TOTD #106: How to install Oracle Database 10g on Mac OS X (Intel) ?
By arungupta on Sep 28, 2009
The official documentation is available here and is very well suited for folks with lots of time and patience. But all I wanted was to install Oracle database server up & running on my localhost so that I can start experimenting with it. All my previous entries have used either JavaDB or MySQL so far, but it's about time ;-)
I started preparing a brief tutorial after following the lengthy documentation but then found this excellent blog entry. And realized the content is looking exactly similar :-) Anyway, below are the instructions I followed and additionally also provide a snapshot of the installer windows.
For the brave of heart, complete installation guide is available in HTML and PDF. Read on for an abbreviated, and yet working version, of the instructions.
- Download Oracle database 10g R2 (10.2.0.4.0) from here and unzip.
- Check hardware/software requirements. (10.5.4+ required)
- Create required groups/users (complete details):
Create Oracle inventory group as:
# dscl . -create /groups/oinstall # dscl . -append /groups/oinstall gid 100 # dscl . -append /groups/oinstall passwd "\*"
Create Oracle software owner as:
# dscl . -create /users/oracle # dscl . -append /users/oracle uid uid_number # dscl . -append /users/oracle gid oinstall_gid # dscl . -append /users/oracle shell /bin/bash # dscl . -append /users/oracle home /Users/oracle # dscl . -append /users/oracle realname "Oracle software owner"
Create the home directory for Oracle user as:
# mkdir /Users/oracle # chown oracle:oinstall /Users/oracle
Set the password for Oracle user:
# passwd oracle
- Create Oracle inventory group as:
Configure kernel parameters (complete details) by editing "/etc/sysctl.conf" and adding the contents:
kern.sysv.semmsl=87381 kern.sysv.semmns=87381 kern.sysv.semmni=87381 kern.sysv.semmnu=87381 kern.sysv.semume=10 kernel.shmall=2097152 kernel.sys.shmmax=2147483648 kernel.sys.shmmni=4096 kern.maxfiles=65536 kern.maxfilesperproc=65536 net.inet.ip.portrange.first=1024 net.inet.ip.portrange.last=65000 kern.corefile=core kern.maxproc=2068 kern.maxprocperuid=2068
Configure Oracle user's environment (complete details). In the "oracle" user's home directory, create ".bash_profile" and add the following lines:
export DISPLAY=:0.0 export ORACLE_BASE=$HOME export ORACLE_SID=orcl umask 022 ulimit -Hn 65536 ulimit -Sn 65536
The "Basic Installation" of "Standard Edition" in an "Interactive" mode can be performed using the "Oracle Universal Installer". This installer is invoked using the script "db/Disk01/runInstaller" (complete details). The screen snapshots are shown below:
Choose "oracle" as the database password for simplicity.
and finally click on "Install" to begin the installation.
Click on "Password Management..." to unlock the sample database user ...
The output of these scripts look like:
~ > sudo /Users/oracle/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh Changing permissions of /Users/oracle/oraInventory to 770. Changing groupname of /Users/oracle/oraInventory to oinstall. The execution of the script is complete
~ > sudo /Users/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/root.sh Running Oracle 10g root.sh script ... The following environment variables are set as: ORACLE_OWNER= oracle ORACLE_HOME= /Users/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1 Enter the full pathname of the local bin directory: [/usr/local/bin]: Copying dbhome /usr/local/bin ... Copying oraenv to /usr/local/bin ... Copying coraenv to /usr/local/bin ... Creating /etc/oratab file... Entries will be added to the /etc/oratab file as needed by Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created Finished running generic part of root.sh script. Now product-specific root actions will be performed.
Click on "Installed Products..." to see the list of Oracle products installed.
- There are some more steps before you can start the Oracle listener process.
Edit ".bash_profile" of "oracle" user and add the following settings:
Not setting DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH gives the following error:
export ORACLE_HOME=/Users/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1 export PATH=$PATH:$ORACLE_HOME/bin export DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib
This was not obvious but Googling helped. Make sure to relogin for these changes to take effect.
~ oracle$ lsnrctl start dyld: Library not loaded: /b/227/network/lib/libnnz10.dylib Referenced from: /Users/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/bin/lsnrctl Reason: image not found Trace/BPT trap
If your Mac is using DHCP (most likely) then you may see the error shown below:
~ oracle$ lsnrctl start LSNRCTL for MacOS X Server: Version 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on 28-SEP-2009 14:48:49 Copyright (c) 1991, 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved. Starting /Users/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/bin/tnslsnr: please wait... TNSLSNR for MacOS X Server: Version 10.2.0.4.0 - Production System parameter file is /Users/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora Log messages written to /Users/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/network/log/listener.log Listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1))) Error listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=dhcp-usca14-133-197.SFBay.Sun.COM)(PORT=1521))) TNS-12545: Connect failed because target host or object does not exist TNS-12560: TNS:protocol adapter error TNS-00515: Connect failed because target host or object does not exist MacOS X Server Error: 49: Can't assign requested address Listener failed to start. See the error message(s) above...
This error occurs because your MacBook may be running on a different IP address if rebooted after the installation and before starting the server. Fortunately, the error message is very intuitive and it's easy to fix the error by editing "$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/listener.ora" as shown below:
# listener.ora Network Configuration File: /Users/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora # Generated by Oracle configuration tools. SID_LIST_LISTENER = (SID_LIST = (SID_DESC = (SID_NAME = PLSExtProc) (ORACLE_HOME = /Users/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1) (PROGRAM = extproc) ) (SID_DESC = (SID_NAME = orcl) (ORACLE_HOME = /Users/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1) ) ) LISTENER = (DESCRIPTION_LIST = (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC1)) (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = localhost)(PORT = 1521)) ) )
The changes are highlighted in the bold. Basically, add a new SID referring to "orcl". And for DHCP users the value of HOST key needs to be changed from dynamically assigned IP address to "localhost". Strangely, the Installing on DHCP Computers section of the installation guide says nothing about it :(
Additionally, for DHCP users, you need to change "$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora" as:
# tnsnames.ora Network Configuration File: /Users/oracle/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1/network/admin/tnsnames.ora # Generated by Oracle configuration tools. ORCL = (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = localhost)(PORT = 1521)) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = orcl) ) )
And finally, start the database using SQL\*Plus as:
The last step of unlocking the account should not be required because we explicitly unlocked the account during installation but that apparently didn't work. And I hit ORA-01033, ORA-01034, ORA-12514, ORA-12541, ORA-12547, and ORA-27101 trying different combinations to get the app working.
~ oracle$ sqlplus "/ as sysdba" SQL\*Plus: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Mon Sep 28 17:44:40 2009 Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All Rights Reserved. Connected to an idle instance. SQL> startup nomount ORACLE instance started. Total System Global Area 612368384 bytes Fixed Size 2085872 bytes Variable Size 167775248 bytes Database Buffers 436207616 bytes Redo Buffers 6299648 bytes SQL> alter database mount; Database altered. SQL> alter database open; Database altered. SQL> ALTER USER HR IDENTIFIED BY hr ACCOUNT UNLOCK; User altered. SQL> exit Disconnected from Oracle Database 10g Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production
Anyway now re-connect to the HR sample database as:
~ oracle$ sqlplus hr/hr@orcl SQL\*Plus: Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production on Mon Sep 28 17:46:19 2009 Copyright (c) 1982, 2007, Oracle. All Rights Reserved. Connected to: Oracle Database 10g Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production SQL> select table_name from user_tables; TABLE_NAME ------------------------------ REGIONS LOCATIONS DEPARTMENTS JOBS COUNTRIES EMPLOYEES JOB_HISTORY 7 rows selected. SQL> desc regions; Name Null? Type ----------------------------------------- -------- ---------------------------- REGION_ID NOT NULL NUMBER REGION_NAME VARCHAR2(25) SQL> select \* from regions; REGION_ID REGION_NAME ---------- ------------------------- 1 Europe 2 Americas 3 Asia 4 Middle East and Africa
Note: If the database is not shutdown properly then it can be forced to do so using the command "shutdown abort" using SQL\*Plus.
A complete archive of all the tips is available here.
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