Wednesday Feb 04, 2009

Zone Clusters

The Solaris(TM) Cluster 3.2 update 2 release , also called Sun Cluster 3.2, introduces the new feature called Zone Clusters, which is also known as Solaris Containers Clusters, and this blog introduces the reader to Zone Clusters. Here you will find an overview that defines a Zone Cluster and identifies some important reasons why you would want to use a Zone Cluster. Blogs should be short and concise. So this will be the introductory blog. I plan to provide a series of blogs, where each blog covers one important aspect of Zone Clusters. Subsequent blogs will cover the major use cases, a comparison of Zone Cluster versus other zone solutions, and explanations of various aspects of the technologies that support a Zone Cluster.

Now let’s begin by defining the feature.

A Zone Cluster is a virtual cluster, where each virtual node is a non-global zone.

Thus we are entering a world where a set of machines (defined as something that can host an operating system image) can now support multiple clusters. Prior to this feature, there was exactly one cluster and we did not have a unique name for that kind of cluster. The original cluster type has as voting member nodes all of the global zones, which led us to apply the name Global Cluster to that kind of cluster. Starting with SC3.2 1/09 (also called update 2) there will always be exactly one Global Cluster on a set of machines that Sun Cluster software supports.

The same set of machines can optionally also support concurrently an arbitrary number of Zone Clusters. The number of Zone Clusters is limited by the amount CPU's, memory, and other resources needed to support the applications in the Zone Clusters. Exactly one Solaris operating system instance and exactly one Sun Cluster instance supports the one Global Cluster and all Zone Clusters. A Zone Cluster cannot be up unless the Global Cluster is also up. The Global Cluster does not contain the Zone Clusters. Each cluster has its own private name spaces for a variety of purposes, including application management.

A Zone Cluster appears to applications as a cluster dedicated for those applications. This same principle applies to administrators logged in to a Zone Cluster.

The Zone Cluster design follows the minimalist approach about what items are present. Those items that are not directly used by the applications running in that Zone Cluster are not available in that Zone Cluster.

A typical application A stores data in a file system F. The application needs a network resource N (authorized IP address and NIC combination) to communicate with clients. The Zone Cluster would contain just the application A, file system F, and network resource N. Normally, the storage device for the file system would not be present in that Zone Cluster.

Many people familiar with the Global Cluster, will remember that the Global Cluster has other things, such as a quorum device. The Zone Cluster applications do not directly use the quorum device. So there is no quorum device in the Zone Cluster. When dealing with the Zone Cluster, the administrator can ignore quorum devices and other things that exist only in the Global Cluster.

The Zone Cluster design results in a much simpler cluster that greatly reduces administrative support costs.

A Zone Cluster provides the following major features:

  • Application Fault Isolation – A problem with an application in one Zone Cluster does not affect applications in other Zone Clusters. Those operations that might crash an entire machine are generally disallowed in a Zone Cluster. Some operations have been made safe. For example, a reboot operation in a Zone Cluster becomes a zone reboot. So even an action that can boot or halt one Zone Cluster, will not affect another Zone Cluster.

  • Security Isolation – An application in one Zone Cluster cannot see and cannot affect resources not explicitly configured to be present in that specific Zone Cluster. A resource only appears in a Zone Cluster when the administrator explicitly configures that resource to be in that Zone Cluster.

  • Resource Management – The Solaris Resource Management facilities can operate at the granularity of the zone. We have made it possible to manage resources across the entire Zone Cluster. All of the facilities of Solaris Resource Management can be applied to a Zone Cluster. This includes controls on CPU’s, memory, etc. This enables the administrator to manage Quality of Service and control application license fees based upon CPU's.

We recognize that administrators are overworked. So we designed Zone Clusters to reduce the amount of work that administrators must do. We provide a single command that can create/modify/destroy an entire Zone Cluster from any machine. This eliminates the need for the administrator to go to each machine to create the various zones.

Since a Zone Cluster is created after the creation of the Global Cluster, we use knowledge of the Global Cluster to further reduce administrative work. At this point we already know the configuration of the cluster private interconnect, and thus can automate the private interconnect set up for a Zone Cluster. We can specify reasonable default values for a wide range of parameters. For example, a Zone Cluster usually runs with the same time zone as the Global Cluster.

Once you have installed Sun Cluster 3.2 1/09 on Solaris 10 5/08 (also called update 5) or later release, the Zone Cluster feature is ready to use. There is no need to install additional software. The Zone Cluster feature is maintained by the regular patches and updates for the Sun Cluster product.

So a Zone Cluster is a truly simplified cluster.

Now, let’s talk at a high level about why you would use a Zone Cluster.

Many organizations run multiple applications or multiple data bases. It has been common practice to place each application or data base on its own hardware. Figure 1 shows an example of three data bases running on different clusters.

Moore’s Law continues to apply to computers, and the industry continues to produce ever more powerful computers. The trend towards ever more powerful processors has been accompanied by increases in storage capacity, network bandwidth, etc. Along with greater power has come improved price/performance ratios. Over time, application processing demands have grown, but in many cases the application processing demands have grown at a much slower rate than that of the processing capacity of the system. The result is that many clusters now have considerable surplus processing capacity in all areas: processor, storage, and networking.

Such large amounts of idle processing capacity present an almost irresistible opportunity for better system utilization. Organizations seek ways to reclaim this unused capacity. Thus, they are choosing to host multiple cluster applications on a single cluster. However, concerns about interactions between cluster applications, especially in the areas of security and resource management, make people wary. Zone Clusters provide safe ways to host multiple cluster applications on a single cluster hardware configuration. Figure 2 shows the same data bases from the previous example now consolidated onto one set of cluster hardware using three Zone Clusters.

Zone Clusters can support a variety of use cases:

  • Data Base Consolidation – You can run separate data bases in separate Zone Clusters. We have run Oracle RAC 9i, RAC 10g, and RAC 11g in separate Zone Clusters on the same hardware concurrently.

  • Functional Consolidation – Test and development activities can occur concurrently while also being independent.

  • Multiple Application Consolidation – Zone Clusters can support applications generally. So you can run both data bases and also applications that work with data bases in the same or separate Zone Clusters. We will be announcing certification of other applications in Zone Clusters in the coming months.

  • License Fee Cost Containment – Resource controls can be used to control costs. There are many use cases where someone can save many tens of thousands of dollars per year. The savings are heavily dependent upon the use case.

    Here is an arbitrary example: the cluster runs two applications, where each application takes half of the CPU resources. The two applications come from different vendors, who each charge a license fee where: Total_Charge = Number_CPUs \* Per_CPU_Charge. The administrator places each application in its own Zone Cluster with half the CPU's. This reduces the number of CPU's available to each application. The result is that the administrator has now reduced the Total Charge cost by 50%.

In future blogs, I plan to explain how to take the most advantage of Zone Cluster in these various use cases.

Please refer to this video blog that provides a long detailed explanation of Zone Cluster.

Dr. Ellard Roush

Technical Lead Solaris Cluster Infrastructure

Sunday Dec 10, 2006

Making SMF services Highly Available with Sun Cluster

If you have written an SMF service for an application to run on a single-node and want to make the service highly available across multiple nodes, then Sun Cluster can be used. Even though the Sun Cluster service model is different from the SMF service model, for adding HA it takes only as much as running a few simple commands without any need to write new agent script or code.

To support the SMF services, Sun Cluster 3.2 provides the following three new resource types.
- Proxy_SMF_failover resource type allows an SMF service to be managed as a failover resource.
- Proxy_SMF_multimaster resource type allows an SMF service to be online on more than one node simultaneously (without any load balancing).
- Proxy_SMF_scalable resource type allows running an SMF service as a scalable resource (with Sun Cluster load balancing facility).

Here is an example to show how easy it is to make a DNS server (an SMF service) Highly Available. We encapsulate the DNS server SMF service in an SMF proxy resource dns-rs. Note that SC 3.1u4 already provides an HA-DNS agent, which is the recommended option for making a DNS server HA on Sun Cluster. This is just an example.

1. Create a text file specifying the name of the SMF service and the location of its manifest, as shown in the example below and save it in any convenient location, say /tmp.

# cat /tmp/dns_svcs
<svc:/network/dns/server:default>,</var/svc/manifest/network/dns/server.xml>


2. Register the Proxy SMF failover Resource type.

# clrt register SUNW.Proxy_SMF_failover

3. Create a resource group dns_rg specifying the list of cluster nodes on which the service can run, in this example, plift1 and plift2.

# clrg create -n plift1,plift2 dns_rg

4. Add a dns_rs to manage the above mentioned SMF service. Specify the path and name of the text file created earlier in step 1 as the value for the extension property Proxied_service_instances.

# clrs create -g dns_rg -t Proxy_SMF_failover -x Proxied_service_instances=/tmp/dns_svcs dns_rs

5. Manage the rg and bring it online.

# clrg online -M dns-rg

THAT'S IT!
The service is up and running, with all the supervision and failover capability provided by SUN Cluster. If a failure occurs, the resource group will automatically be restarted or switched onto a different node.

6. Verify the status of the resource group and the SMF proxy resource.

# clrg status
=== Cluster Resource Groups ===
Group Name Node Name Suspended Status
---------- --------- --------- ------
dns-rg plift1 No Online
  plift2 No Offline

# clrs status
=== Cluster Resources ===
Resource Name Node Name State Status Message
--------- --------- ----- --------------
dns-rs plift1 Online but not monitored Online
  plift2 Offline Offline

7. Verify that the dns server SMF service is online on plift1 and is offline on plift2.

Logon to plift1 and run the commands below to verify.

# svcs -a | grep dns
online 11:38:14 svc:/network/dns/server:default

# svcs -l svc:/network/dns/server:default
fmri svc:/network/dns/server:default
name BIND DNS server
enabled true
state online
next_state none
state_time Wed Nov 15 11:38:14 2006
restarter svc:/system/cluster/sc_restarter:default
dependency require_all/none file://localhost/etc/named.conf (online)
dependency require_all/none svc:/system/filesystem/minimal (online)
dependency require_any/error svc:/network/loopback (online)
dependency optional_all/error svc:/milestone/network (online)

("named" is a dns specific daemon which is started by the dns service)

# ps -efj | grep name
root 7773 1 7773 7773 0 11:38:15 ? 0:00 /usr/sbin/named
root 7785 7598 7784 7594 0 11:40:06 pts/4 0:00 grep named

Logon to plift2 and repeat the above commands and verify that the dns SMF service is offline.
# svcs -a | grep dns
offline 11:38:09 svc:/network/dns/server:default

# svcs -l svc:/network/dns/server:default
fmri svc:/network/dns/server:default
name BIND DNS server
enabled true
state offline
next_state none
state_time Wed Nov 15 11:38:09 2006
restarter svc:/system/cluster/sc_restarter:default
dependency require_all/none file://localhost/etc/named.conf (online)
dependency require_all/none svc:/system/filesystem/minimal (online)
dependency require_any/error svc:/network/loopback (online)
dependency optional_all/error svc:/milestone/network (online)

# ps -efj | grep name
root 15318 15287 15317 15283 0 11:40:11 pts/1 0:00 grep name

8. You can switchover the resource-group dns_rg from node plift1 to plift2. Thereby it goes offline on plift1 and goes online on plift2.

# clrg switch -n plift2 dns_rg

Check the status of the resource group.

# clrg status
=== Cluster Resource Groups ===
Group Name Node Name Suspended Status
---------- --------- --------- ------
dns-rg plift1 No Offline
  plift2 No Online

# clrs status
=== Cluster Resources ===
Resource Name Node Name State Status Message
--------- --------- ----- --------------
dns-rs plift1 Online Offline
  plift2 Offline but not monitored Online

Verify that the SMF service has been stopped on plift1 and running on plift2.

On plift1.

# svcs -a | grep dns
disabled Nov_07 svc:/network/dns/client:default
offline 11:42:22 svc:/network/dns/server:default

# ps -efj | grep name
root 7808 7598 7807 7594 0 11:43:47 pts/4 0:00 grep name

On plift2.

# svcs -a | grep dns
disabled Nov_04 svc:/network/dns/client:default
online 11:42:22 svc:/network/dns/server:default

# ps -efj | grep name
root 15331 15287 15330 15283 0 11:43:52 pts/1 0:00 grep name
root 15324 1 15324 15324 0 11:42:23 ? 0:00 /usr/sbin/named

In case you want to decouple the SMF service from Sun Cluster control, all you need to do is disable the SMF proxy resource and delete it.

Now that is as cool as it can get. So go ahead and try it out.

Harish Mallya
Sun Cluster Engineering.

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