Monday Mar 03, 2014
Wednesday Feb 26, 2014
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Feb 26, 2014
Start buttons belong on Tiger Wood's golf cart. Give me car keys that jangle when I insert them into a 1968 Dodge Charger. The music that engine makes ... it enters your body through your soul before your ear drums even register the vibration. And give me Save buttons on browser-based interfaces, too. This amorphous invisible background save that I'm supposed to trust is happening is the brainchild of developers who put posters of Joseph Stalin on their walls.
In spite of my Luddite tendencies, I do like new technologies. I also like a variety of them. If you ask my personal opinion, the more operating systems, the better. More jobs for sysadmins. More jobs for developers. More arm-wrestling matches in the server room. And more interesting problems. That's my idea of fun.
Unfortunately, it's not The Man's idea of fun. Forces I can't possibly understand and would never take for a joy ride in a stolen Dodge Charger push for consolidation and cost-cutting with the frenzy of a four barrel carburetor sucking air at wide open throttle (WOT). Even if, like me, you prefer a more genteel IT environment, you have to adapt. And so, we sometimes wave good-bye to our friends.
If you're facing a migration away from AIX, consider Oracle Solaris. Yeah, it's designed to handle the competitive pressures of today's IT environments...
- Cloud-ready provisioning, security, and virtualization
- Quick to reallocate compute, storage, and network resources
- Zones, ZFS, Dynamic Tracing, Predictive Self Healing and Trusted Extensions reduce downtime and simplify the application deployment
- Optimized to run on Oracle hardware, and to run Oracle applications
- Automated migration tools plus assistance and education for DBAs and Power/AIX administrators migrating to Oracle Solaris.
... and yeah, because the Oracle stack is optimized to run best on Oracle Solaris (and Oracle Linux), it gives you some crazy good numbers compared to AIX ...
- Up to 2.4x greater database performance
- Up to 3.4x faster Java application server performance
- Increased Oracle application performance : 1.9x faster for Siebel CRM (4) and 3x faster for JD Edwards
... but it's also got soul. And it doesn't have a dumb Start button.
Below is a link to a hands-on lab and some other resources to help you understand what's involved in migrating from AIX to Oracle Solaris.
by Glynn Foster
Walks an AIX sysadmin through the basic administration of Oracle Solaris 11 and how it compares to IBM AIX Enterprise in areas including installation, software packaging, file systems, user management, services, networking, and virtualization. Even makes helps you navigate your way through documentation, man pages, and online how-to articles.
- Benefits of Migrating from AIX to Oracle Solaris
- Technical Resources for Migrating from AIX/Power to Oracle SPARC/Solaris
- IBM AIX to Oracle Solaris Technology Mapping Guide (pdf)
- Comparison of IBM AIX Technologies to Oracle Solaris
About the Photograph
Thursday Feb 13, 2014
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Feb 13, 2014
What Does the Integrated Load Balancer Do?
According to the Oracle Solaris 11 documentation, the Integrated Load Balancer (ILB) intercepts incoming requests from clients, decides which back-end server should handle the request based on load-balancing rules, and then forwards the request to that server. By spreading one server's work load across multiple servers, ILB improves reliability, minimizes response time, and improves performance of the server.
The documentation describes features, components, how it works, and even the command line interface. The docs help you understand what your load balancing toolset is, but if you want to get your hands dirty, try this:
by Amir Javanshir
This is a cool lab because it walks you through the steps that set up an environment that enables you to play with the load balancer. The steps consist more or less of:
- Installing Solaris
- Setting up the virtual switches and their VNICs
- Configuring the zone for the load balancer, including its access to the VNICs
- Cloning that zone into three other zones
- Configuring each cloned zone to run Apache Tomcat
- Installing the load balancer on the first zone
Once the environments are set up, the lab walks you through several exercises to help you become familiar with the different ways in with the load balancer monitors and manages traffic. This lab is a whole lot of fun.
More Hands-On Labs for Oracle Solaris 11
You can find all the hands-on labs for Oracle Solaris 11 here:
Friday Jan 31, 2014
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Jan 31, 2014
Most of my workdays start by shapechanging me into a seven-headed Hydra, and each Hydra promptly makes a beeline for multi-tasking hell. So, when I get a chance to simplify something, anything, I jump on it.
Ginny has done that for OTN at last twice. Below are two of her exercises in simplifying our lives. We published these articles before, but we recently had to rebuild one of them because somebody (I'm not going to say who) deleted it. To avoid annoying one of your Hydras, and instead send you off to a peaceful weekend, here they are again.
by Ginny Henningsen
Before installing Oracle Database 10g or 11g on a system, you need to preconfigure the operating environment since the database requires certain software packages, package versions, and tweaks to kernel parameters. Ginny discovered that Oracle Linux provides a remarkably easy way to address these installation prerequisites. Find out how.
by Ginny Henningsen
Similar to the article above, but updated for Database 12c and Oracle Linux 6. Ginny simplifies the installation of Oracle Database 11g by automatically pre-configuring Oracle Linux with the required software packages and correct kernel parameters.
Photograph of Fat Boy on Sakajawea Road in Idaho taken by Rick Ramsey
Wednesday Jan 29, 2014
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Jan 29, 2014
Man vs machine. Command Line vs GUI. It's not a new debate. In fact, when I was a little boy I watched this Paul Bunyan cartoon with the dismay of a sysadmin watching the increasing popularity of GUIs:
Video Interview with Brian Bream
When I wrote technical manuals for Oracle Solaris back in the day, I had the luxury of my very own lab. For instance, while writing the NIS+ books, I was able to discover my own procedures on a small network and, when I needed something larger, I could ask the sysadmins in Sun's bigger labs to try some experiments for me. Little did I know those were the Golden Years of technical writing.
They were also the Command Line Years. We used the command line for everything, including email, product testing and, of course, managing Solaris. The command line put the operator in control. You had a mental map of what you were doing, you were completely engaged, and if something became repetitive, you could always write a script for it. The shell was the interface, and emacs was the only tool you needed.
When GUI's first came out, we hated them on principle. They were slower than the command line, and they didn't really add any value. Plus, they weakened your skills.
Since then it's been a tossup. GUI's have gotten steadily better, but they didn't add enough value to overcome our attachment to the command line. In fact, we kinda resented them because they were used as a pretext to hire less experienced and cheaper sysadmins.
However, with the advent of vertically-integrated systems such as Oracle's Exadata and SuperCluster, the GUI may have finally come into its own. Listen to Brian Bream explain why.
Photograph of bicycle in Durango taken by Rick Ramsey in Oct 2012
Thursday Jan 23, 2014
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Jan 23, 2014
As you may already know, OTN's next Virtual Sysadmin Day is on January 28 from 9:00 am to 1:00 pm PT. This sysadmin day is going to be very cool because its hands-on labs focus on solving real-world problems with Oracle technologies.
You'll definitely want to do the prep work before the day of the event. The prep work consists of configuring your laptop and uploading the images. Don't be that guy. The one who, the day of, asks where the instructions are. Him. Don't be him.
The checklist provides:
- Virtual Conference hardware requirements
- Virtual Conference software requirements
- Setup instructions for Oracle Solaris labs
- Setup instructions for Oracle Linux labs
- Setup instructions for Oracle VM labs
If You Must Tweet
If you can't keep your hands off your danged phone while working on the labs, at least use this hashtag:
Questions for Ed
Oracle ACE extraordinaire Ed Whalen and I will be hanging out at the Sysadmin Lounge during the last 30-45 minutes of the event. Ed knows his stuff, so if you have any questions about Linux, such as how to optimize it for the database or other applications, ask Ed. If you have questions about Harleys or Ducatis, ask me.
See you next week.
photograph of Harleys in Wisconsin by Rick Ramsey
Wednesday Jan 22, 2014
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Jan 22, 2014
This morning I was reading about something called a cache algorithm. According to our friends at TechTarget, a cache algorithm specifies rules for discarding items from a computer's cache. So I started rooting through some of our tech articles to see if I could find any more about it.
But I did find a couple of articles about storage, plus a video, that although not specifically about cache algorithms, do talk about storage efficiency. The video interview is new. I recorded it at Oracle OpenWorld, but had not edited until now. The articles have both been published before.
with Art Licht
Simplification, efficiency, and data protection. That's what you get when you manage your data with Oracle Enterprise Manager. Art Licht explains. Recorded at Oracle OpenWorld 2013.
by Tom LuckenbachHybrid columnar compression can effectively multiply your storage capacity by 10-15 times, increasing performance and reducing your hardware costs. It's available on Oracle's Pillar Axiom storage systems. Tom Luckenbach walks you through the steps to set it up.
by Art Licht
A case study showing how Oracle reduced storage space requirements by a multiple of 19 while getting a six-fold increase in database query performance. All thanks to the Hybrid Columnar Compression capability of Oracle Database 11g Release 2. Plus how you can achieve similar results. By Art Licht.
About the Photograph
The photo is real stretch ... from left to right, my riding partners JimBob, El Jefe Con Queso, and Da Don. Snapped at Luckenbach, Texas a couple of years ago, on the almost famous Ghost Rider Dog Run.
Monday Jan 13, 2014
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Jan 13, 2014
In my first 12 years of school I had a natural ability in Math and Science, but had to work hard at English and History.
When I went to college, I didn't do well in Math and Science, so I transferred into Liberal Arts, where strangely enough, I did well. After all these years I just realized why. I never had to study for Math and Science. I just understood the material. If I did any homework, I did it during class. Which means I never listened to lectures. As a result, I never learned how to learn what I didn't know. So, when college presented me with more advanced topics that I couldn't just grok, I didn't know what to do. I fell behind. I assumed I wasn't any good. The opposite was true with Liberal Arts. Literature, History, Economics, it all confused me. So I listened in class. And I studied after class. SoI did well.
And that's why I'm not an engineer.
If you're a hands-on learner like me and Joel Schallhorn, the guy doing bicycle tricks in the picture, you'll appreciate our latest hands-on lab.
Hands-On Lab by Olivier Canonge with contributions from Christophe Pauliat, Simon Coter, Saar Maoz, Doan Nguyen, Ludovic Sorriaux, Cecile Naud, and Robbie De Meyer
This lab demonstrates how easy it is to deploy software environments with Oracle VM Templates. It uses a single-instance, Oracle Restart (Single-Instance High Availability [SIHA]), and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) for Oracle Database as an example. During this lab, you are going to deploy a four-node Flex Cluster (three hubs and one leaf) with a dedicated network for Oracle Flex ASM traffic.
Friday Jan 10, 2014
Thursday Jan 09, 2014
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Jan 09, 2014
When Tim said "Heisenbug," I pictured a large dirigible exploding and heard a radio reporter cry, "Oh the Humanity!"
As Tim started talking, I realized he'd said "Heisenbug," not Hindenbug. So I pictured my favorite chemistry teacher. Here is a link to his likeness:
It was only when I heard my deceased physicist father-in-law's voice growling his favorite endearment "Rick, you dumbass," that I finally realized Tim was talking about Werner Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle.
Although I wasn't completely sure.
As it turns out, Tim was talking about that phenomenon that happens to all of us when we call in a sysadmin to fix a problem with our system. When the sysadmin shows up, the problem disappears. I know you guys write scripts to make that happen on purpose, but Tim doesn't. And neither does the Ksplice team. So they developed some very cool technology to diagnose these heisenbugs and get our systems running properly again. Don't worry, your secret is safe with me. And everyone who reads this blog.
In any case, you can find out how Ksplice crushes the Heisenbug in this short video:
Here's a video of the Hinderburg crash
Wednesday Jan 08, 2014
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Jan 08, 2014
With Oracle VM and Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c
We just updated this lab to get it ready for OTN's next Virtual SA Day on January 28. You can run the lab anytime from your laptop, or you can attend our virtual event and run it with the help of a proctor. There will be several hundred sysadmins running the same lab at the same time, so you can discuss it with others via chat, and get help from our proctors. Details here.
Blog by OTN Garage
At the risk of raising PITA's ire, there's more than one way to skin a cat. This blog provides three resources to help you build a private cloud with Oracle Solaris: one training class and two tech articles.
photograph of clouds at sunset over Colorado snapped by Rick Ramsey with lousy iPhone camera
Tuesday Dec 31, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Dec 31, 2013
That was a helluva year. Here's hoping 2014 is just as wild and crazy.
You can find the articles we posted during 2013 here:
Thursday Dec 19, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Dec 19, 2013
OTN's next virtual sysadmin day is on January 28. It's four hours long, from 9:00 am - 1:00 pm PT. (Time converter here.) This time we have a whole new set of hands-on labs for Oracle Solaris, Oracle Linux, and Oracle VM. Proctored, of course, which means you can ask questions. The labs in our previous virtual sysadmin day focused on the basics. These focus on using these technologies in real-world scenarios. Click on the Agenda tab in the registration page to see the labs.
The event is free, but you do need to register. And there's a little homework involved. Nothing too complicated. We just expect you to have VirtualBox installed and the proper images already imported before we begin class. Click on the the Instructions tab for more info.
Picture is of Mosquito Pass, in Colorado, taken from Mosquito Gulch. You need a 4x4 with good ground clearance to get up and over the top, and the rocks on the road will slice up your tires unless they're good and thick. A great place to catch your breath after you finish the hands-on labs.
Tuesday Dec 03, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Dec 03, 2013
Hey nonny ding dong, alang alang alang
Boom ba-doh, ba-doo ba-doodle-ay
Oh, life could be a dream (hadoop)
If I could take you up in paradise up above (hadoop)
If you would tell me I'm the only one that you love
Life could be a dream, sweetheart
(Hello, hello again, hadoop and hopin' we'll meet again)
by Orgad Kimchi
Apache Hadoop helps you process large amounts of data on multiple computers that are clustered together. Oracle Solaris zones are easy to clone and manage as a cluster. Oracle Solaris 11 has great network virtualization capabilities. Orgad walks you through all the steps required to combine these three technologies into an easy to manage big data cluster.
by Jeff Taylor
After reading Orgad's paper (see above), Jeff Taylor decided to give Orgad's suggestion a try. He had to configure an Oracle SPARC T4-2 server to store and process two types of data. One type was critical and sensitive data that required ACID transactions and had to be stored in an Oracle Database. The other was high-volume/low-risk data that had to be processed using Apache Hadoop and stored in HDFS. In this blog post he details how he used Oracle Solaris zones.
with Orgad Kimchi
Orgad Kimchi provides three technical reasons why you should run Hadoop on Oracle Solaris. Taped at Oracle OpenWorld.
Lyrics to Hadoop Hadoop
by the Crew Cuts
Hey nonny ding dong, alang alang alang Boom ba-doh, ba-doo ba-doodle-ay
Oh, life could be a dream (ha-doop) If I could take you up in paradise up above (ha-doop) If you would tell me I'm the only one that you love Life could be a dream, sweetheart (Hello, hello again, ha-doop and hopin' we'll meet again) Oh, life could be a dream (ha-doop) If only all my precious plans would come true (ha-doop) If you would let me spend my whole life lovin' you Life could be a dream, sweetheart Now every time I look at you Something is on my mind (dat-dat-dat-dat-dat-duh) If you do what I want you to Baby, we'd be so fine! Oh, life could be a dream (ha-doop) If I could take you up in paradise up above (ha-doop) If you would tell me I'm the only one that you love Life could be a dream, sweetheart Ha-doop ha-doop Ya-da-da Da-da-da Da-da-da Da Ha-doop ha-doop Ya-da-da Da-da-da Da-da-da Da Ha-doop ha-doop Ya-da-da Da-da-da Da-da-da Da, ha-doop! Ha-doop ha-doop Ya-da-da Da-da-da Da-da-da Da Ha-doop ha-doop Ya-da-da Da-da-da Da-da-da Da Ha-doop ha-doop Ya-da-da Da-da-da Da-da-da Da, ha-doop! Every time I look at you Somethin' is on my mind If you do what I want you to Baby, we'd be so fine! Life could be a dream If I could take you up in paradise up above If you would tell me I'm the only one that you love Life could be a dream, sweetheart (Hello hello again, ha-doop and hopin' we'll meet again) doop ha-doop Hey nonny ding dong, alang alang alang (ha-doop) Ba-doh, ba-doo ba-doodle-ay Life could be a dream Life could be a dream, sweetheart! Life could be a dream If only all my precious plans would come true If you would let me spend my whole life loving you Life could be a dream, sweetheart (dee-oody-ooh, ha-doop, ha-doop) (dee-oody-ooh, ha-doop, ha-doop) (dee-oody-ooh, ha-doop, ha-doop) Sweetheart!!
Thursday Nov 21, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Nov 21, 2013
by Bart Smaalders and Alta Elstad
The Oracle Solaris 11 Image Packaging System (IPS) provides various methods to control the operating system version to which a server can be upgraded. One method is to provide a custom incorporation package.
An incorporation package specifies the versions of other packages that can be installed. An incorporation package ensures that if you install an incorporate dependency package of that incorporation package, only the prescribed version of the dependent package can be installed. You can create your own custom incorporation package to specify the constraints you want. Using a custom incorporation to control the version of software that can be installed enables you to easily maintain different versions of Oracle Solaris on different machines without maintaining multiple package repositories. Each image can install a different version of the custom upgrade control incorporation package. All systems share the same package repository that contains all versions of software needed by any of the systems.
In the example in this article, a system has been newly installed with Oracle Solaris 11.1. The solaris publisher origin is the Oracle Solaris support repository, which includes many updates since Oracle Solaris 11.1 was released. The IT department in the example company has not yet qualified the most current support updates, and they want to limit administrators to upgrading to only the latest update that is qualified for their environments, not the latest update that is available from the package repository.
The versions of core operating system packages that can be installed in an image are controlled by the pkg:/entire incorporation package. To control system upgrades, create a package that specifies a particular version of the pkg:/entire package as an incorporate dependency.
The following example shows a manifest named upgradectrl.p5m for a custom incorporation package that controls the version of the pkg:/entire package that can be installed. Some of the settings in this manifest are described below.
set name=pkg.fmri email@example.com set name=pkg.summary value="Incorporation to constrain the version of the OS" set name=pkg.description value="This package controls the version of \ pkg://solaris/entire that can be installed." set name=info.classification value="org.opensolaris.category.2008:Meta Packages/Incorporations" set name=pkg.depend.install-hold value=core-os set name=variant.opensolaris.zone value=global value=nonglobal set name=variant.arch value=sparc value=i386 depend fmri=feature/package/dependency/self type=parent variant.opensolaris.zone=nonglobal depend fmri=pkg://solaris/entire type=require depend fmri=pkg://firstname.lastname@example.org,5.11-0.175.1.0 type=incorporate
pkg.depend.install-hold This setting ensures that if a user updates the upgradectrl package, the pkg:/entire package is automatically updated as well.
variant.opensolaris.zone This setting enables this package to be installed in both global and non-global zones. See also the description of the parent dependency.
variant.arch This setting enables this package to be installed on both SPARC and x86 systems.
parent dependency This package can be installed in a non-global zone only if it is already installed in the global zone.
require dependency The upgradectrl package can be installed only if the pkg://solaris/entire package is already installed or can be installed in this same operation.
incorporate dependency The pkg://solaris/entire package must be installed at the specified version. More than one version can satisfy an incorporate dependency, depending on how many places of accuracy are specified. In this example, 0.175.1.0 specifies Oracle Solaris 11.1 SRU 0. This upgrade control package will keep systems at the newly installed Oracle Solaris 11.1 version, no support updates. This upgrade control package will, however, allow packages that are not contrained by the pkg:/entire incorporation to be updated.
Publish the upgradectrl package to a local file-based repository. This repository is for developing and testing this new package. If you create a repository for general use, you should include additional steps such as creating a separate file system for the repository. For information about creating package repositories for general use, see Copying and Creating Package Repositories in Oracle Solaris 11.2.
Create a package development repository on your system. See the pkgrepo(1) man page for more information about the pkgrepo command.
$ pkgrepo create myrepo
Set the default publisher for this repository. The default publisher is the value of the publisher/prefix property of the repository.
$ pkgrepo -s myrepo set publisher/prefix=site
Publish the upgradectrl package to the development repository.
$ pkgsend -s myrepo publish upgradectrl.p5m pkg://email@example.com,5.11:20131120T010105Z PUBLISHED
Notice that the repository default publisher has been applied to the package FMRI.
Examine the repository to confirm that the package was published.
$ pkgrepo -s myrepo list PUBLISHER NAME O VERSION site upgradectrl 1.0,5.11:20131120T010105Z $ pkg list -vg myrepo FMRI IFO pkg://firstname.lastname@example.org,5.11:20131120T010105Z ---
Deliver the package to a local repository in a separate ZFS file system in a shared location.
$ pkgrecv -s myrepo -d /export/IPSpkgrepos/Solaris upgradectrl Processing packages for publisher site ... Retrieving and evaluating 1 package(s)... PROCESS ITEMS GET (MB) SEND (MB) Completed 1/1 0.0/0.0 0.0/0.0
Verify the package in the repository and the version of pkg:/entire that it incorporates.
$ pkg info -g /export/IPSpkgrepos/Solaris upgradectrl Name: upgradectrl Summary: Incorporation to constrain the version of the OS Description: This package controls the version of pkg://solaris/entire that can be installed. Category: Meta Packages/Incorporations State: Not installed Publisher: site Version: 1.0 Build Release: 5.11 Branch: None Packaging Date: November 20, 2013 01:01:05 AM Size: 0.00 B FMRI: pkg://email@example.com,5.11:20131120T010105Z $ pkg contents -Hro fmri -t depend -a type=incorporate upgradectrl pkg://firstname.lastname@example.org,5.11-0.175.1.0
See “Creating and Publishing a Package” in Packaging and Delivering Software With the Image Packaging System in Oracle Solaris 11.2 for more detailed information about creating and delivering IPS packages.
Set the origin for the site publisher.
$ pkg set-publisher -g /export/IPSpkgrepos/Solaris site $ pkg publisher PUBLISHER TYPE STATUS P LOCATION solaris origin online F https://pkg.oracle.com/solaris/support/ site origin online F file:///export/IPSpkgrepos/Solaris/
Install the upgrade control package. In this case, few changes should be made because the installed version of pkg:/entire is the same as the version incorporated by the upgrade control package.
$ pkg list -v entire FMRI IFO pkg://email@example.com,5.11-0.175.1.0.0.24.2:20120919T190135Z i-- $ zoneadm list global z1 $ pkg install upgradectrl Packages to install: 1 Create boot environment: No Create backup boot environment: No Planning linked: 0/1 done; 1 working: zone:z1 Planning linked: 1/1 done Downloading linked: 0/1 done; 1 working: zone:z1 Downloading linked: 1/1 done PHASE ITEMS Installing new actions 9/9 Updating package state database Done Updating image state Done Creating fast lookup database Done Reading search index Done Updating search index 1/1 Executing linked: 0/1 done; 1 working: zone:z1 Executing linked: 1/1 done
The following commands show that versions of pkg:/entire that are newer than the installed version are available from the configured solaris publisher, but an attempt to upgrade is controlled by the newly-installed upgrade control package.
$ pkg list -af entire NAME (PUBLISHER) VERSION IFO entire 0.5.11-0.175.1.13.0.6.0 --- entire 0.5.11-0.175.1.12.0.5.0 --- entire 0.5.11-0.175.1.11.0.4.0 --- entire 0.5.11-0.175.1.10.0.6.0 --- entire 0.5.11-0.175.1.10.0.5.0 --- ... $ pkg update pkg update: No solution was found to satisfy constraints Plan Creation: Package solver has not found a solution to update to latest available versions. This may indicate an overly constrained set of packages are installed. latest incorporations: ... Try specifying expected results to obtain more detailed error messages. $ pkg update -nv firstname.lastname@example.org pkg update: No matching version of entire can be installed: Reject: pkg://email@example.com,5.11-0.175.1.13.0.6.0:20131108T211557Z Reason: This version is excluded by installed incorporation pkg://firstname.lastname@example.org,5.11:20131120T010105Z
When you are ready to allow users to upgrade their systems to a new version, update the upgradectrl.p5m manifest, and republish and redeliver the new upgrade control package. In the following manifest, the version of the upgrade control package and the version of the pkg:/entire incorporation are updated. As an aid for users, the version of the upgrade control package matches the updated version of the pkg:/entire package.
set name=pkg.fmri email@example.com set name=pkg.summary value="Incorporation to constrain the version of the OS" set name=pkg.description value="This package controls the version of \ pkg://solaris/entire that can be installed." set name=info.classification value="org.opensolaris.category.2008:Meta Packages/Incorporations" set name=pkg.depend.install-hold value=core-os set name=variant.opensolaris.zone value=global value=nonglobal set name=variant.arch value=sparc value=i386 depend fmri=feature/package/dependency/self type=parent variant.opensolaris.zone=nonglobal depend fmri=pkg://solaris/entire type=require depend fmri=pkg://firstname.lastname@example.org,5.11-0.175.1.10 type=incorporate
The following commands republish and redeliver the upgrade control package:
$ pkgsend -s myrepo publish upgradectrl.p5m pkg://email@example.com,5.11:20131120T021902Z PUBLISHED $ pkgrepo -s myrepo list PUBLISHER NAME O VERSION site upgradectrl 1.10,5.11:20131120T021902Z site upgradectrl 1.0,5.11:20131120T010105Z $ pkgrecv -s myrepo -d /export/IPSpkgrepos/Solaris upgradectrl Processing packages for publisher site ... Retrieving and evaluating 1 package(s)... PROCESS ITEMS GET (MB) SEND (MB) Completed 1/1 0.0/0.0 0.0/0.0 $ pkg refresh site $ pkg list -af pkg://site/upgradectrl NAME (PUBLISHER) VERSION IFO upgradectrl (site) 1.10 --- upgradectrl (site) 1.0 i--
The following pkg update command updates all packages to the newest available versions allowed because no packages are specified. The command updates to the newest available version of the upgrade control package, which upgrades the image because the pkg.depend.install-hold setting in the upgradectrl package causes the pkg:/entire package to be updated when the upgradectrl package is updated. The image is upgraded to the version of the pkg:/entire incorporation that is specified in the new upgradectrl incorporation.
$ pkg update --be-name s11u1_10 Packages to remove: 1 Packages to update: 186 Mediators to change: 1 Create boot environment: Yes Create backup boot environment: No Planning linked: 0/1 done; 1 working: zone:z1 Linked image 'zone:z1' output: | Packages to remove: 1 | Packages to install: 3 | Packages to update: 73 | Mediators to change: 1 | Services to change: 3 ` Planning linked: 1/1 done DOWNLOAD PKGS FILES XFER (MB) SPEED Completed 187/187 16139/16139 507.9/507.9 562k/s Downloading linked: 0/1 done; 1 working: zone:z1 Downloading linked: 1/1 done PHASE ITEMS Removing old actions 1473/1473 Installing new actions 3451/3451 Updating modified actions 16378/16378 Updating package state database Done Updating package cache 187/187 Updating image state Done Creating fast lookup database Done Reading search index Done Building new search index 851/851 Executing linked: 0/1 done; 1 working: zone:z1 Executing linked: 1/1 done A clone of s11u1_0 exists and has been updated and activated. On the next boot the Boot Environment s11u1_10 will be mounted on '/'. Reboot when ready to switch to this updated BE. $ pkg list entire upgradectrl NAME (PUBLISHER) VERSION IFO entire 0.5.11-0.175.1.0.0.24.2 i-- upgradectrl (site) 1.0 i-- $ pkg -R /mnt list entire upgradectrl NAME (PUBLISHER) VERSION IFO entire 0.5.11-0.175.1.10.0.6.0 i-- upgradectrl (site) 1.10 i-- $ beadm unmount s11u1_10
About the Authors
Bart Smaalders is one of the senior engineers in the Oracle Solaris Core OS group, and led development of the IPS packaging system.
Alta Elstad is a technical writer supporting Oracle Solaris 11 packaging.
photograph of strange plants copyright Beth Ramsey
Tuesday Nov 12, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Nov 12, 2013
Two of my childhood heroes were Tarzan and Jack LaLanne. Tarzan was an obvious choice: what boy wouldn't want to spend his days bungee jumping through the jungle with his own pack of gorillas? Jack Lalanne had a disturbing habit of wearing stretch pants, but he was so damn fit for an old guy that you couldn't help but be impressed. Especially back then, when nobody knew what a dumb bell was, much less Cross-Fit. Here's what he did to celebrate his 70th birthday.
Sooner or later we all face a choice in our careers: surrender to the life of a has-been like Bruce Sprinsteen's baseball player or become an unstoppable sysadmin like Jack Lalanne. If you'd rather keep on fighting like Jack, give these resources a look. Brian Bream's blog provides specific suggestions for keeping your skills up to date. The video interviews describe the types of technologies that are challenging what you used to know.
by Brian Bream
"The sysadmin role has been far too dependent on performing repetitive tasks and working in a reactionary mode ... the sysadmin must grow a much larger skill set to be successful. Don’t grow vertically in one technology, grow horizontally amongst many technologies." Just one of the suggestions Brian Bream provides in this excellent blog post.
Interview with Marshall Choy
Marshall Choy, Director of Optimized Solutions at Oracle was once a sysadmin. And a Solaris engineer. He explains what optimized solutions are, how they are developed and tested, how they handle patching, and how these vertically integrated systems impact the job and duties of a sysadmin.
Interview with Bob Thome
Bob Thome, Senior Director of Product Management, explains what makes the Database Appliance simple, reliable, and affordable, and how it could change the economies and processes of the data center.
Interview with Gautham
Gautham (pronounced like Batman's Gotham) recently led an effort to refresh the Pinellas County hardware systems. He'll explain what they were looking for, why they chose Oracle Exalytics, how they became convinced it was the right decision, and how it changed the way they managed their data center.
Interview with Brendan Gregg
This video interview will give you an idea of some of the value-add tasks you can perform when you are freed from the reactive mode that Brian Bream describes in his blog. Brendan Gregg describes the best ways for sysadmins to tune deployed applications to get more performance out of them in their particular computing environment
photograph of Ford Mustang GT 500 taken at Gateway Museum copyright by Rick Ramsey
Thursday Nov 07, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Nov 07, 2013
"With IT staff now tasked to deliver on-demand services, datacenter virtualization requirements have gone beyond simple consolidation and cost reduction. Simply provisioning and delivering an operating environment falls short. IT organizations must rapidly deliver services, such as infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), platform-as-a-service (PaaS), and software-as-a-service (SaaS). Virtualization solutions need to be application-driven and enable:"
Application Driven Virtualization, an Oracle white paper
- "Easier deployment and management of business critical applications"
- "Rapid and automated provisioning of the entire application stack inside the virtual machine"
- "Integrated management of the complete stack including the VM and the applications running inside the VM."
That was published in August of 2011. The new release of Oracle VM Server delivers significant virtual networking performance improvements, among other things. If you're not sure how virtual networks work or how to use them, these two articles by Greg King and friends might help.
by Greg King
Oracle VM Server for x86 lets you create logical networks out of physical Ethernet ports, bonded ports, VLAN segments, virtual MAC addresses (VNICs), and network channels. You can then assign channels (or "roles") to each logical network so that it handles the type of traffic you want it to.
Greg King explains how you go about doing this, and how Oracle VM Server for x86 implements the network infrastructure you configured. He also describes how the VM interacts with paravirtualized guest operating systems, hardware virtualized operating systems, and VLANs.
Finally, he provides an example that shows you how it all looks from the VM Manager view, the logical view, and the command line view of Oracle VM Server for x86.
by Greg King and Don Smerker
Oracle VM Server for x86 supports a wide range of options in network design, varying in complexity from a single network to configurations that include network bonds, VLANS, bridges, and multiple networks connecting the Oracle VM servers and guests. You can create separate networks to isolate traffic, or you can configure a single network for multiple roles. Network design depends on many factors, including the number and type of network interfaces, reliability and performance goals, the number of Oracle VM servers and guests, and the anticipated workload.
The Oracle VM Manager GUI presents four different ways to create an Oracle VM network:
- Bonds and ports
- Both bond/ports and VLANS
- A local network
This article focuses the second option, designing a complex Oracle VM network infrastructure using only VLANs, and it steps through the concepts needed to create a robust network infrastructure for your Oracle VM servers and guests.
- Virtual Networking for Dummies
- Download Oracle VM Server for x86
- Find technical resources for Oracle VM Server for x86
photo of K1200S copyright by Rick Ramsey
Monday Nov 04, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Nov 04, 2013
The process scheduler in the Oracle Solaris kernel allocates CPU resources to processes. By default, the scheduler tries to give every process relatively equal access to the available CPUs. However, you might want to specify that certain processes be given more resources than others. That's where classes come in. A process class defines a scheduling policy for a set of processes. These three resources will help you understand and manage it process classes:
by Brian Bream
Timesharing, interactive, fair-share scheduler, fixed priority, system, and real time. What are these? Scheduling classes in the Solaris kernel. Brian Bream describes them and how the kernel manages them through context switching.
by Brian Bream
The Fair Share Scheduler allows you to dispatch processes not just to a particular CPU, but to CPU threads. Brian Bream explains how to use and provides examples.
by Oracle Solaris Documentation Team
This official Oracle Solaris documentation set provides the nitty-gritty details for setting up classes and managing your processes. Covers:
- Introduction to the Scheduler
- CPU Share Definition
- CPU Shares and Process State
- CPU Share Versus Utilization
- CPU Share Examples
- FSS Configuration
- FSS and Processor Sets
- Combining FSS With Other Scheduling Classes
- Setting the Scheduling Class for the System
- Scheduling Class on a System with Zones Installed
- Commands Used With FSS
Thursday Oct 10, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Oct 10, 2013
Michael Palmeter and Renato Ribeiro enjoy a good duel. Michael represents Oracle Solaris. Renato represents SPARC servers. Watch and listen as they argue their case on two questions of interest to sysadmins. Taped at Oracle OpenWorld 2013.
Michael Palmeter vs Renato Ribeiro
Is the hardware or the software more important to the performance of a system? Oracle Solaris product director Michael Palmeter goes mic-to-mic with Renato Ribeiro, Oracle SPARC Director. Taped at Oracle OpenWorld 2013.
Renato Ribeiro vs Michael Palmeter
Is Oracle's approach to large vertically scaled servers at odds with today's trend of combining lots and lots of small, low-cost servers systems with networking to build a cloud, or is it a better approach? Michael Palmeter, Director of Solaris Product Management, and Renato Ribeiro, Director Product Management for SPARC Servers, discuss.
photo of 2005 Fat Boy taken at Little Big Horn National Monument by Rick Ramsey
Monday Sep 23, 2013
Monday Sep 16, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Sep 16, 2013
Three resources to help you build clouds with Oracle Solaris 11
by Oracle University
This training class combines multiple enterprise level technologies to demonstrate a full cloud infrastructure deployment using SPARC technology. Learn To:
- Plan for and deploy a private Infrastructure as a Service cloud
- Combine various Oracle technologies into a robust cloud infrastructure
- Practice cloud component creation and configuration tasks by performing a series of guided hands-on labs
- Perform the critical steps associated with the configuration of cloud and related facilities.
by Suk Kim
Have you ever wanted to build a cloud just to see if you can? Turns out it's not that difficult. Install Oracle Solaris 11.1 on your laptop via VirtualBox, set up a little ZFS storage, a little access control, and configure AjaXplorer so you and your friends can manage your files. Don't neglect to drop phrases like "Download that from the cloud I just built" into casual conversation.
We liked this blog so much when Jeff Victor first posted it, that we turned it into a bonafide OTN tech article. You might recognize it. It's about ZOSS: zones on shared storage. Why? When you configure a zone on shared storage, you can quickly clone it on any server that uses that storage. Jeff explains how.
picture of cloud taken in Colorado, copyright Rick Ramsey
Friday Sep 13, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Sep 13, 2013
Oracle just launched the T10000D tape drive with its incredible 8.5 TB of native capacity and LTFS-Library Edition (LTFS-LE), which expands the LTFS concept to an entire library. The Oracle T10000D has some neat features that I would like to address in the future, but today I’d like to talk about LTFS-LE since it really is a new concept.
LTFS is an open source specification for writing data to tape on single tape drives. It is supported by Oracle and other tape vendors. The version you can download from Oracle is called StorageTek LTFS, Open Edition (LTFS-OE).
When an LTFS-compatible T10000 or LTO tape is formatted for LTFS, it is split into two partitions. The first partition holds the metadata that tells the user which files are on the tape and where they are located. The second partition holds the files themselves.
Benefits of Using LTFS-LE
There are a few nice benefits for those who utilize LTFS. Most important is the peace of mind that you will always be able to recover your data regardless of your backup application or any other proprietary software because it’s based on an open source specification. It also improves the portability of tape because two parties don’t both need the same application to read a tape. In fact, LTFS has seen tremendous adoption in industries that require the ability to transport large amounts of data.
The limitation with the open source version of LTFS is that it’s limited to just a single drive. Users with even the smallest archives would like to have their entire environment to be LTFS-based. That’s the impetus for StorageTek LTFS, Library Edition (LTFS-LE), but it also serves as a backup application eliminator because of how it’s architected. With LTFS-OE, after you download the driver, a tape looks like a giant thumb drive. LTFS-LE makes the tape library look like a shared drive with each tape appearing as a sub-folder. It’s like having a bucket full of thumb drives that are all accessible simultaneously!
Just as before, you don’t need any additional applications to access files. And end users are almost completely abstracted from the nuances of managing tape. All they need is a Samba or CIFS connection and they have access to the tape library. LTFS-LE is agnostic to corporate security architectures so a system administrator could make some folders (tapes) available to some users while restricting others based on corporate security guidelines.
Security and Performance Considerations
However, security is arguably one of the more straightforward considerations when deciding how to integrate an LTFS-LE implementation into your environment. An additional consideration is to ensure that LTFS-LE can meet your performance expectations. Tape drives are remarkably faster than they are given credit for (the Oracle T10000D can write at 252 MB/sec.), but sometimes networks aren’t designed to handle that much traffic so performance requirements need to be considered accordingly. In addition, it may take some time before a read operation actually starts as the library needs time to mount a tape. As a result, system administrators need to be cognizant of how end user applications will accept response times from any tape storage-based solution.
A final performance consideration is to be aware of how many tape drives are in your library relative to how many users may be accessing files directly from tape. If you have a disproportionately large number of users you may want to consider a more traditional enterprise-level archiving solution such as StorageTek Archive Manager (SAM), which writes files based on the Tape Archive Record (TAR) open source standard.
Ultimately, LTFS-LE provides exciting new opportunities for system administrators looking to preserve files with a format that isn’t dependent on proprietary solutions. It also makes it easy for users who need access to large amounts of storage without a lot of management difficulties. Support for LTFS continues to grow. Oracle is actually one of the co-chairs of the SNIA committee that’s working towards standardizing LTFS. And this is just the start for LTFS-LE as well, as Oracle will continue expanding its capabilities in the near future.
picture of 2008 Harley Davidson FXSTC taken by Rick Ramsey- Brian Zents
Thursday Sep 12, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Sep 12, 2013
"Are you planning to consolidate a server running a business-critical application that you want to update with future releases over upcoming years, or are you trying to get rid of an old server running a legacy application that will not be updated anymore?"
This is just one of the questions Thierry asks in his article, which is a great resource for sysadmins, systems architects, and IT managers who are trying to decide whether to consolidate individual servers onto an Oracle SuperCluster. Your answer will determine whether you should put your application in native or non-native Oracle Solaris zone.
Other questions Thierry and friends ask:
- Is my server eligible for physical-to-virtual (P2V) migration?
- Are you planning a long-term or short-term migration?
- How critical are performance and manageability?
Once he has helped you determine your general direction, he discusses these architectural considerations:
- SuperCluster domains
- Network setup
- VLAN setup
- Licensing considerations
Finally, he provides a thorough step-by-step instructions for the migration itself, which consists of:
- Performing a sanity check on the source server
- Creating a FLAR image of the source system
- Creating a ZFS pool for the zone
- Creating and booting the zone
- Performance tuning
And just in case you're still not sure how it's done, he concludes with an example that shows you how to consolidate an Oracle Solaris 8 Server Running Oracle Database 10g. It's all here, give it a good read:
Article by Thierry Manfé, with contributions from Orgad Kimchi, Maria Frendberg, and Mike Gerdts
Best practices and hands-on instructions for using Oracle Solaris Zones to consolidate existing physical servers and their applications onto Oracle SuperCluster using the P2V migration process, including a step-by-step example of how to consolidate an Oracle Solaris 8 server running Oracle Database 10g.
Interview with Alan Packer
Allan Packer, Lead Engineer of the Oracle SuperCluster architecture team, as explains how the design of this engineered system supports consolidation, multi-tenancy, and other objectives popular with customers.
By the way, that's a picture of an 01 Ducati 748 that I took in the Fall of 2012.
Monday Sep 09, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Sep 09, 2013
photograph copyright 2013 by Rick Ramsey
by Yuli Vasiliev
By wrapping a Linux utility in a script and using an external database table's preprocessor directive, you can launch the utility from within Oracle Database and have the utility's output be inserted into the external table. This allows you to do things such as query operating system data and then join it with data in Oracle Database.
by Robert Chase
Robert Chase is a really good writer. If he was writing about teaching iguanas how to quilt I'd still read it. Fortunately, in this article he's writing about hardware fault management tools in Oracle Linux. What they are, how they work, what you can do with them, and examples with instructions. Give it a read.
by Richard Friedman
DTrace is a powerful tool, and it can do some amazing things. But it's not that difficult to get started doing simple things. You can build up from there. In this article, Richard Friedman gives you a high-level overview of DTrace and its major components:providers, modules, functions, and probes. He explains how you can use either one-liner commands on the command line, or write more complex instructions in scripts, using the D language. He provides simple examples for each. It's a great way to get your feet wet.
by Lenz Grimmer
Linux Containers isolate individual services, applications, or even a complete Linux operating system from other services running on the same host. They use a completely different approach than "classicial" virtualization technologies like KVM or Xen. Lenz Grimmer explains.
by Lenz Grimmer
In his previous post about Linux Containers, Lenz Grimmer explained what they are and how they work. In this post, he provides a few practical examples to get you started working with them.
by Lenz Grimmer
We ran a little long, but once Wim started talking about the history of SNMP and how he's been using it of late to do cool things with KSplice and Oracle VM, we geeked out. Couldn't stop. Wim is not your average Senior VP of Engineering. Definitely a hands-on guy who enjoys figuring out new ways to use technology
by Lenz Grimmer
On Wim's Mind in June 2013 - Wim's team is currently working on DTrace userspace probes. They let developers add probes to an application before releasing it. Sysadmins can enable these probes to diagnose problems with the application, not just the kernel. Trying this out on MySQL, first. If you know how to do this on Solaris, already, you'll be able to apply that knowledge to Oracle Linux. Also on Wim's mind is the Playground channel on the Public Yum repository, which lets you play with the latest Linux builds, ahead of official Linux releases, without worrying about having your system configured properly.
Monday Jul 29, 2013
By RickRamsey-Oracle on Jul 29, 2013
photo copyright 2013 by Rick Ramsey
The fins on this 1957 DeSoto were shaped during a time when Americans weren't afraid of offending anyone with their opinions, right or wrong. We have, perhaps, grown a little more introspective, a little more considerate, but our cars have paid the price. They all look alike. Their edges have been worn away by focus groups. They have no personality. They cringe at the sight of their own shadows.
I weep for my adopted country.
Well, if you like classic American cars as much as I do, you may on occasion feel the need to bend bare metal to your will. Here's your chance.
Disk storage. Clustering. CPU and L1/L2 caching size. Networking. And file systems. Just some of the components of Oracle ZFS Storage Appliance that you can shape for optimum performance. Anderson Souza shows you how. Go ahead. Give your appliance a pair of tail fins. (Link is in the title.)
You can see more unique cars from the Golden Age of American Automobile at the Gateway Automobile Museum. If you can't get to the border between Utah and Colorado to appreciate them in person, like I was fortunate enough to do, you can enjoy them through your browser at http://www.gatewayautomuseum.com/cars-and-galleries/.
and members of the OTN community
- OTN Virtual Tech Summit July 2015 - Systems Track
- Help Us Find OTN's New Systems Community Manager!
- Tech Article: How to Start Using Docker on Oracle Linux
- A Brief Chat with the Linux Foundation
- Migration and Provisioning Strategies, Plus SWiS for Developers
- Get Your OVM Server On
- The "New to Solaris Development Forum" Has Moved
- 5 Steps for Installing Oracle Database 12c on Oracle Solaris 11
- How to Install and Use Oracle Solaris 11.2 for x86 from an ISO in VirtualBox
- How to Build a Software Defined Network with Oracle Solaris 11
Blogs We Like
- /Engineered Systems
- /OTN Hammock
- /Optimized Solutions
- /Systems Developer