By Darryl Gove on Mar 20, 2008
Dan Berger posted a comment about the compiler flags we'd used for Ruby. Basically, we've not done compiler flag tuning yet, so I'll write a quick outline of the first steps in tuning an application.
- First of all profile the application with whatever flags it usually builds with. This is partly to get some idea of where the hot code is, but it's also useful to have some idea of what you're starting with. The other benefit is that it's tricky to debug build issues if you've already changed the defaults.
- It should be pretty easy at this point to identify the build flags. Probably they will flash past on the screen, or in the worse case, they can be extracted (from non-stripped executables) using dumpstabs or dwarfdump. It can be necessary to check that the flags you want to use are actually the ones being passed into the compiler.
- Of course, I'd certainly use spot to get all the profiles. One of the features spot has that is really useful is to archive the results, so that after multiple runs of the application with different builds it's still possible to look at the old code, and identify the compiler flags used.
- I'd probably try -fast, which is a macro flag, meaning it enables a number of optimisations that typically improve application performance. I'll probably post later about this flag, since there's quite a bit to say about it. Performance under the flag should give an idea of what to expect with aggressive optimisations. If the flag does improve the applications performance, then you probably want to identify the exact options that provide the benefit and use those explicitly.
- In the profile, I'd be looking for routines which seem to be taking too long, and I'd be trying to figure out what was causing the time to be spent. For SPARC, the execution count data from bit that's shown in the spot report is vital in being able to distinguish from code that runs slow, or code that runs fast but is executed many times. I'd probably try various other options based on what I saw. Memory stalls might make me try prefetch options, TLB misses would make me tweak the -xpagesize options.
- I'd also want to look at using crossfile optimisation, and profile feedback, both of which tend to benefit all codes, but particularly codes which have a lot of branches. The compiler can make pretty good guesses on loops
These directions are more a list of possible experiments than necessary an item-by-item checklist, but they form a good basis. And they are not an exhaustive list...