Monday Dec 01, 2014

Update to My Personal Crib Sheet for the ZFS Storage Appliance

In March of 2012 I posted a blog with some resources to help a sysadmin understand the ZFS Storage Appliance. A lot has changed since then, so this is an addendum to that blog. It reflects the latest information in preparation for the release of the ZS4-4.

Recent White Papers About the ZS4

  • Migrating a Database Stored on Fibre Channel (PDF White Paper)
  • Working with the RESTful Management API (PDF White Paper)
  • Deploying 10,000+ VM's on a Single ZFS Appliance (PDF White Paper)
  • Configurations

    It now comes in two variations, instead of the three highlighted in the original blog:

    • ZS3-2 - mid-range storage for the enterprise - cluster option - up to 1.5 PB raw capacity - Hybrid Storage Pools with up to 1 TB DRAM and 12.8 TB of optimized flash cache
    • ZS3-4 - For virtualized environments requiring multiple data services and heterogeneous file sharing - single or cluster - up to 3.5 PB of raw capacity and up to 3 TB DRAM and 12.8 TB of optimized flash cache

    For a high level overview, see this Data Sheet

    Updated Examples of Practical Applications

    For More Information

    About the Photograph

    Winter sunrises can be dramatic in Colorado, but you have to snap pictures quickly, because it happens fast. I took this shot on the last day of November, 2014.


    This post also appears on the Wonders of ZFS Storage blog.

    - Rick

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    Monday May 26, 2014

    Validating Petabytes of Data with Regularity and Thoroughness

    by Brian Zents

    When former Intel CEO Andy Grove said “only the paranoid survive,” he wasn’t necessarily talking about tape storage administrators, but it’s a lesson they’ve learned well. After all, tape storage is the last line of defense to prevent data loss, so tape administrators are extra cautious in making sure their data is secure. Not surprisingly, we are often asked for ways to validate tape media and the files on them.

    In the past, an administrator could validate the media, but doing so was often tedious or disruptive or both. The debut of the Data Integrity Validation (DIV) and Library Media Validation (LMV) features in the Oracle T10000C drive helped eliminate many of these pains. Also available with the Oracle T10000D drive, these features use hardware-assisted CRC checks that not only ensure the data is written correctly the first time, but also do so much more efficiently.

    Traditionally, a CRC check takes at least 25 seconds per 4GB file with a 2:1 compression ratio, but the T10000C/D drives can reduce the check to a maximum of nine seconds because the entire check is contained within the drive. No data needs to be sent to a host application. A time savings of at least 64 percent is extremely beneficial over the course of checking an entire 8.5TB T10000D tape.

    While the DIV and LMV features are better than anything else out there, what storage administrators really need is a way to check petabytes of data with regularity and thoroughness. With the launch of Oracle StorageTek Tape Analytics (STA) 2.0 in April, there is finally a solution that addresses this longstanding need. STA bundles these features into one interface to automate all media validation activities across all Oracle SL3000 and SL8500 tape libraries in an environment. And best of all, the validation process can be associated with the health checks an administrator would be doing already through STA.

    In fact, STA validates the media based on any of the following policies:

    • Random Selection – Randomly selects media for validation whenever a validation drive in the standalone library or library complex is available.
    • Media Health = Action – Selects media that have had a specified number of successive exchanges resulting in an Exchange Media Health of “Action.” You can specify from one to five exchanges.
    • Media Health = Evaluate – Selects media that have had a specified number of successive exchanges resulting in an Exchange Media Health of “Evaluate.” You can specify from one to five exchanges.
    • Media Health = Monitor – Selects media that have had a specified number of successive exchanges resulting in an Exchange Media Health of “Monitor.” You can specify from one to five exchanges.
    • Extended Period of Non-Use – Selects media that have not had an exchange for a specified number of days. You can specify from 365 to 1,095 days (one to three years).
    • Newly Entered – Selects media that have recently been entered into the library.
    • Bad MIR Detected – Selects media with an exchange resulting in a “Bad MIR Detected” error. A bad media information record (MIR) indicates degraded high-speed access on the media.

    To avoid disrupting host operations, an administrator designates certain drives for media validation operations. If a host requests a file from media currently being validated, the host’s request takes priority. To ensure that the administrator really knows it is the media that is bad, as opposed to the drive, STA includes drive calibration and qualification features. In addition, validation requests can be re-prioritized or cancelled as needed. To ensure that a specific tape isn’t validated too often, STA prevents a tape from being validated twice within 24 hours via one of the policies described above. A tape can be validated more often if the administrator manually initiates the validation.

    When the validations are complete, STA reports the results. STA does not report simply a “good” or “bad” status. It also reports if media is even degraded so the administrator can migrate the data before there is a true failure. From that point, the administrators’ paranoia is relieved, as they have the necessary information to make a sound decision about the health of the tapes in their environment.

    About the Photograph

    Photograph taken by Rick Ramsey in Death Valley, California, May 2014

    - Brian

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    Wednesday Jan 22, 2014

    Cache Algorithms and Other Storage Tricks

    This morning I was reading about something called a cache algorithm. According to our friends at TechTarget, a cache algorithm specifies rules for discarding items from a computer's cache. So I started rooting through some of our tech articles to see if I could find any more about it.

    I failed.

    But I did find a couple of articles about storage, plus a video, that although not specifically about cache algorithms, do talk about storage efficiency. The video interview is new. I recorded it at Oracle OpenWorld, but had not edited until now. The articles have both been published before.

    Video Interview: Simplifying the Way You Manage Data

    with Art Licht

    Simplification, efficiency, and data protection. That's what you get when you manage your data with Oracle Enterprise Manager. Art Licht explains. Recorded at Oracle OpenWorld 2013.

    Tech Article: How to Multiply the Capacity of Oracle Storage Systems

    by Tom Luckenbach
    Hybrid columnar compression can effectively multiply your storage capacity by 10-15 times, increasing performance and reducing your hardware costs. It's available on Oracle's Pillar Axiom storage systems. Tom Luckenbach walks you through the steps to set it up.

    Tech Article: How We Improved SAN and NAS Performance with Hybrid Columnar Compression

    by Art Licht

    A case study showing how Oracle reduced storage space requirements by a multiple of 19 while getting a six-fold increase in database query performance. All thanks to the Hybrid Columnar Compression capability of Oracle Database 11g Release 2. Plus how you can achieve similar results. By Art Licht.

    About the Photograph

    The photo is real stretch ...
    from left to right, my riding partners
    JimBob, El Jefe Con Queso, and Da Don.
    Snapped at Luckenbach, Texas a couple of years ago,
    on the almost famous Ghost Rider Dog Run.

    - Rick

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    Wednesday Oct 30, 2013

    Back Up to Tape the Way You Shop For Groceries

    Imagine if this was how you shopped for groceries:

    1. From the end of the aisle sprint to the point where you reach the ketchup.
    2. Pull a bottle from the shelf and yell at the top of your lungs, “Got it!”
    3. Sprint back to the end of the aisle.
    4. Start again and sprint down the same aisle to the mustard, pull a bottle from the shelf and again yell for the whole store to hear, “Got it!”
    5. Sprint back to the end of the aisle.
    6. Repeat this procedure for every item you need in the aisle.
    7. Proceed to the next aisle and follow the same steps for the list of items you need from that aisle.

    Sounds ridiculous, doesn’t it?

    Not only is it horribly inefficient, it’s exhausting and can lead to wear out failures on your grocery cart, or worse, yourself. This is essentially how NetApp and some other applications write NDMP backups to tape. In the analogy, the ketchup and mustard are the files to be written, yelling “Got it!” is the equivalent of a sync mark at the end of a file, and the sprint back to the end of an aisle is the process most commonly called a “backhitch” where the drive has to back up on a tape to start writing again.

    Writing to tape in this way results in very slow tape drive performance and imposes unnecessary wear on the tape drive and the media, especially when writing small files. The good news is not all tape drives behave this way when writing small files. Unlike midrange LTO drives, Oracle’s StorageTek T10000D tape drive is designed to handle this scenario efficiently.

    The difference between the two drive types is that the T10000D drive gives you the ability to write files in a NetApp NDMP backup environment the way you would normally shop for groceries. With grocery shopping, you essentially stream through aisles picking up items as you go, and then after checking out, yell, “Got it!”, though you might do that last step silently. With the T10000D, it has a feature called the Tape Application Accelerator, which prevents the drive from having to stop after each file is written to notify NetApp or another application that the write was successful.

    When enabled in the T10000D tape drive, Tape Application Accelerator causes the tape drive to respond to tape mark and file sync commands differently than when disabled:

    • A tape mark received by the tape drive is treated as a buffered tape mark.
    • A file sync received by the tape drive is treated as a no op command.

    Since buffered tape marks and no op commands do not cause the tape drive to empty the contents of its buffer to tape and backhitch, the data is written to tape in significantly less time. Oracle has emulated NetApp environments with a number of different file sizes and found the following when comparing the T10000D with the Tape Application Accelerator enabled versus LTO6 tape drives.

    Notice how the T10000D is not only monumentally faster, but also remarkably consistent? In addition, the writing of the 50 GB of files is done without a single backhitch. The LTO6 drive, meanwhile, will perform as many as 3,800 backhitches! At the end of writing the entire set of files, the T10000D tape drive reports back to the application, in this case NetApp, that the write was successful via a tape mark.

    So if the Tape Application Accelerator dramatically improves performance and reliability, why wouldn’t you always have it enabled? The reason is because tape drive buffers are meant to be just temporary data repositories so in the event of a power loss, there could be data loss in certain environments for the files that resided in the buffer. Fortunately, we do have best practices depending on your environment to avoid this from happening. I highly recommend reading Maximizing Tape Performance with StorageTek T10000 Tape Drives (pdf) to decide which best practice is right for you. The white paper also digs deeper into the benefits of the Tape Application Accelerator. The white paper is free, and after downloading it you can decide for yourself whether you want to yell “Got it!” out loud or just silently to yourself.

    Customer Advisory Panel

    One final link: Oracle has started up a Customer Advisory Panel program to collect feedback from customers on their current experiences with Oracle products, as well as desires for future product development. If you would like to participate in the program, go to this link at

    photo taken on Idaho's Sacajewea Historic Biway by Rick Ramsey

    - Brian Zents

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    Thursday Oct 03, 2013

    How Does Oracle Make Storage So Freaky Fast?

    The sound quality of these videos is not very good because I taped them while people around me were watching the America's Cup, but the content is worth your time. Jason Schaffer, from Oracle Storage Engineering, explains ...

    How the ZS3 Storage System is Engineered

    by Jason Schaffer (3 minutes)

    The ZS3 is the fastest storage system "on the planet." Jason Schaffer explains what makes it so fast, how it was engineered, and what you can do with it.

    How the ZS3 Storage Appliance Tunes Itself

    by Jason Schaffer (2 minutes)

    Jason Schaffer, from Oracle Storage Engineering, explains how the ZS3 Storage System uses the Oracle Intelligent Storage Protocol (OISP) to automatically tune its I/O patterns to make Oracle Database 12c run faster.

    How Oracle Makes the ZS3 Storage System Go Fast

    by Jason Schaffer (4 minutes)

    Jason Schaffer explains how the ZS3 Storage Appliance uses DRAM to get its crazy fast performance. Taped at Oracle OpenWorld 2013.

    More Resources About the ZS3 Storage Appliance

    Friday Sep 13, 2013

    About LTFS - Library Edition

    Oracle just launched the T10000D tape drive with its incredible 8.5 TB of native capacity and LTFS-Library Edition (LTFS-LE), which expands the LTFS concept to an entire library. The Oracle T10000D has some neat features that I would like to address in the future, but today I’d like to talk about LTFS-LE since it really is a new concept.

    About LFTS-LE

    LTFS is an open source specification for writing data to tape on single tape drives. It is supported by Oracle and other tape vendors. The version you can download from Oracle is called StorageTek LTFS, Open Edition (LTFS-OE).

    When an LTFS-compatible T10000 or LTO tape is formatted for LTFS, it is split into two partitions. The first partition holds the metadata that tells the user which files are on the tape and where they are located. The second partition holds the files themselves.

    Benefits of Using LTFS-LE

    There are a few nice benefits for those who utilize LTFS. Most important is the peace of mind that you will always be able to recover your data regardless of your backup application or any other proprietary software because it’s based on an open source specification. It also improves the portability of tape because two parties don’t both need the same application to read a tape. In fact, LTFS has seen tremendous adoption in industries that require the ability to transport large amounts of data.

    The limitation with the open source version of LTFS is that it’s limited to just a single drive. Users with even the smallest archives would like to have their entire environment to be LTFS-based. That’s the impetus for StorageTek LTFS, Library Edition (LTFS-LE), but it also serves as a backup application eliminator because of how it’s architected. With LTFS-OE, after you download the driver, a tape looks like a giant thumb drive. LTFS-LE makes the tape library look like a shared drive with each tape appearing as a sub-folder. It’s like having a bucket full of thumb drives that are all accessible simultaneously!

    Just as before, you don’t need any additional applications to access files. And end users are almost completely abstracted from the nuances of managing tape. All they need is a Samba or CIFS connection and they have access to the tape library. LTFS-LE is agnostic to corporate security architectures so a system administrator could make some folders (tapes) available to some users while restricting others based on corporate security guidelines.

    Security and Performance Considerations

    However, security is arguably one of the more straightforward considerations when deciding how to integrate an LTFS-LE implementation into your environment. An additional consideration is to ensure that LTFS-LE can meet your performance expectations. Tape drives are remarkably faster than they are given credit for (the Oracle T10000D can write at 252 MB/sec.), but sometimes networks aren’t designed to handle that much traffic so performance requirements need to be considered accordingly. In addition, it may take some time before a read operation actually starts as the library needs time to mount a tape. As a result, system administrators need to be cognizant of how end user applications will accept response times from any tape storage-based solution.

    A final performance consideration is to be aware of how many tape drives are in your library relative to how many users may be accessing files directly from tape. If you have a disproportionately large number of users you may want to consider a more traditional enterprise-level archiving solution such as StorageTek Archive Manager (SAM), which writes files based on the Tape Archive Record (TAR) open source standard.

    Ultimately, LTFS-LE provides exciting new opportunities for system administrators looking to preserve files with a format that isn’t dependent on proprietary solutions. It also makes it easy for users who need access to large amounts of storage without a lot of management difficulties. Support for LTFS continues to grow. Oracle is actually one of the co-chairs of the SNIA committee that’s working towards standardizing LTFS. And this is just the start for LTFS-LE as well, as Oracle will continue expanding its capabilities in the near future.

    picture of 2008 Harley Davidson FXSTC taken by Rick Ramsey
    - Brian Zents

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    Monday Jul 22, 2013

    Learning a Little About Hadoop

    some rights reserved by timitrus

    According to Wall Street & Technology, skills for managing BigData systems are in short supply. Jokes about the NSA bogarting sysadmins aside, you might want to know something about the technology that enables BigData, even if you don't plan to launch a career in that field. The more I learn about it, the more I think it's going to be a component of every data center in a few years. Including the local bagel shop.

    "Would you like cream cheese on your Bagel, Mr. Smith, like you had at 10:00 am on Dec 12, or would you prefer Orange Marmelade like your friend Mauricio just ordered at our Cleveland store?"

    Hadoop Tutorials

    Fari Fayandeh, a tech manager at a data warehousing company in Virginia, put together a list of books and tutorials to get you started. He was kind enough to post it on the Oracle Solaris group on LinkedIn. After ordering an Iced Caramel Machiatto at Starbucks.

    Link to Hadoop Tutorials

    - Rick

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    Friday Apr 26, 2013

    Three Goodies About the ZFS Storage Appliance

    Today we have three goodies about the ZFS Storage Appliance to share (image removed from blog):

    Video Interview: The Top Capabilities of ZFS Storage Appliance Explained

    Nancy Hart describes her favorite capabilities about the ZFS Storage Appliance, and Jeff Wright explains how each of them works. They cover Hybrid Columnar Compression, Direct NFS (makes data transfer more efficient), Remote Direct Memory Access, Oracle Intelligent Storage Protocol (database aware of the storage and vice versa), DTrace Analytics to optimize deployments, and more.

    Blog: My Personal ZFS Storage Appliance Crib Sheet

    We recently published some articles about really cool ways to use the ZFS Storage Appliance, so I spent a little time looking into the darned thing. It's easy to find out what the ZFS Storage Appliance does, but more difficult to find out what its components are. What can I yank out and replace? What can I connect it to? And what buttons and levers can I push? Or pull. So I put together this crib sheet. If you didn't grow up in The Bronx, see wikipedia's definition of crib sheet.

    3D Demo

    Pop the doors open, pull out the disk shelves, find out what's inside each one. Great demo, and you're at the controls.

    Additional Resources

    For more technical resources about the ZFS Storage appliance, use any of the four tabs on OTN's Technical Resources Center. And, to see other blogs about Oracle's storage products, select the "Storage" tab under Categories in the right margin, or click here.

    - Rick

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    Thursday Mar 28, 2013

    Is Tape Storage Still Harder to Manage Than Disk Storage?


    -guest post by Brian Zents-

    Historically, there has been a perception that tape is more difficult to manage than disk, but why is that? Fundamentally there are differences between disk and tape. Tape is a removable storage medium and disk is always powered on and spinning. With a removable storage one piece of tape media has the opportunity to interact with many tape drives, so when there is an error, customers historically wondered whether the drive or the media was at fault. With a disk system there is no removable media, if there is an error you know exactly which disk platter was at risk and you know what corrective action to take.

    However, times have changed. With the release of Oracle’s StorageTek Tape Analytics (STA) you are no longer left wondering if the drive or the media is at risk, because this system does the analysis for you, leaving you with proactive recommendations and resulting corrective actions … just like disk.

    For those unfamiliar with STA, it’s an intelligent monitoring application for Oracle tape libraries. Part of the purpose of STA is to allow users to make informed decisions about future tape storage investments based on current realities, but it also is used to monitor the health of your tape library environment. Its functionality can be utilized regardless of the drive and media types within the library, or whether the libraries are in an open system or mainframe environment.

    STA utilizes a browser-based user interface that can display a variety of screens. To start understanding errors and whether there is a correlation between drive and media errors, you would click on the Drives screen to understand the health of drives in a library. Screens in STA display both tables and graphs that can be sorted or filtered.

    In this screen ...

    ... it is clear that one specific drive has many more errors relative to the system average.

    Next, you would click on the Media screen:

    The Media screen helps you quickly identify problematic media. But how do you know if there’s a relationship between the two different types of errors? STA tracks library exchanges, which is convenient because each exchange involves just one drive and one piece of media. So, as shown below, you can easily filter the screen results to just focus in on exchanges involving the problematic drive.

    You can sort the corresponding table based on whether the exchange was successful or not. You can then review the errors to see if there is a relationship between the problematic media and drive. You may also want to review the drive’s exchanges to see if media that’s having issues has any similarities to other media that’s having problems. For example, a purchased pack of media could all be having similar problems.

    What if there doesn’t appear to be a relationship between media and drive errors? Part of the ingenuity of STA is that just about everything is linked, so root causes are easy to find. First, you can look at an individual drive to see its recent behavior, as show on this screen:

    From the table you can see that this particular drive was healthy until recently. The drive indicated it needed a cleaning, and somebody performed that cleaning. However, just a few exchanges later, it started reporting errors. In this case, it’s clear that the drive has an issue that goes beyond the relationship with a specific piece of media and should be taken offline. On the other hand, if the issue appears to be related to the media itself, you should identify a method to transfer the data off of the media, and replace the media.

    - Brian Zents

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    Tuesday Feb 05, 2013

    Do YOU Know Where Your Data Has Been?

    When you get change at the grocery store, you just don’t know where it’s been. (Image removed from blog.) And frankly, I don’t want to know, but wherever it’s been, it’s been in different environments with different wear-and-tear. If you try to re-use those dollar bills in a vending machine, you might get your candy bar. Or you might not, if the vending machine says your money is unreadable.

    You get a less icky feeling about where your transportable storage has been, that is, until data you were expecting is as unreadable as that old dollar bill. Unfortunately, there is no native data integrity checking as data moves across storage landscapes. However the Oracle T10000C Data Integrity Validation (DIV) feature uses hardware-assisted CRC checks to not only help ensure the data is written correctly the first time, but also does so much more efficiently.

    Data at rest is generally not an issue for any storage platform. In tape drives, data is protected with read after write verification as it is written, and Error Correction Code (ECC) is added to ensure data recovery once it is on the medium. In addition, a typical tape drive adds Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) protection, as soon as a record is received. This ensures the record does not get corrupted while moving between internal memories. Checking the CRC, though, is a time-consuming process that moves through the following steps:

    1. File pulled from disk to be stored on tape
    2. 256-bit CRC generated and stored in a catalog on a server
    3. File sent to tape drive without the CRC and written to a tape cartridge
    4. Upon recall, the file is called from a tape and sent to a server via the tape drive
    5. 256-bit CRC recreated and compared to catalog in the server

    This process takes a minimum of 25 seconds to check the CRC on a 4 GB file, assuming a 2:1 compression ratio and a reasonable server workload. If the tape drives were allowed to assist in some of this workload, the processing time could be dramatically reduced. That’s the premise of the Oracle T10000C DIV feature’s hardware-assisted CRC check. The amount of reduction is simply dependent on the amount of trust the user places in the tape drive itself. While a basic model produces a slightly quicker process, the Oracle T10000C DIV process guarantees it will be done efficiently as shown in the table below.

    Steps CRC Verification Model #1 Oracle T10000C Verification Model
    1 File pulled from disk to be stored on tape File system sends SCSI Verify Command from server
    2 32 bit CRC generated and stored with each record on server Tape drive receives command
    3 file sent to tape drive - drive checks CRC File and CRC written to tape
    4 File and CRC written to tape Upon recall, file and CRC called from tape to be read
    5 Upon recall, file and CRC called from tape to be read Tape drive checks the 32-bit CRC
    6 File and CRC checked in tape drive SCSI Verify command and status returned to server
    7 32 bit CRC re-created and checked in hardware (Intel)  
    Time MINIMUM 14 seconds to check the CRC on 4 GB file (2:1 compression ration) MAXIMUM 9 seconds to verify the CRC on 4 GB file (2:1 compression ratio) independent of server workload

    Obviously, built-in-the-drive, end-to-end integrity checking can be much less resource intensive than having to read an entire file to verify that it is still good. Any 32-bit CRC check can be done as specified in ANSI X3.139. This is the same CRC used in the Fibre Channel Protocol and the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) for optical transmissions. As a result, the generation polynomial is readily available. While this is a standard interface CRC, it is important to note that this check can be performed outside the interface protocol. In addition, the drive also can generate and use a CRC in the Intel CRC32c format.

    Supporting hardware-assisted CRC checking can be as simple as sending a specified SCSI mode select command to turn on the checking. When the Oracle T10000C drive is in its DIV mode, the last 32 bits of any record are treated as a CRC and used to check the integrity of each record. If the CRC check fails, a write error is reported to allow the application to resend the record. A bad record will never be written to tape. If the CRC is correct, that CRC is stored with the record on tape and checked every time the record is read. All of this is done with zero performance loss on the tape drive. If a deferred write error has been reported to the application, the application can determine which record was in error using multiple methods. The recovery is completed when the application resends the previously failed record and the remainder of the data records.

    If the drive is being utilized with CRC checks during a subsequent read operation, the CRC will be appended to the record. Verification of the file’s data integrity then is completed with a read verification. In other words, when a drive reads data having a CRC stored along with a record, it will output the CRC appended to the record. This allows the application or driver to perform its own data integrity checks to ensure, months or even years after recording, that the data has not been corrupted. The Intel CRC32c format allows very fast CRC processing and checking by the application. The user application, or driver, can use hardware-assisted CRC checks as follows:

    • Write with hardware-assisted CRC checks and read with hardware-assisted CRC checks
    • Write with hardware-assisted CRC checks and read in normal mode
    • Write in normal mode and read in hardware-assisted CRC checks mode (Note: In this case, the read CRC, which is generated by the drive on the fly, was not stored on tape.)

    Another advantage of writing a tape in hardware-assisted CRC mode is the ability of the tape drive to use the Verify command to check an individual record, one file, multiple files, or the entire tape, without having to send all the data to the application to verify the validity of that data. This can be done because the hardware-assisted CRC is recorded on the tape with each record, and the tape drive has the ability to verify each record with that CRC. Because it is only 32 bits, checking only the CRC saves valuable processing resources and time. Ultimately, hardware-assisted CRC checking can have the following options:

    • Verify any record (up to 2MB)
    • Verify entire file (collection of 2MB records)
    • Verify N number of files
    • Verify N number of files of variable record size
    • Verify entire tape with one command
    • Verify mixed mode tape (hardware-assisted CRC check records and non-hardware-assisted CRC check records)
      • A hardware-assisted CRC check check is not made on non-hardware-assisted CRC check records
      • The drive must be in the correct DIV mode for the records it is verifying

    - Brian Zents

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    Thursday Jul 12, 2012

    Smaller/faster: what's not to like?

    200 MB DiskpacksOne might think that things like disk space and even computer speed had become irrelevant. After all, our cell phones have more computing power and storage than million dollar computers of fifteen years ago. (Stop me if I’ve told this story too many times: 25 years ago we sold a terabyte of disk using the big 200 MB disk platters. So, that was a total of over 4,000 disks. Since this is ancient history, the details are hazy, but I do remember that it involved a sizable facility for the storage alone and an even more sizeable commission for the sales rep. Those were the good ol’ days!)

    The truth is, there is always an opportunity to take advantage of more resources. Indeed, we are in the era of big data and it would seem that our big limitation now is the speed of light. Rather than brute force, clever engineers continually come up with better ways of doing things. The RDBMS world has tended to think in terms of rows, but there is a new trend to organize it in columns instead. Wikipedia has a great summary of the pros and cons worth taking a look at, if this is new to you. In a nutshell, columnar databases can provide real performance advantages for data warehouses.

    Oracle’s Hybrid Columnar Compression technology is nicely described in this paper. Long time storage specialist Art Licht has written a paper about a study he did, explaining How We Improved SAN and NAS Performance with Hybrid Columnar Compression with some remarkable results: 19x reduction in required storage space and an average 6x increase in database query performance.

    Art provides specifics on how to do this using the Pillar Axiom Storage System and Sun ZFS Storage Appliance, with detailed test results. This is an article you don’t want to miss: a real hands-on description that quickly brings you up to speed with the technology and its application in the real world. Cache Accesses


    Tuesday May 29, 2012

    Is Linear Tape File System (LTFS) Best For Transportable Storage?

    Those of us in tape storage engineering take a lot of pride in what we do, but understand that tape is the right answer to a storage problem only some of the time. And, unfortunately for a storage medium with such a long history, it has built up a few preconceived notions that are no longer valid.

    When I hear customers debate whether to implement tape vs. disk, one of the common strikes against tape is its perceived lack of usability. If you could go back a few generations of corporate acquisitions, you would discover that StorageTek engineers recognized this problem and started developing a solution where a tape drive could look just like a memory stick to a user. The goal was to not have to care about where files were on the cartridge, but to simply see the list of files that were on the tape, and click on them to open them up. Eventually, our friends in tape over at IBM built upon our work at StorageTek and Sun Microsystems and released the Linear Tape File System (LTFS) feature for the current LTO5 generation of tape drives as an open specification.

    LTFS is really a wonderful feature and we’re proud to have taken part in its beginnings and, as you’ll soon read, its future. Today we offer LTFS-Open Edition, which is free for you to use in your in Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.5 environment - not only on your LTO5 drives, but also on your Oracle StorageTek T10000C drives. You can download it free from Oracle and try it out.

    LTFS does exactly what its forefathers imagined. Now you can see immediately which files are on a cartridge. LTFS does this by splitting a cartridge into two partitions. The first holds all of the necessary metadata to create a directory structure for you to easily view the contents of the cartridge. The second partition holds all of the files themselves. When tape media is loaded onto a drive, a complete file system image is presented to the user. Adding files to a cartridge can be as simple as a drag-and-drop just as you do today on your laptop when transferring files from your hard drive to a thumb drive or with standard POSIX file operations.

    You may be thinking all of this sounds nice, but asking, “when will I actually use it?” As I mentioned at the beginning, tape is not the right solution all of the time. However, if you ever need to physically move data between locations, tape storage with LTFS should be your most cost-effective and reliable answer. I will give you a few use cases examples of when LTFS can be utilized.

    Media and Entertainment (M&E), Oil and Gas (O&G), and other industries have a strong need for their storage to be transportable. For example, an O&G company hunting for new oil deposits in remote locations takes very large underground seismic images which need to be shipped back to a central data center. M&E operations conduct similar activities when shooting video for productions. M&E companies also often transfers files to third-parties for editing and other activities.

    These companies have three highly flawed options for transporting data: electronic transfer, disk storage transport, or tape storage transport. The first option, electronic transfer, is impractical because of the expense of the bandwidth required to transfer multi-terabyte files reliably and efficiently. If there’s one place that has bandwidth, it’s your local post office so many companies revert to physically shipping storage media. Typically, M&E companies rely on transporting disk storage between sites even though it, too, is expensive.

    Tape storage should be the preferred format because as IDC points out, “Tape is more suitable for physical transportation of large amounts of data as it is less vulnerable to mechanical damage during transportation compared with disk" (See note 1, below). However, tape storage has not been used in the past because of the restrictions created by proprietary formats. A tape may only be readable if both the sender and receiver have the same proprietary application used to write the file. In addition, the workflows may be slowed by the need to read the entire tape cartridge during recall.

    LTFS solves both of these problems, clearing the way for tape to become the standard platform for transferring large files. LTFS is open and, as long as you’ve downloaded the free reader from our website or that of anyone in the LTO consortium, you can read the data. So if a movie studio ships a scene to a third-party partner to add, for example, sounds effects or a music score, it doesn’t have to care what technology the third-party has. If it’s written back to an LTFS-formatted tape cartridge, it can be read.

    Some tape vendors like to claim LTFS is a “standard,” but beauty is in the eye of the beholder. It’s a specification at this point, not a standard. That said, we’re already seeing application vendors create functionality to write in an LTFS format based on the specification. And it’s my belief that both customers and the tape storage industry will see the most benefit if we all follow the same path. As such, we have volunteered to lead the way in making LTFS a standard first with the Storage Network Industry Association (SNIA), and eventually through to standard bodies such as American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Expect to hear good news soon about our efforts.

    So, if storage transportability is one of your requirements, I recommend giving LTFS a look. It makes tape much more user-friendly and it’s free, which allows tape to maintain all of its cost advantages over disk!

    Note 1 - IDC Report. April, 2011. “IDC’s Archival Storage Solutions Taxonomy, 2011”

    - Brian Zents

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    Tuesday Oct 18, 2011

    Solving the Tape Storage Space Problem

    Because I came of age professionally in the shorts-and-tshirt smarter-than-you culture of Silicon Valley, I always assumed tape storage was used only by retired British spies with names such as Baratheon and Brewster and Cameron who lived in dank mansions on the rocky coast of Scotland and still dressed in tweed jackets for dinner. They spent their days engrossed in the struggle to keep their Dunhill pipes lit and their hair piece in place against fury of the North Wind. Every few months a carrier pigeon would arrive from MI5, and Baratheon or Brewster or Cameron would slowly descend the stairs to a back room. A week later he would return with a name written in code, and hand it to a man in a dripping wetsuit and spear gun who would jump off the cliff without looking and swim it back to a submarine waiting off the coast.

    Turns out I was behind the times. In fact, tape for archiving has several advantages that make it economically feasible in today's digital pack-rat economy. Such as durability. And much, much lower power consumption. You can read about them in this paper by Horison information strategies:

    Tape: The Digital Curator of the Information Age (registration required)

    If you're a storage admin or IT manager considering tape, there's another paper that may interest you more. Published on OTN in July, it describes very clearly the limitations of data that is written in a stream to tape, and how Oracle technologies overcome them. For instance, once you write a block of data to a stream of tape, that particular bit of data not only becomes inefficient to target for access, but updates to the data become clumsy and cumbersome. And as tape cartridges grow to store a terabyte of data, the problem becomes even more pronounced.

    Oracle's StorageTek In-Drive Reclaim Accelerator avoids this problem by simply breaking up the serial data on a tape into smaller, more manageable chunks that are grouped together and managed as logical volumes. Find out how in this well-written white paper:

    How it Works: StorageTek Reclaim Accelerator

    For more information about Oracle tape drive products, visit OTN's Tape Storage product page.

    - Rick

    Thursday Sep 15, 2011

    How Content Management Makes Tape Drives More Efficient

    Guest blog by Steve Aaker and Jamie Giovanetto

    Oracle StorageTek's Enterprise Library Software (ELS) is the storage management software available for these Oracle StorageTek Tape Storage mainframe products:

    In addition to its hardware enablement functions, ELS provides a rules-based content manager that can significantly increase the efficiency of your tape drives and systems. It's called the Library Content Manager or LCM for short, and it is described in the documentation for the ELS software.

    For physical tapes, which can be native data or scratch cartridges, Multiple Volume Cartridges (MVCs), or cleaning cartridges and empty (free) storage cells, LCM places the tapes in the best location to:

    • Maximize the efficiency of the enabling software selections
    • Minimize the robotics activity at job mount time.

    In the virtual tape environment, LCM controls whether a volume is in Oracle's StorageTek Virtual Storage Manager System buffer or only on an MVC at the appropriate time.

    This content management capability can dramatically increase the efficiency of your tape storage.

    An Example

    Let's take the case where a StorageTek SL8500 modular library system from Oracle is totally full of cartridges and has no content management. All mounts and dismounts for the tapes in the library occur when required, but the question is whether that is sufficient. It is the minimum expected action, to be sure, but is it being accomplished in an efficient manner? If the cartridge to be mounted is in Library Storage Module (LSM) 03 and the drive where it is to be mounted is in LSM 00 (because that is the only location for that type of drive), the mount will take five major robotics actions. At dismount time, because there are no free cells, it will take another five major robotics actions to return the cartridge back to its source cell. In both directions, at least one of these robotic actions will be a move through the entire length of the library. When complete, the cartridge is back in LSM 03 and the drives it can be mounted on are still in LSM 00. Each time the volume is mounted, this scenario is repeated.

    Now, let's look at what the same mount would look like in a content-managed StorageTek SL8500 modular library system. First, the cartridge to be mounted would have been placed in LSM 00 by a prior management run, which would have placed it in the LSM where the drives on which it could be mounted are located. Because of this management activity, the mount would require only two robotics actions, and the dismount would require the same. The reduction of three robotics actions, including that move through the entire length of the library, significantly reduces overall robotics time and results in much faster mount time. The cumulative mount times directly affect overall production time, so proper placement of volumes has a significant impact on production performance.

    However, you might ask, "Didn't the cartridge have to be moved to the right place at some time? Didn't that take robotics activity?" Of course, it did. The difference is that content management activity would have been done outside the production job's execution time. In addition, the cartridge would have been placed where it can be mounted many times without requiring the many robotics actions required in the unmanaged example.

    Note that this is just one of many examples where significant performance improvements can be obtained by active, rules-based content management. At its fullest implementation level, StorageTek LCM can bring scheduled production mounts down to sub-second levels in the virtual environment and, in some cases, to an average mount time that is approximately half the average mount time for an Oracle StorageTek SL8500 modular library system in the physical environment. Combined with its other capabilities and the underlying hardware and enabling software environment, Oracle's StorageTek Library Content Manager offers great enhancements to the automated tape environment.

    - Steve Aaker and Jamie Giovanetto


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