SHA-3 or MD5. Those hash functions would work perfectly well, but tend to be high quality but somewhat expensive, so we'd prefer a cheaper hash. Critically, we want the hash function to exhibit a high degree of avalanche effect. (A good encryption function could also be used as a hash operator). Some cheaper candidates for the hash function include: MurmurHash ;CityHash ; FNV hash family; siphash; and Jenkins hash.
Doug Lea and Guy Steele invented some of the best candidates for our hash function: see Mix32() and Mix64() below. These are relatively cheap but do well on avalanche tests and strike a reasonable balance between quality and performance. Beware that they're obviously not cryptographically strong. Mix32() and Mix64() are related to mix functions found in java.util.SplittableRandom.
Update 2014-03-13 : Thanks to Paul Sandoz for pointing out Stafford's mix function.
static int32_t MarsagliaNext () {
static __thread int32_t rv = 0 ;
if (rv == 0) rv = GenerateSeed() ;
int32_t v = rv ;
v ^= v << 6 ;
v ^= uint32_t(v) >> 21 ;
v ^= v << 7 ;
rv = v ;
return v ;
}
static int NextRandom() {
// assumes a 32-bit environment : ILP32
// Instead of incrementing by 1 we could also
// increment by a large prime or by the MIX constant
// if we're using Mix32() as our hash function.
static __thread int rv = 0 ;
return Hash32 (int(&rv) + (++rv)) ;
}
// Mix32 and Mix64 are provided courtesy of Doug Lea and Guy Steele
static int32_t Mix32 (int32_t z) {
static const int32_t MIX = 0x9abe94e3;
// Another workable constant is 0xa0ca9b6b
z = (z ^ (uint32_t(z) >> 16)) * MIX;
z = (z ^ (uint32_t(z) >> 16)) * MIX;
return z ^ (uint32_t(z) >> 16);
}
static int64_t Mix64 (int64_t z) {
static const int64_t MIX = 0xdaba0b6eb09322e3LL;
z = (z ^ (uint64_t(z) >> 32)) * MIX;
z = (z ^ (uint64_t(z) >> 32)) * MIX;
return z ^ (uint64_t(z) >> 32);
}
Hello Dave, it is very helpful entry for my project of PRNG construction. Thank you very much for really simple idiom.
Ruth