By user12611829 on Dec 20, 2012
Does the pkg fix reinstall binaries if the hash or chksum doesn't match?Yes, it does. Let's actually see this in action, and then we will take a look at where it is getting the information required to correct the error.
Since I'm working on a series of Solaris 11 Automated Installer (AI) How To articles, installadm seems a good choice to damage, courtesy of the random number generator.
# ls /sbin/install* /sbin/install /sbin/installadm-convert /sbin/installf /sbin/installadm /sbin/installboot /sbin/installgrub # cd /sbin # mv installadm installadm- # dd if=/dev/random of=/sbin/installadm bs=8192 count=32 0+32 records in 0+32 records out # ls -la installadm* -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 33280 Dec 18 18:50 installadm -r-xr-xr-x 1 root bin 12126 Dec 17 08:36 installadm- -r-xr-xr-x 1 root bin 74910 Dec 17 08:36 installadm-convertOK, that should do it. Unless I am terribly unlucky, those random bytes will produce something that doesn't match the stored hash value of the installadm binary.
This time, I will begin the repair process with a pkg verify, just to see what is broken.
# pkg verify installadm PACKAGE STATUS pkg://solaris/install/installadm ERROR file: usr/sbin/installadm Group: 'root (0)' should be 'bin (2)' Mode: 0644 should be 0555 Size: 33280 bytes should be 12126 Hash: 2e862c7ebd5dce82ffd1b30c666364f23e9118b5 should be 68374d71b9cb91b458a49ec104f95438c9a149a7For clarity, I have removed all of the compiled python module errors. Most of these have been corrected in Solaris 11.1, but you may see these occasionally when doing a pkg verify.
Since we have a real package error, let's correct it.
# pkg fix installadm Verifying: pkg://solaris/install/installadm ERROR file: usr/sbin/installadm Group: 'root (0)' should be 'bin (2)' Mode: 0644 should be 0555 Size: 33280 bytes should be 12126 Hash: 2e862c7ebd5dce82ffd1b30c666364f23e9118b5 should be 68374d71b9cb91b458a49ec104f95438c9a149a7 Created ZFS snapshot: 2012-12-19-00:51:00 Repairing: pkg://solaris/install/installadm DOWNLOAD PKGS FILES XFER (MB) Completed 1/1 24/24 0.1/0.1 PHASE ACTIONS Update Phase 24/24 PHASE ITEMS Image State Update Phase 2/2We can now run installadm as if it was never damaged.
# installadm list Service Name Alias Of Status Arch Image Path ------------ -------- ------ ---- ---------- default-i386 solaris11-i386 on x86 /install/solaris11-i386 solaris11-i386 - on x86 /install/solaris11-i386 solaris11u1-i386 - on x86 /install/solaris11u1-i386Oh, if you are wondering about that hash, it is a SHA1 checksum.
# digest -a sha1 /usr/sbin/installadm 68374d71b9cb91b458a49ec104f95438c9a149a7
If so does IPS keep the installation binaries in a depot or have to point to the originating depot to fix the problem?IPS does keep a local cache of package attributes. Before diving into some of these details, it should be known that some, if not all of these, are private details of the current implementation of IPS, and can change in the future. Always consult the command and configuration file man pages before using any of these in scripts. In this case, the relevant information would be in pkg(5) (i.e. man -s 5 pkg).
Our first step is to identify which publisher has provided the package that is currently installed. In my case, there is only one (solaris), but in a large and mature enterprise deployment, there could be many publishers.
# pkg info installadm pkg info installadm Name: install/installadm Summary: installadm utility Description: Automatic Installation Server Setup Tools Category: System/Administration and Configuration State: Installed Publisher: solaris Version: 0.5.11 Build Release: 5.11 Branch: 0.175.0.0.0.2.1482 Packaging Date: October 19, 2011 12:26:24 PM Size: 1.04 MB FMRI: pkg://firstname.lastname@example.org,5.11-0.175.0.0.0.2.1482:20111019T122624ZFrom this we have learned that the actual package name is install/installadm and the publisher is in fact, solaris. We have also learned that the version of installadm comes from the original Solaris 11 GA release (5.11-0.175.0.0). That will allow us to go take a look at some of the configuration files (private interface warning still in effect).
Note: Since package names contain slashes (/), we will have to encode them as %2F to keep the shell from interpreting them as a directory delimiter.
# cd /var/pkg/publisher/solaris/pkg/install%2Finstalladm # ls -la drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4 Dec 18 00:55 . drwxr-xr-x 818 root root 818 Dec 17 08:36 .. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 25959 Dec 17 08:36 0.5.11%2C5.11-0.175.0.0.0.2.1482%3A20111019T122624Z -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 26171 Dec 18 00:55 0.5.11%2C5.11-0.175.0.13.0.3.0%3A20121026T213106ZThe file 0.5.11%2C5.11-0.175.0.0.0.2.1482%3A20111019T122624Z is the one we are interested in.
# digest -a sha1 /usr/sbin/installadm 68374d71b9cb91b458a49ec104f95438c9a149a7 # grep 68374d71b9cb91b458a49ec104f95438c9a149a7 * file 68374d71b9cb91b458a49ec104f95438c9a149a7 chash=a5c14d2f8cc854dbd4fa15c3121deca6fca64515 group=bin mode=0555 owner=root path=usr/sbin/installadm pkg.csize=3194 pkg.size=12126That's how IPS knows our version of installadm has been tampered with. Since it is more than just changing attributes of the files, it has to download a new copy of the damaged files, in this case from the solaris publisher (or one of its mirrors). To keep from making this worse, it also makes a snapshot of the current boot environment, in case things go terribly wrong - which they do not.
Armed with this information, we can use some other IPS features, such as searching by binary hash.
# pkg search -r 68374d71b9cb91b458a49ec104f95438c9a149a7 INDEX ACTION VALUE PACKAGE 68374d71b9cb91b458a49ec104f95438c9a149a7 file usr/sbin/installadm pkg:/email@example.com... or by name
# pkg search -r installadm INDEX ACTION VALUE PACKAGE basename dir usr/lib/installadm pkg:/firstname.lastname@example.org basename dir var/installadm pkg:/email@example.com basename file usr/sbin/installadm pkg:/firstname.lastname@example.org pkg.fmri set solaris/install/installadm pkg:/email@example.com pkg.summary set installadm utility pkg:/firstname.lastname@example.orgAnd finally...
# pkg contents -m installadm ..... lots of output truncated ...... file 68374d71b9cb91b458a49ec104f95438c9a149a7 chash=a5c14d2f8cc854dbd4fa15c3121deca6fca64515 group=bin mode=0555 owner=root path=usr/sbin/installadm pkg.csize=3194 pkg.size=12126There is our information using a public and stable interface. Now you know, not only where IPS caches the information, but a predictable way to retrieve it, should you ever need to do so.
As with the verify and fix operations, this is much more helpful than the SVR4 packaging commands in Solaris 10 and earlier.
Given that customers might come up with their own ideas of keeping pkgs at various levels, could they be shooting themselves in the foot and creating such a customized OS that it causes problems?Stephen Hahn has written quite a bit on the origins of IPS, both on his archived Sun blog as well as on the OpenSolaris pkg project page. While it is a fascinating and useful read, the short answer is that IPS helps prevent this from happening - certainly much more so than with the previous packaging system.
The assistance comes in several ways.
Full packages: Since IPS delivers full packages only, that eliminates one of the most confusing and frustrating aspects of the legacy Solaris packaging system. Every time you update a package with IPS, you get a complete version of the software, the way it was assembled and tested at Oracle (and presumably other publishers as well). No more patch order files and, perhaps more important, no more complicated scripts to automate the patching process.
Dependencies: A rich dependency mechanism allows the package maintainer to guarantee that other related software is at a compatible version. This includes incorporations, which protect large groups of software, such as the basic desktop, GNOME, auto-install and the userland tools. Although not a part of dependencies, facets allow for the control of optional software components - locales being a good example.
Boot environments: Solaris 10 system administrators can enjoy many of the benefits of IPS boot environment integration by using Live Upgrade and ZFS as a root file system. IPS takes this to the next level by automatically performing important operations, such as upgrading the pkg package when needed or taking a snapshot before performing any risky actions.
Expanding your question just a bit, IPS provides one new capability that should make updates much more predictable. If there is some specific component that an application requires, its version can be locked within a range. Here is an example, albeit a rather contrived one.
# pkg list -af jre-6 NAME (PUBLISHER) VERSION IFO runtime/java/jre-6 184.108.40.206-0.175.1.2.0.3.0 --- runtime/java/jre-6 220.127.116.11-0.175.1.0.0.24.1 --- runtime/java/jre-6 18.104.22.168-0.175.0.11.0.4.0 --- runtime/java/jre-6 22.214.171.124-0.175.0.10.0.2.0 --- runtime/java/jre-6 126.96.36.199-0.175.0.9.0.2.0 --- runtime/java/jre-6 188.8.131.52-0.175.0.8.0.4.0 --- runtime/java/jre-6 184.108.40.206-0.175.0.0.0.2.0 i--Suppose that we have an application that is tied to version 220.127.116.11 of the java runtime. You can lock it at that version and IPS will prevent you from applying any upgrade that would change it. In this example, an attempt to upgrade to SRU8 (which introduces version 18.104.22.168 of jre-6) will fail.
# pkg freeze -c "way cool demonstration of IPS" email@example.com runtime/java/jre-6 was frozen at 22.214.171.124 # pkg list -af jre-6 pkg list -af jre-6 NAME (PUBLISHER) VERSION IFO runtime/java/jre-6 126.96.36.199-0.175.1.2.0.3.0 --- runtime/java/jre-6 188.8.131.52-0.175.1.0.0.24.1 --- runtime/java/jre-6 184.108.40.206-0.175.0.11.0.4.0 --- runtime/java/jre-6 220.127.116.11-0.175.0.10.0.2.0 --- runtime/java/jre-6 18.104.22.168-0.175.0.9.0.2.0 --- runtime/java/jre-6 22.214.171.124-0.175.0.8.0.4.0 --- runtime/java/jre-6 126.96.36.199-0.175.0.0.0.2.0 if- # pkg update --be-name s11ga-sru08 firstname.lastname@example.orgWhat follows is a lengthy set of complaints about not being able to satisfy all of the constraints, conveniently pointing back to our frozen package.
But wait, there's more. IPS can figure out the latest update it can apply that satisfies the frozen package constraint. In this example, it should find SRU7.
# pkg update --be-name s11ga-sru07 Packages to update: 89 Create boot environment: Yes Create backup boot environment: No DOWNLOAD PKGS FILES XFER (MB) Completed 89/89 3909/3909 135.7/135.7 PHASE ACTIONS Removal Phase 720/720 Install Phase 889/889 Update Phase 5066/5066 PHASE ITEMS Package State Update Phase 178/178 Package Cache Update Phase 89/89 Image State Update Phase 2/2 A clone of solaris exists and has been updated and activated. On the next boot the Boot Environment s11ga-sru07 will be mounted on '/'. Reboot when ready to switch to this updated BE. --------------------------------------------------------------------------- NOTE: Please review release notes posted at: http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=E23824&id=SERNS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------When the system is rebooted, a quick look shows that we are indeed running with SRU7.
Perhaps we were too restrictive in locking down jre-6 to version 188.8.131.52. In this example, we will loosen the constraint to any 1.6.0 version, but prohibit upgrades that change it to 1.6.1. Note that I did not have to unfreeze the package as a new pkg freeze will replace the preceding one.
# pkg freeze email@example.com runtime/java/jre-6 was frozen at 1.6.0 # pkg list -af jre-6 NAME (PUBLISHER) VERSION IFO runtime/java/jre-6 184.108.40.206-0.175.1.2.0.3.0 -f- runtime/java/jre-6 220.127.116.11-0.175.1.0.0.24.1 -f- runtime/java/jre-6 18.104.22.168-0.175.0.11.0.4.0 -f- runtime/java/jre-6 22.214.171.124-0.175.0.10.0.2.0 -f- runtime/java/jre-6 126.96.36.199-0.175.0.9.0.2.0 -f- runtime/java/jre-6 188.8.131.52-0.175.0.8.0.4.0 -f- runtime/java/jre-6 184.108.40.206-0.175.0.0.0.2.0 if-This shows that all versions are available for upgrade (i.e. , they all satisfy the frozen package constraint).
Once again, IPS gives us a wonderful capability that is missing in the legacy packaging system.
When you perform a pkg update on a system are we guaranteed a highly tested configuration that has gone thru multiple regression tests?Short answer: yes.
For the details, I will turn your attention to our friend, Gerry Haskins, and his two excellent blogs: The Patch Corner (Solaris 10 and earlier) and Solaris 11 Maintenance Lifecycle. Both are excellent reads and I encourage everybody to add them to your RSS reader of choice.
Of particular note is Gerry's presentation, Solaris 11 Customer Maintenance Lifecycle, which goes into some great detail about patches, upgrades and the like. If you dig back to around the time that Solaris 10 9/10(u9) was released, you will find a links to a pair of interesting documents titled Oracle Integrated Stack - Complete, Trusted Enterprise Solutions and Trust Your Enterprise Deployments to the Oracle Product Stack: The integrated platform that's been developed, tested and certified to get the job done. These documents describe several test environments, including the Oracle Certification Environment (OCE) and Oracle Automated Stress Test (OAST). All Solaris 10 patches and Solaris 11 package updates (including Oracle Solaris Cluster) are put through these tests prior to release. The result is a higher confidence that patches will not introduce stability or performance problems, negating the old practice of putting a release or patch bundle on the shelf while somebody else finds all of the problems. Local testing on your own equipment is still a necessary practice, but you are able to move more quickly to a new release thanks to these additional testing environments.
If I am allowed to ask a follow up question, it would be something like, "what can I do proactively to keep my system as current as possible and reduce the risks of bad patch or package interactions?"
That is where the Critical Patch Updates come into play. Solaris 11 Support Repository Updates (SRU) come out approximately once per month. Every third one (generally) is special and becomes the CPU for Solaris. If you have a regular cadence for applying CPUs or Patch Set Updates (PSU) for your other Oracle software, choose the corresponding SRU that has been designated as that quarter's CPU. You can find this information in My Oracle Support (MOS), on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN), or just read Gerry's blog in mid January, April, July and October.
Thanks again to David Lange for asking such good questions. I hope the answers helped.