Thursday Mar 14, 2013

MySQL User Group Meeting

MySQL User Group meeting, Stockholm, Sweden - April 10, 2013
After some time the Swedish MySQL User Group is organizing and announcing the upcoming MySQL User Group meeting in Stockholm!!! Everyone who are around that area on April 10, 2013, please make sure that you do not miss this great opportunity to listen and ask questions the main guest Mats Kindahl, (the Senior Principal Software Developer MySQL) who will be talking on Replication news on MySQL 5.6.!!!  

Above this main topic and Q&A on MySQL Replication, you will also have an opportunity to suggest topics for the upcoming SMUG meetings as well as enjoy the food & mingle.

Date: April 10, 2013
Start: at 4pm
Where (address) : Emineo; Lilla Västerbron 20; 11219 Stockholm; Sweden
URL for registration & updates: LinkedIn; Facebook
Proposed Agenda:

  • Replication news in MySQL 5.6 by Mats Kindahl, Senior Principal Software Developer MySQL
  • Q&A MySQL Replication
  • Topics for upcoming SMUG meetings
  • Food & mingle

Come to join us!!!

The MySQL Connect 2013 Call for Papers is Open!

Following the success of its first MySQL Connect edition, Oracle will hold MySQL Connect 2013 on September 21-23 in San Francisco.

The Call for Papers is now open, and will be running until April 12. We highly encourage MySQL users, customers, partners and community members to submit session proposals now.


MySQL Connect represents a unique opportunity to learn about the latest features of the best MySQL product releases ever, discuss product roadmaps, and connect directly with the engineers driving MySQL innovation.

The Conference is chock-full with technical sessions, hands-on labs, Birds of a Feather (BOF) sessions and tutorials delivered by MySQL community members, users, customers, partners and Oracle’s MySQL engineers.

The event will include five tracks: Performance and Scalability, High Availability & Replication, Cloud & Big Data, Database Administration & DevOps, Architecture and Application Development.

This is your chance to share real-world experiences, best practices and insights you’ve gained with the MySQL Community at large. You’ll be able to address not only long time MySQL users and highly experienced professionals but also newer and eager MySQL customers traditionally attending Oracle OpenWorld. Don’t miss this opportunity and submit your sessions today.

Interested in exhibiting and sponsoring? Email MySQL-Connect-Exhibit_ww@oracle.com for details.

Friday Mar 08, 2013

MySQL Web Reference Architectures - Your Guide to Innovating on the Web

MySQL is deployed in 9 of the top 10 most trafficked sites on the web including Facebook, Twitter, eBay and YouTube, as well as in some of the fastest growing services such as Tumblr, Pinterest and box.com

Working with these companies has given MySQL developers, consultants and support engineers unique insight into how to design database-driven web architectures – whether deployed on-premise or in the cloud.

The MySQL Web Reference Architectures are a set of documented and repeatable best practices for building infrastructure that deliver the highest levels of scalability, agility and availability with the lowest levels of cost, risk and complexity. 

Four components common to most web and mobile properties are sized, with optimum deployment architectures for each:

User authentication and session management

Content management

Ecommerce

Analytics and big data integration

The sizing is defined by database size and load, as shown below

For each reference architecture, strategies for scaling the service and ensuring high availability are discussed, along with approaches to secure, audit and backup user data, and tools to monitor and manage the environment.

The Reference Architectures cover the core underlying technologies supporting today’s most successful web services including:

- MySQL Database

- MySQL Cluster

- MySQL Replication

- Caching with Memcached and Redis

- Big Data with Hadoop

- NoSQL APIs

- Geographic Redundancy

- Hardware Recommendations

- Operational Best Practices

An example of the "Large" reference architecture is shown below

To learn more:

- Download the MySQL Web Reference Architectures Guide

- View the MySQL Web Reference Architectures slides

The Reference Architecture are designed as a starting point which we hope will enable you build the next web and mobile phenomenon!

Tuesday Feb 26, 2013

MySQL User Group Meeting & MySQL Tech Tour in Moscow - March 21-22!

There is going to be a MySQL Tech Tour in Moscow planned for March 21, 2013 and followed by the local MySQL User Group meeting to talk about the MySQL 5.6! Please find details below.

MySQL Tech Tour:

Date: March 21, 2013
Details
: http://www.oracle.com/webapps/events/ns/EventsDetail.jsp?p_eventId=166491&src=7667490&src=7667490&Act=175

MySQL User Group meeting:

Date: March 22, 2013
Location
: Mail.Ru Airport; Leningradsky prospect 47 building 2
Planned time
: 19:00
Agenda
:
Dmitry Lenev & Victoria Reznitchenko will speak about MySQL 5.6

Registration needed!

Thursday Feb 07, 2013

MySQL 5.6 Replication Performance

With data volumes and user populations growing, its no wonder that database performance is a hot topic in developer and DBA circles.  

Its also no surprise that continued performance improvements were one of the top design goals of the new MySQL 5.6 release which was declared GA on February 5th (note: GA means “Generally Available”, not “Gypsy Approved” @mysqlborat)

And the performance gains haven’t disappointed:

- Dimitri Kravtchuk’s Sysbench tests showed MySQL delivering up to 4x higher performance than the previous 5.5 release.

- Mikael Ronstrom’s testing showed up to 4x better scalability as thread counts rose to 48 and 60 threads (not so uncommon in commodity systems today)

Of course, YMMV (Your Mileage May Vary) in real-world workloads, but you can be reasonably certain you will see performance gains by upgrading to MySQL 5.6.  It is up to you whether you invest these gains to serve more applications and users from your MySQL databases, or you consolidate to fewer instances to reduce operational costs.

How about if you are using MySQL replication in order to scale out your database across commodity nodes, and as a foundation for High Availability (HA)? Performance here has also been improved through a combination of:

- Binary Log Group Commit

- Multi-Threaded Slaves

- Optimized Row-Based Replication

As well as giving you the benefits above; higher replication performance directly translates to:

- Reduced risk of losing data in the event of a failure on the master

- Improved read consistency from slaves

- Resource-efficient binlogs traversing the replication cluster

We will look at each of these in more detail.

Binlog Group Commit

Rather than applying writes one at a time, Binary Log Group Commit batches writes to the Binlog, significantly reducing overhead to the master. This is demonstrated by the benchmark results below.


Using the SysBench RW tests, enabling the binlog and using the default sync_binlog=0 reduces the throughput of the master by around 10%. With sync_binlog=1 (where the MySQL server synchronizes its binary log to disk after every write to the binlog, thereby giving maximum data safety), throughput is reduced by a further 5%.

To understand the difference this makes, the tests were repeated comparing MySQL 5.6 to MySQL 5.5 


Even with sync_binlog=1, MySQL 5.6 was still up to 4.5x faster than 5.5 with sync_binlog=0

Gone are the days when configuring replication resulted in a 50% or more hit to performance of your master.

The result of Binary Log Group Commit is that MySQL replication is much better able to keep pace with the demands of write-intensive workloads, imposing much less overhead on the master, even when the binlog is flushed to disk after each commit!

Details of the configurations used for the benchmark are in the Appendix at the end of this post.

You can learn more about the implementation of Binlog Group Commit from Mats Kindahl’s blog.

Multi-Threaded Slave

Looking beyond the replication master, it is also necessary to bring performance enhancements to the replication slaves.

Using Multi-Threaded Slaves, processing is split between worker threads based on schema, allowing updates to be applied in parallel, rather than sequentially. This delivers benefits to those workloads that isolate application data using databases - e.g. multi-tenant systems deployed in cloud environments.

Benchmarks demonstrate that Multi-Threaded Slaves increase performance by 5x.  


This performance enhancement translates to improved read consistency for clients accessing the replication cluster. Slaves are better able to keep up with the master, and so users are much less likely to need to throttle the sustained throughput of writes, just so that the slaves don't indefinitely fall further and further behind (previously some users had to reduce the capacity of their systems in order to reduce slave lag).

You can get all of the details on this benchmark and the configurations used in this earlier blog posting

Optimized Row-Based Replication

The final piece in improving replication performance is to introduce efficiencies to the binary log itself.

By only replicating those elements of the row image that have changed following INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE operations, replication throughput for both the master and slave(s) can be increased while binary log disk space, network resource and server memory footprint are all reduced.

This is especially useful when replicating across datacenters or cloud availability zones.

Another performance enhancements is the was Row-Based Replication events are handled on the slave against tables without Primary Keys. Updates would be made via multiple table scans. In MySQL 5.6, no matter size of the event, only one table scan is performed, significantly reducing the apply time.

You can learn more about Optimized Row Based Replication from the MySQL documentation.  

Crash-Safe Slaves and Binlog

Aka “Transactional Replication” this is more of an availability than a performance feature, but there is a nice performance angle to it.

The key concept behind crash safe replication is that replication positions are stored in tables rather than files and can therefore be updated transactionally, together with the data. This enables the slave or master to automatically roll back replication to the last committed event before a crash, and resume replication without administrator intervention. Not only does this reduce operational overhead, it also eliminates the risk of data loss or corruption.

From a performance perspective, it also means there is one less disk sync, since we leverage the storage engine's fsync and don't need an additional fsync for the file, giving users a performance gain.

Wrapping Up

So with a faster MySQL Server, InnoDB storage engine and replication, developers and DBAs can get ahead of performance demands. Bear in mind there is more to MySQL 5.6 replication than performance – for example Global Transaction Identifiers (GTIDs), replication event checksums, time-delayed replication and more.

To learn more about all of the new replication features in MySQL 5.6, download the Replication Introduction guide

To get up and running with MySQL replication, download the new Replication Tutorial Guide 


Appendix – Binary Log Group Commit Benchmarks

System Under Test:

5 x 12 thread Intel Xeon E7540 CPUs @2.00 GHz

512 GB memory

Oracle Linux 6.1


Configuration file:

1) --innodb_purge_threads=1

2) --innodb_file_format=barracuda

3) --innodb-buffer-pool-size=8192M

4) --innodb-support-xa=FALSE

5) --innodb-thread-concurrency=0

6) --innodb-flush-log-at-trx-commit=2

7) --innodb-log-file-size=8000M

8) --innodb-log-buffer-size=256M

9) --innodb-io-capacity=2000

10) --innodb-io-capacity-max=4000

11) --innodb-flush-neighbors=0

12) --skip-innodb-adaptive-hash-index

13) --innodb-read-io-threads=8

14) --innodb-write-io-threads=8

15) --innodb_change_buffering=all

16) --innodb-spin-wait-delay=48

17) --innodb-stats-on-metadata=off

18) --innodb-buffer-pool-instances=12

19) --innodb-monitor-enable='%'

20) --max-tmp-tables=100

21) --performance-schema

22) --performance-schema-instrument='%=on'

23) --query-cache-size=0

24) --query-cache-type=0

25) --max-connections=4000

26) --max-prepared-stmt-count=1048576

27) --sort-buffer-size=32768

28) --table-open-cache=4000

29) --table-definition-cache=4000

30) --table-open-cache-instances=16

31) --tmp-table-size=100M

32) --max-heap-table-size=1000M

33) --key-buffer-size=50M

34) --join-buffer-size=1000000



Tuesday Feb 05, 2013

The Best MySQL Release Ever - MySQL 5.6 is now GA

MySQL 5.6 is now generally available. Read the press release.

Chock-full of new enhancements and features around performance, scalability and availability, MySQL 5.6 is the best MySQL release ever. Read Rob Young's blog article on the key enhancements in MySQL 5.6.

This is open source goodness all around.

Congratulations to the MySQL Engineering team on delivering a stellar product release yet again for the MySQL community and users!

Thursday Jan 31, 2013

Tecnotree Empowers Communications Service Providers with Embedded MySQL

Tecnotree is a global provider of telecom IT solutions for the management of products, customers and revenue. Tecnotree helps communications service providers to transform their business towards a marketplace of digital services. Tecnotree empowers service providers to monetise on service bundles, provide personalized user experiences and augment value throughout the customer lifecycle. With over 1100 telecom experts, Tecnotree serves more than 100 service providers in over 70 countries. Tecnotree is listed on the main list of NASDAQ OMX Helsinki.

Challenges

  • Integrate a database well suited to power the mission critical Tecnotree solutions deployed by telecom operators in networks counting over 50 million subscribers.
  • Standardize on one database for the core Tecnotree products, while meeting the company’s technical and economic requirements.
  • Select a database delivering the configuration flexibility needed to provide the best performance and reliability in different settings.

Solution

  • Evaluation and selection of MySQL as embedded database based on its high performance, reliability, flexibility of deployment and cost-effectiveness.
  • Tecnotree leverages the built-in MySQL replication to confer up to 5 nines (99.999%) availability to its solutions; ensuring subscribers will continuously be able to access the operators’ network and billing infrastructure.
  • Implemented at the heart of front-end signaling systems transmitting information to other applications, MySQL commonly handles 20,000 queries and 2,000 transactions per second, for example allowing the real-time billing of subscribers.
  • MySQL databases powering the voice-mail and conferencing applications deployed by operators store up to a terabyte of data.
  • Tecnotree has been relying on MySQL for several years, and plans to embed it in additional products in the future, highly valuing the “hassle free” nature of the database.
  • The company also uses the Oracle database within its customer care and billing solutions.

“With MySQL we get a high performance solution that simultaneously delivers the flexibility to serve our different database needs.” Timo Ahomäki, CTO, Tecnotree


Thursday Jan 24, 2013

MySQL 5.6: What's New in Performance, Scalability, Availability

With the MySQL 5.6 production-ready GA set for release in the coming days, it’s good to re-cap the key features that make 5.6 the best release of the database ever.  At a glance, MySQL 5.6 is simply a better MySQL with improvements that enhance every functional area of the database kernel, including:
  • Improved Security for worry-free application deployments
  • Better Performance and Scalability
    • Improved InnoDB storage engine for better transactional throughput
    • Improved Optimizer for better query execution times and diagnostics
  • Better Application Availability with Online DDL/Schema changes
  • Better Developer Agility with NoSQL Access with Memcached API to InnoDB
  • Improved Replication for high performance, self-healing distributed deployments
  • Improved Performance Schema for better instrumentation
  • And other Important Enhancements


Improved Security for worry-free deployments
Security is near and dear to every DBA and Sys Admin's heart.  With this in mind, MySQL 5.6 introduces a major overhaul to how passwords are internally handled and encrypted.  The new options and features include:

New alternative to password in master.info – MySQL 5.6 extends the replication START SLAVE command to enable DBAs to specify master user and password as part of the replication slave options and to authenticate the account used to connect to the master through an external authentication plugin (user defined or those provided under MySQL Enterprise Edition).  With these options the user and password no longer need to be exposed in plain text in the master.info file.
New encryption for passwords in general query log, slow query log, and binary log – Passwords in statements written to these logs are no longer recorded in plain text.
New password hashing with appropriate strength – Default password hashing for internal MySQL server authentication via PASSWORD() is now done using the SHA-256 password hashing algorithm using a random salt value.
New options for passwords on the command line – MySQL 5.6 introduces a new “scrambled” option/config file (.mylogin.cnf) that can be used to securely store user passwords that are used for command line operations.
New change password at next login – DBAs and developers can now control when account passwords must be changed via a new password_expired flag in the mysql.user table.
New policy-based Password validations – Passwords can now be validated for appropriate strength, length, mixed case, special chars, and other user defined policies based on LOW, MEDIUM and STRONG designation settings. 

Learn about these and all of MySQL 5.6 Security improvements and features, along with all technical documentation, in the MySQL docs

Better Performance and Scalability: Improved InnoDB Storage Engine

From an operational standpoint MySQL 5.6 provides better sustained linear performance and scale on systems supporting multi-processors and high CPU thread concurrency.  Key to this are improvements to Oracle’s InnoDB storage engine efficiency and concurrency that remove legacy thread contention and mutex locking within the InnoDB kernel.  These improvements enable MySQL to fully exploit the advanced multi-threaded processing power of today’s x86-based commodity-off-the-shelf hardware.

Internal benchmarks for SysBench Read/Write and Read Only workloads show a marked improvement in sustained scale over the most current version of MySQL 5.5.  The following shows that MySQL 5.6 provides “up and to the right” linear read/write transactions per second (“TPS”) scale on systems that support upwards of 48 concurrent CPU threads. 


Read only TPS workload sustained scale is also improved as demonstrated here:


Better Transactional Throughput

MySQL 5.6 improves InnoDB for better performance and scalability on highly concurrent, transactional and read intensive workloads.  In these cases performance gains are best measured by how an application performs and scales as concurrent user workloads grow.  In support of these use cases, InnoDB has a new re-factored architecture that minimizes mutex contentions and bottlenecks and provides a more consistent access path to underlying data.  Improvements include:

  • Kernel mutex split to remove a single point of contention
  • New thread for flushing operations
  • New multi-threaded purge
  • New adaptive hashing algorithm
  • Less buffer pool contention
  • Better, more consistent query execution via persistent optimizer statistics that are collected at more regular, predictable intervals

The net result of these improvements is reflected in the SysBench read/write benchmarks shown here: 


For Linux, MySQL 5.6 shows up to a 150% improvement in transactional TPS throughput over MySQL 5.5, while similar tests run on Windows 2008 reveal a 47% performance gain. 

Better Read Only Workload Throughput
New optimizations have been made to InnoDB for read only transactions that greatly improve the performance of high concurrency web-based lookups and report-generating applications.  These optimizations bypass transactional overhead and are enabled by default when autocommit = 1, or can be atomically controlled by the developer using the new START_TRANSACTION_READ_ONLY syntax:

SET autocommit = 0;
START_TRANSACTION_READ_ONLY;
SELECT c FROM T1 WHERE id=N;
COMMIT;

The results of these optimizations are shown here:


For Linux, MySQL 5.6 shows up to a 230% improvement in read only TPS throughput over MySQL 5.5, while similar tests run on Windows 2008 show a 65% performance gain.

For context, all benchmarks shown above were run on the following platform configuration:

  • Oracle Linux 6
  • Intel(R) Xeon(R) E7540 x86_64
  • MySQL leveraging:
    • 48 of 96 available CPU threads
    • 2 GHz, 512GB RAM

The SysBench benchmark tool is freely available for application use-case specific benchmarks and can be downloaded here.

You can also get in depth MySQL 5.6 performance and feature specific benchmarks by following related blogs by Mikael Ronstrom and Dimitri Kravtchuk.  Both share the test cases and configurations they use to arrive at the conclusions drawn above.

Better Performance with Solid State Drives (SSD)
Spinning disks are among the most common bottlenecks on any system, simply because they have mechanical parts that physically limiit the ability to scale as concurrency grows.  As a result, many MySQL applications are being deployed on SSD enabled systems which provide the memory-based speed and reliability required to support the highest levels of concurrency on today’s web-based systems.  With this in mind, MySQL 5.6 includes several key enhancements designed specifically for use with SSD, including:

  • Support for smaller 4k and 8k page sizes to better fit the standard storage algorithm of SSD.
  • Portable .ibd (InnoDB data) files that allow “hot” InnoDB tables to be easily moved from the default data directory to SSD or network storage devices.
  • Separate tablespaces for the InnoDB unlog log that optionally moves the undo log out of the system tablespace into one or more separate tablespaces.  The read-intensive I/O patterns for the undo log make these new tablespaces good candidates to move to SSD storage, while keeping the system tablespace on hard drive storage.

Learn about all supporting SSD optimizations here.

Better Query Execution Times and Diagnostics: Improved Optimizer
The MySQL 5.6 Optimizer has been re-factored for better efficiency and performance and provides an improved feature set for better query execution times and diagnostics.  They key 5.6 optimizer improvements include:

Subquery Optimizations – Using semi-JOINs and materialization, the MySQL Optimizer delivers greatly improved subquery performance, simplifying how developers construct queries.  Specifically, the optimizer is now more efficient in handling subqueries in the FROM clause; materialization of subqueries in the FROM clause is now postponed until their contents are needed during execution, greatly improving performance.  Additionally, the optimizer may add an index to derived tables during execution to speed up row retrieval.  Tests run using the DBT-3 benchmark Query #13, shown below, demonstrate an order of magnitude improvement in execution times (from days to seconds) over previous versions.

select c_name, c_custkey, o_orderkey, o_orderdate, o_totalprice, sum(l_quantity)
from customer, orders, lineitem
where o_orderkey in (
                select l_orderkey
                from lineitem
                group by l_orderkey
                having sum(l_quantity) > 313
  )
  and c_custkey = o_custkey
  and o_orderkey = l_orderkey
group by c_name, c_custkey, o_orderkey, o_orderdate, o_totalprice
order by o_totalprice desc, o_orderdate
LIMIT 100;

File Sort Optimizations with Small Limit – For queries with ORDER BY and small LIMIT values, the optimizer now produces an ordered result set using a single table scan.  These queries are common in web applications that display only a few rows from a large result set such as:

SELECT col1, ... FROM t1 ... ORDER BY name LIMIT 10;

Internal benchmarks have shown up to a 4x improvement in query execution times which helps improve overall user experience and response times. 

Index Condition Pushdown (ICP) – By default, the optimizer now pushes WHERE conditions down to the storage engine for evaluation, table scan and return of ordered result set to the MySQL server. 

CREATE TABLE person (
      personid INTEGER PRIMARY KEY,
      firstname CHAR(20),
      lastname CHAR(20),
      postalcode INTEGER,
      age INTEGER,
      address CHAR(50),
      KEY k1 (postalcode,age)‏
   ) ENGINE=InnoDB;

SELECT lastname, firstname FROM person
   WHERE postalcode BETWEEN 5000 AND 5500 AND age BETWEEN 21 AND 22; 


Internal benchmarks on this type of table and query have shown up to 15x improved execution times with the ICP default behavior. 

Batched Key Access (BKA) and Multi-Range Read (MRR) – The optimizer now provides the storage engine with all primary keys in batches and enables the storage engine to access, order and return the data more efficiently greatly improving query execution times. 



Together, BKA and MRR show up to 280x improvement in query execution times for DBT-3 Query 13 and other disk-bound query benchmarks.

Better Optimizer Diagnostics – The MySQL 5.6 optimizer also provides better diagnostics and debugging with:

  • EXPLAIN for INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE operations,
  • EXPLAIN plan output in JSON format with more precise optimizer metrics and better readability
  • Optimizer Traces for tracking the optimizer decision-making process.


Learn about all of MySQL 5.6 Optimizer improvements and features, in the MySQL docs.

For a deep technical dive into the implementation, how to enable/disable where applicable, related benchmarks and the use case specific performance improvements you can expect with each of these new features check out the MySQL Optimizer Engineering team blog.

Better Application Availability: Online DDL/Schema Changes
Today's web-based applications are designed to rapidly evolve and adapt to meet business and revenue-generation requirements. As a result, development SLAs are now most often measured in minutes vs days or weeks. So when an application must quickly support new product lines or new products within existing product lines, the backend database schema must adapt in kind, most commonly while the application remains available for normal business operations.  MySQL 5.6 supports this level of online schema flexibility and agility by providing the following new ALTER TABLE DDL syntax additions:

CREATE INDEX
DROP INDEX
Change AUTO_INCREMENT value for a column
ADD/DROP FOREIGN KEY
Rename COLUMN
Change ROW FORMAT, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE for a table
Change COLUMN NULL, NOT_NULL
Add, drop, reorder COLUMN


DBAs and Developers can add indexes and perform standard InnoDB table alterations while the database remains available for application updates. This is especially beneficial for rapidly evolving applications where developers need schema flexibility to accommodate changing business requirements.

Learn about all of MySQL 5.6 InnoDB online DDL improvements and features, in the MySQL docs.

Better Developer Agility: NoSQL Access to InnoDB
MySQL 5.6 provides simple, key-value interaction with InnoDB data via the familiar Memcached API.  Implemented via a new Memcached daemon plug-in to mysqld, the new Memcached protocol is mapped directly to the native InnoDB API and enables developers to use existing Memcached clients to bypass the expense of query parsing and go directly to InnoDB data for lookups and transactional compliant updates.  The API makes it possible to re-use standard Memcached libraries and clients, while extending Memcached functionality by integrating a persistent, crash-safe, transactional database back-end.  The implementation is shown here:


So does this option provide a performance benefit over SQL?  Internal performance benchmarks using a customized Java application and test harness show some very promising results with a 9X improvement in overall throughput for SET/INSERT operations:


Not only do developers and DBAs get more performance and flexibility, they also reduce complexity as it is possible to compress previously separate caching and database layers into a single data management tier, as well as eliminate the overhead of maintaining cache consistency.

You can follow the InnoDB team blog for the methodology, implementation and internal test cases that generated the above results.

Learn more about the details and how to get started with the new Memcached API to InnoDB in the MySQL docs.

Better Developer Agility: Extended InnoDB Use Cases
New MySQL 5.6 optimizations and features extend InnoDB into more use cases so developers can simplify applications by standardizing on a single storage engine.

New Full Text Search (FTS) – Provided as a better alternative to MyISAM FTS, InnoDB now enables developers to build FULLTEXT indexes on InnoDB tables to represent text-based content and speed up application searches for words and phrases.  InnoDB full-text search supports Natural language/Boolean modes, proximity search and relevance ranking.  A simple use case example looks like: 

CREATE TABLE quotes
(id int unsigned auto_increment primary key
, author varchar(64)
, quote varchar(4000)
, source varchar(64)
, fulltext(quote)
) engine=innodb;

SELECT author AS “Apple" FROM quotes
    WHERE match(quote) against (‘apple' in natural language mode);


New Transportable Tablespaces – InnoDB .ibd files created in file-per-table mode are now transportable between physical storage devices and database servers; when creating a table developers can now designate a storage location for the .idb file outside of the MySQL data directory.  This enables “hot” or busy tables to be easily moved to an external network storage device (SSD, HDD) that does not compete with application or database overhead. This new feature also enables quick, seamless application scale by allowing users to easily export/import InnoDB tables between running MySQL servers, as shown here:

Example Export:
CREATE TABLE t(c1 INT) engine=InnoDB;
FLUSH TABLE t FOR EXPORT; -- quiesce the table and create the meta data file
$innodb_data_home_dir/test/t.cfg
UNLOCK TABLES;


Corresponding Import:
CREATE TABLE t(c1 INT) engine=InnoDB; -- if it doesn't already exist
ALTER TABLE t DISCARD TABLESPACE;
-- The user must stop all updates on the tables, prior to the IMPORT
ALTER TABLE t IMPORT TABLESPACE;


The InnoDB improvements noted here are by no means exhaustive.  The complete accounting of all MySQL 5.6 features, along with all technical documentation, is available in the MySQL docs.

For a deep technical dive into the implementation, how to enable/disable where applicable and the use case specific improvements you can expect with each of these new features follow the MySQL InnoDB Engineering team blog.

Improved Replication and High Availability
Replication is the most widely used MySQL feature for scale-out and High Availability (HA) and MySQL 5.6 includes new features designed to enable developers building next generation web, cloud, social and mobile applications and services with self-healing replication topologies and high performance master and slaves.  The key features include:

New Global Transactions Identifiers (GTIDs) – GTIDs enable replication transactional integrity to be tracked through a replication master/slave topology, providing a foundation for self-healing recovery, and enabling DBAs and developers to easily identify the most up to date slave in the event of a master failure.  Built directly into the Binlog stream, GTIDs eliminate the need for complex third-party add-ons to provide this same level of tracking intelligence.



New MySQL Replication utilities – A new set of Python Utilities are designed to leverage the new replication GTIDs to provide replication administration and monitoring with automatic fail-over in the event of a failed master, or switchover in the event of maintenance to the master. This eliminates the need for additional third party High-Availability solutions, protecting web and cloud-based services against both planned and unplanned downtime without operator intervention.

New Multi-threaded Slaves - Splits processing between worker threads based on schema, allowing updates to be applied in parallel, rather than sequentially. This delivers benefits to those workloads that isolate application data using databases - e.g. multi-tenant systems. 



SysBench benchmarks using a graduated number of worker threads across 10 schemas show up to 5x in performance gain with multi-threading enabled. 

New Binary Log Group Commit (BGC) – In MySQL 5.6 replication masters now group writes to the Binlog rather than committing them one at a time, significantly improving performance on the master side of the topology.  BGC also enables finer grained locking which reduces lock waits, again, adding to the performance gain, shown here:



MySQL 5.6 shows up to a 180% performance gain over 5.5 in master server throughput with replication enabled (Binlog=1). BGC largely eliminates the trade-off users had to make between performance overhead to the master and the scale-out, HA benefits offered by MySQL replication.

New Optimized Row-based Replication – MySQL 5.6 provides a new option variable binlog-row-image=minimal that enables applications to replicate only data elements of the row image that have changed following DML operations.  This improves replication throughput for both the master and slave(s) and minimizes binary log disk space, network resource and server memory footprint.
New Crash-Safe Slaves – MySQL 5.6 stores Binlog positional data within tables so slaves can automatically roll back replication to the last committed event before a failure, and resume replication without administrator intervention. Not only does this reduce operational overhead, it also eliminates the risk of data loss caused by a slave attempting to recover from a corrupted data file.  Further, if a crash to the master causes corruption of the binary log, the server will automatically recover it to a position where it can be read correctly.
New Replication Checksums – MySQL 5.6 ensure the integrity of data being replicated to a slave by detecting data corruption and returning an error before corrupt events are applied to the slave, preventing the slave itself from becoming corrupt.
New Time-delayed Replication – MySQL 5.6 provides protection against operational errors made on the master from propagating to attached slaves by allowing developers to add defined delays in the replication stream.  With configurable master to slave time delays, in the event of failure or mishap, slaves can be promoted to the new master in order to restore the database to its previous state. It also becomes possible to inspect the state of a database before an error or outage without the need to reload a back up.

Learn about these and all of MySQL 5.6 Replication and High Availability improvements and features, along with all technical documentation, in the MySQL docs
For a rundown of the details, use cases and related benchmarks of all of these features check out Mat Keep’s Developer Zone article.

Improved Performance Schema
The MySQL Performance Schema was introduced in MySQL 5.5 and is designed to provide point in time metrics for key performance indicators.  MySQL 5.6 improves the Performance Schema in answer to the most common DBA and developer problems.  New instrumentation includes:

Statements/Stages -  What are my most resource intensive queries? Where do they spend time?
Table/Index I/O, Table Locks - Which application tables/indexes cause the most load or contention?
Users/Hosts/Accounts - Which application users, hosts, accounts are consuming the most resources?
Network I/O - What is the network load like? How long do sessions idle?
Summaries - Aggregated statistics grouped by statement, thread, user, host, account or object.

The MySQL 5.6 Performance Schema is now enabled by default in the my.cnf file with optimized and auto-tune settings that minimize overhead (< 5%, but mileage will vary), so using the Performance Schema a production server to monitor the most common application use cases is less of an issue.  In addition, new atomic levels of instrumentation enable the capture of granular levels of resource consumption by users, hosts, accounts, applications, etc. for billing and chargeback purposes in cloud computing environments.

MySQL Engineering has several champions behind the 5.6 Performance Schema, and many have published excellent blogs that you can reference for technical and practical details.  To get started see blogs by Mark Leith and Marc Alff.

The MySQL docs are also an excellent resource for all that is available and that can be done with the 5.6 Performance Schema. 


Other Important Enhancements
New default configuration optimizations – MySQL 5.6 introduces changes to the server defaults that provide better out-of-the-box performance on today’s system architectures.  These new defaults are designed to minimize the upfront time spent on changing the most commonly updated variables and configuration options.   Many configuration options are now auto sized based on environment, and can also be set and controlled at server start up.

Improved TIME/TIMESTAMP/DATETIME Data Types:

  • TIME/TIMESTAMP/DATETIME – Now allow microsecond level precision for more precise time/date comparisons and data selection.
  • TIMESTAMP/DATETIME – Improves on 5.5. by allowing developers to assign the current timestamp, an auto-update value, or both, as the default value for TIMESTAMP and DATETIME columns, the auto-update value, or both.
  • TIMESTAMP - Columns are now nullable by default.  TIMESTAMP columns no longer get DEFAULT NOW() or ON UPDATE NOW() attributes automatically without them being explicitly specified and non-NULLable TIMESTAMP columns without explicit default value treated as having no default value.

Better Condition Handling – GET DIAGNOSTICS
MySQL 5.6 enables developers to easily check for error conditions and code for exceptions by introducing the new MySQL Diagnostics Area and corresponding GET DIAGNOSTICS interface command. The Diagnostic Area can be populated via multiple options and provides 2 kinds of information:

  • Statement - which provides affected row count and number of conditions that occurred
  • Condition - which provides error codes and messages for all conditions that were returned by a previous operation

The addressable items for each are:



The new GET DIAGNOSTICS command provides a standard interface into the Diagnostics Area and can be used via the CLI or from within application code to easily retrieve and handle the results of the most recent statement execution:

mysql> DROP TABLE test.no_such_table;
ERROR 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'test.no_such_table'
mysql> GET DIAGNOSTICS CONDITION 1
-> @p1 = RETURNED_SQLSTATE, @p2 = MESSAGE_TEXT;
mysql> SELECT @p1, @p2;
+-------+------------------------------------+
| @p1   | @p2                                |
+-------+------------------------------------+
| 42S02 | Unknown table 'test.no_such_table' |
+-------+------------------------------------+


Options for leveraging the MySQL Diagnostics Area are detailed here. You can learn more about GET DIAGNOSTICS here.  

Improved IPv6 Support

  • MySQL 5.6 improves INET_ATON() to convert and store string-based IPv6 addresses as binary data for minimal space consumption.
  • MySQL 5.6 changes the default value for the bind-address option from “0.0.0.0” to “0::0” so the MySQL server accepts connections for all IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.  You can learn more here.

Improved Partitioning

  • Improved performance for tables with large number of partitions – MySQL 5.6 now performs and scales on highly partitioned systems, specifically for INSERT operations that span upwards of hundreds of partitions.
  • Import/export tables to/from partitioned tables - MySQL 5.6 enables users to exchange a table partition or sub-partition with a table using the ALTER TABLE ... EXCHANGE PARTITION statement; existing rows in a partition or subpartition can be moved to a non-partitioned table, and conversely, any existing rows in a non-partitioned table can be moved to an existing table partition or sub-partition. 
  • Explicit partition selection - MySQL 5.6 supports explicit selection of partitions and subpartitions that are checked for rows matching a given WHERE condition. Similar to automatic partition pruning, the partitions to be checked are specified/controlled by the issuer of the statement, and is supported for both queries and a number of DML statements (SELECT, DELETE, INSERT, REPLACE, UPDATE, LOAD DATA, LOAD XML). 


Improved GIS: Precise spatial operations - MySQL 5.6 provides geometric operations via precise object shapes that conform to the OpenGIS standard for testing the relationship between two geometric values. 

Conclusion

MySQL 5.5 has been called the best release of MySQL ever.  MySQL 5.6 builds on this by providing across the board improvements in performance, scalability, transactional throughput, availability and performance related instrumentation all designed to keep pace with requirements of the most demanding web, cloud and embedded use cases. The MySQL 5.6 Release Candidate is now available for download for early adopter and development purposes.

Next Steps

As always, thanks for reading, and thanks for your continued support of MySQL!


Monday Jan 21, 2013

MySQL Webinars in the Next Few Days

Interested in the latest MySQL information across different topics? Don't miss our webinars taking place this week and next!

Thursday, January 24

What’s New in MySQL Connector/.NET 6.6

The recently released MySQL Connector/.NET 6.6 contains impressive new features and capabilities. Join this technical webinar for a quick overview of MySQL Connector/.NET fundamentals followed by a demo and a deeper dive into MySQL Connector/.NET 6.6 technologies.

Learn More and Register Now

Tuesday, January 29

MySQL Enterprise Edition Management Tools

MySQL Enterprise Edition includes the most comprehensive set of advanced features, management tools and technical support to achieve the highest levels of MySQL scalability, security, and uptime. In this webinar, we will focus on the management tools, helping you better understand how you can benefit from them.

Learn More and Register Now

Wednesday, January 30

MySQL and Hadoop: Big Data Integration - Unlocking New Insights

Join this webinar to learn how integrating MySQL with Hadoop enables organizations to gain deeper insights into their customers, partners, and business processes, asking questions of their data that were never previously possible.

Learn More and Register Now

Join us and take advantage of the live Q&A during all our webinars!

Friday Jan 18, 2013

Achieve the Highest Levels of MySQL Scalability, Security & Uptime

Oracle's MySQL Enterprise Edition includes the most comprehensive set of advanced features, management tools and technical support to help you reduce the cost, risk & time to deploy and manage your MySQL applications.

Access our Resource Kit to discover:

  • How to boost scalability by 20x with MySQL Enterprise Scalability
  • How to automatically detect and recover from failures with MySQL Enterprise High Availability
  • How to eliminate security vulnerabilities, improve replication and optimize performance with the MySQL Enterprise Monitor
  • How MySQL Enterprise Backup reduces the risk of data loss with online "Hot" backups of your databases
  • How to make the most of your MySQL deployments with Oracle Premier Support for MySQL

Learn how to achieve the highest levels of MySQL scalability, security and uptime, either on-premise or in the cloud.

Access demos, white papers and case studies in our Resource Kit now!

ISVs & OEMs will find out how they can increase differentiation and customer satisfaction with MySQL Enterprise Edition.

Tuesday Jan 15, 2013

Upcoming MySQL Events

Oracle's MySQL team is running/participating to a number of events during the upcoming weeks and months. Don't miss this chance to learn about the latest developments straight from the source and to get all your questions answered!

Additional events will likely be scheduled down the road and posted on our events page, but you can already register for the following ones:

MySQL Tech Tour: Big Data and High Availability with MySQL– Pleasanton, California

January 22

MySQL Tech Tour: Big Data and High Availability with MySQL– Belmont, California

January 23

FOSDEM – Brussels, Belgium

February 2-3

MySQL Tech Tour: From the Web to the Cloud – Istanbul, Turkey

February 5

Oracle & Zend LAMP Seminar - Milan, Italy

February 15

MySQL Tech Tour for Software & Hardware Vendors - Arie Petach Tikva, Israel

February 19

MySQL Tech Tour: From the Web to the Cloud – Oslo, Norway

February 21

MySQL Tech Tour: From the Web to the Cloud – Brussels, Belgium

February 21

MySQL Tech Tour: From the Web to the Cloud – Stockholm, Sweden

March 20

MySQL Tech Tour: From the Web to the Cloud – Munich, Germany

April 17

MySQL Tech Tour: From the Web to the Cloud – Baden, Switzerland

April 24

We hope to see many of you at those events!

Thursday Dec 13, 2012

NoSQL Memcached API for MySQL: Latest Updates

With data volumes exploding, it is vital to be able to ingest and query data at high speed. For this reason, MySQL has implemented NoSQL interfaces directly to the InnoDB and MySQL Cluster (NDB) storage engines, which bypass the SQL layer completely. Without SQL parsing and optimization, Key-Value data can be written directly to MySQL tables up to 9x faster, while maintaining ACID guarantees.

In addition, users can continue to run complex queries with SQL across the same data set, providing real-time analytics to the business or anonymizing sensitive data before loading to big data platforms such as Hadoop, while still maintaining all of the advantages of their existing relational database infrastructure.

This and more is discussed in the latest Guide to MySQL and NoSQL where you can learn more about using the APIs to scale new generations of web, cloud, mobile and social applications on the world's most widely deployed open source database

The native Memcached API is part of the MySQL 5.6 Release Candidate, and is already available in the GA release of MySQL Cluster. By using the ubiquitous Memcached API for writing and reading data, developers can preserve their investments in Memcached infrastructure by re-using existing Memcached clients, while also eliminating the need for application changes.

Speed, when combined with flexibility, is essential in the world of growing data volumes and variability. Complementing NoSQL access, support for on-line DDL (Data Definition Language) operations in MySQL 5.6 and MySQL Cluster enables DevOps teams to dynamically update their database schema to accommodate rapidly changing requirements, such as the need to capture additional data generated by their applications. These changes can be made without database downtime.

Using the Memcached interface, developers do not need to define a schema at all when using MySQL Cluster.

Lets look a little more closely at the Memcached implementations for both InnoDB and MySQL Cluster.

Memcached Implementation for InnoDB

The Memcached API for InnoDB is previewed as part of the MySQL 5.6 Release Candidate.

As illustrated in the following figure, Memcached for InnoDB is implemented via a Memcached daemon plug-in to the mysqld process, with the Memcached protocol mapped to the native InnoDB API.


Figure 1: Memcached API Implementation for InnoDB

With the Memcached daemon running in the same process space, users get very low latency access to their data while also leveraging the scalability enhancements delivered with InnoDB and a simple deployment and management model. Multiple web / application servers can remotely access the Memcached / InnoDB server to get direct access to a shared data set.

With simultaneous SQL access, users can maintain all the advanced functionality offered by InnoDB including support for Foreign Keys, XA transactions and complex JOIN operations.

Benchmarks demonstrate that the NoSQL Memcached API for InnoDB delivers up to 9x higher performance than the SQL interface when inserting new key/value pairs, with a single low-end commodity server supporting nearly 70,000 Transactions per Second.

Figure 2: Over 9x Faster INSERT Operations

The delivered performance demonstrates MySQL with the native Memcached NoSQL interface is well suited for high-speed inserts with the added assurance of transactional guarantees.

You can check out the latest Memcached / InnoDB developments and benchmarks here

You can learn how to configure the Memcached API for InnoDB here

Memcached Implementation for MySQL Cluster

Memcached API support for MySQL Cluster was introduced with General Availability (GA) of the 7.2 release, and joins an extensive range of NoSQL interfaces that are already available for MySQL Cluster

Like Memcached, MySQL Cluster provides a distributed hash table with in-memory performance. MySQL Cluster extends Memcached functionality by adding support for write-intensive workloads, a full relational model with ACID compliance (including persistence), rich query support, auto-sharding and 99.999% availability, with extensive management and monitoring capabilities.

All writes are committed directly to MySQL Cluster, eliminating cache invalidation and the overhead of data consistency checking to ensure complete synchronization between the database and cache.


Figure 3: Memcached API Implementation with MySQL Cluster

Implementation is simple:

1. The application sends reads and writes to the Memcached process (using the standard Memcached API).

2. This invokes the Memcached Driver for NDB (which is part of the same process)

3. The NDB API is called, providing for very quick access to the data held in MySQL Cluster’s data nodes.

The solution has been designed to be very flexible, allowing the application architect to find a configuration that best fits their needs. It is possible to co-locate the Memcached API in either the data nodes or application nodes, or alternatively within a dedicated Memcached layer.

The benefit of this flexible approach to deployment is that users can configure behavior on a per-key-prefix basis (through tables in MySQL Cluster) and the application doesn’t have to care – it just uses the Memcached API and relies on the software to store data in the right place(s) and to keep everything synchronized.

Using Memcached for Schema-less Data

By default, every Key / Value is written to the same table with each Key / Value pair stored in a single row – thus allowing schema-less data storage. Alternatively, the developer can define a key-prefix so that each value is linked to a pre-defined column in a specific table.

Of course if the application needs to access the same data through SQL then developers can map key prefixes to existing table columns, enabling Memcached access to schema-structured data already stored in MySQL Cluster.

Conclusion

Download the Guide to MySQL and NoSQL to learn more about NoSQL APIs and how you can use them to scale new generations of web, cloud, mobile and social applications on the world's most widely deployed open source database

See how to build a social app with MySQL Cluster and the Memcached API from our on-demand webinar or take a look at the docs

Don't hesitate to use the comments section below for any questions you may have 

Wednesday Dec 12, 2012

Thank You MySQL Community! MySQL 5.6.9 Release Candidate Available Now!

The MySQL Community continues its good work in testing and refining MySQL 5.6, and as such the next iteration of the 5.6 Release Candidate is now available for download.  You can get MySQL 5.6.9 here (look under the "Development Releases" tab).  This version is the result of feedback we have gotten since MySQL 5.6.7 was announced at MySQL Connect in late September. As iron sharpens iron, Community feedback sharpens the quality and performance of MySQL so please download 5.6.9 and let us know how we can improve it as we move toward the production-ready product release in early 2013.

MySQL 5.6 is designed to meet the agility demands of the next generation of web apps and services and includes across the board improvements to the Optimizer, InnoDB performance/scale and online DDL operations, self-healing Replication, Performance Schema Instrumentation, Security and developer enabling NoSQL functionality

You can learn all the details and follow MySQL Engineering blogs on all of the key features in this MySQL DevZone article.

On a related note, plan to join this week's live webinars to learn more about MySQL 5.6 Self-Healing Replication Clusters and Building the Next Generation of Web, Cloud, SaaS, Embedded Application and Services with MySQL 5.6.  Hurry!  Seating is limited!

 As always, thanks for your continued support of MySQL!



Monday Dec 10, 2012

MySQL, An Ideal Choice for The Cloud

As the world's most popular web database, MySQL has quickly become the leading database for the cloud, with most providers offering MySQL-based services.


Access our Resource Kit to discover:

  • Why MySQL has become the leading database in the cloud, and how it addresses the critical attributes of cloud-based deployments
  • How ISVs rely on MySQL to power their SaaS offerings
  • Best practices to deploy the world’s most popular open source database in public and private clouds

You will also find out how you can leverage MySQL together with Hadoop and other technologies to unlock the value of Big Data, either on-premise or in the cloud.

Access white papers, webinars, case studies and other resources in our Resource Kit now!


Wednesday Dec 05, 2012

Top 5 Developer Enabling Nuggets in MySQL 5.6

MySQL 5.6 is truly a better MySQL and reflects Oracle's commitment to the evolution of the most popular and widely
used open source database on the planet.  The feature-complete 5.6 release candidate was announced at MySQL Connect in late September and the production-ready, generally available ("GA") product should be available in early 2013.  

While the message around 5.6 has been focused mainly on mass appeal, advanced topics like performance/scale, high availability, and self-healing replication clusters, MySQL 5.6 also provides many developer-friendly nuggets that
are designed to enable those who are building the next generation of web-based and embedded applications and services. Boiling down the 5.6 feature set into a smaller set, of simple, easy to use goodies designed with developer agility in mind, these things deserve a quick look:

Subquery Optimizations

Using semi-JOINs and late materialization, the MySQL 5.6 Optimizer delivers greatly improved subquery performance. Specifically, the optimizer is now more efficient in handling subqueries in the FROM clause; materialization of subqueries in the FROM clause is now postponed until their contents are needed during execution. Additionally, the optimizer may add an index to derived tables during execution to speed up row retrieval. Internal tests run using the DBT-3 benchmark Query #13, shown below, demonstrate an order of magnitude improvement in execution times (from days to seconds) over previous versions.

select c_name, c_custkey, o_orderkey, o_orderdate, o_totalprice, sum(l_quantity)
from customer, orders, lineitem
where o_orderkey in (
                select l_orderkey
                from lineitem
                group by l_orderkey
                having sum(l_quantity) > 313
  )
  and c_custkey = o_custkey
  and o_orderkey = l_orderkey
group by c_name, c_custkey, o_orderkey, o_orderdate, o_totalprice
order by o_totalprice desc, o_orderdate
LIMIT 100;


What does this mean for developers?  For starters, simplified subqueries can now be coded instead of complex joins for cross table lookups:

SELECT title FROM film WHERE film_id IN

(SELECT film_id FROM film_actor

GROUP BY film_id HAVING count(*) > 12);

And even more importantly subqueries embedded in packaged applications no longer need to be re-written into joins.  This is good news for both ISVs and their customers who have access to the underlying queries and who have spent development cycles writing, testing and maintaining their own versions of re-written queries across updated versions of a packaged app.

The details are in the MySQL 5.6 docs.

Online DDL Operations

Today's web-based applications are designed to rapidly evolve and adapt to meet business and revenue-generation
requirements. As a result, development SLAs are now most often measured in minutes vs days or weeks. For example, when an application must quickly support new product lines or new products within existing product lines, the backend database schema must adapt in kind, and most commonly while the application remains available for normal business operations.  MySQL 5.6 supports this level of online schema flexibility and agility by providing the following new ALTER TABLE online DDL syntax additions: 

  • CREATE INDEX
  • DROP INDEX
  • Change AUTO_INCREMENT value for a column
  • ADD/DROP FOREIGN KEY
  • Rename COLUMN
  • Change ROW FORMAT, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE for a table
  • Change COLUMN NULL, NOT_NULL
  • Add, drop, reorder COLUMN

Again, the details are in the MySQL 5.6 docs.

Key-value access to InnoDB via Memcached API

Many of the next generation of web, cloud, social and mobile applications require fast operations against simple
Key/Value pairs. At the same time, they must retain the ability to run complex queries against the same data, as
well as ensure the data is protected with ACID guarantees. With the new NoSQL API for InnoDB, developers have all
the benefits of a transactional RDBMS, coupled with the performance capabilities of Key/Value store.

MySQL 5.6 provides simple, key-value interaction with InnoDB data via the familiar Memcached API.  Implemented via a new Memcached daemon plug-in to mysqld, the new Memcached protocol is mapped directly to the native InnoDB API and enables developers to use existing Memcached clients to bypass the expense of query parsing and go directly to InnoDB data for lookups and transactional compliant updates.  The API makes it possible to re-use standard Memcached libraries and clients, while extending Memcached functionality by integrating a persistent, crash-safe, transactional database back-end.  The implementation is shown here:



So does this option provide a performance benefit over SQL?  Internal performance benchmarks using a customized
Java application and test harness show some very promising results with a 9X improvement in overall throughput for SET/INSERT operations:


You can follow the InnoDB team blog for the methodology, implementation and internal test cases that generated these results here.

How to get started with Memcached API to InnoDB is here.

New Instrumentation in Performance Schema

The MySQL Performance Schema was introduced in MySQL 5.5 and is designed to provide point in time metrics for key performance indicators.  MySQL 5.6 improves the Performance Schema in answer to the most common DBA and Developer problems.  New instrumentations include:

  • Statements/Stages
    • What are my most resource intensive queries? Where do they spend time?
  • Table/Index I/O, Table Locks
    • Which application tables/indexes cause the most load or contention?
  • Users/Hosts/Accounts
    • Which application users, hosts, accounts are consuming the most resources?
  • Network I/O
    • What is the network load like? How long do sessions idle?
  • Summaries
    • Aggregated statistics grouped by statement, thread, user, host, account or object.

The MySQL 5.6 Performance Schema is now enabled by default in the my.cnf file with optimized and auto-tune settings that minimize overhead (< 5%, but mileage will vary), so using the Performance Schema on
a production server to monitor the most common application use cases is less of an issue.  In addition, new atomic levels of instrumentation enable the capture of granular levels of resource consumption by users, hosts, accounts, applications, etc. for billing and chargeback purposes in cloud computing environments.

The MySQL docs are an excellent resource for all that is available and that can be done with the 5.6 Performance Schema.

Better Condition Handling - GET DIAGNOSTICS

MySQL 5.6 enables developers to easily check for error conditions and code for exceptions by introducing the new
MySQL Diagnostics Area and corresponding GET DIAGNOSTICS interface command. The Diagnostic Area can be populated via multiple options and provides 2 kinds of information:

Statement - which provides affected row count and number of conditions that occurred
Condition - which provides error codes and messages for all conditions that were returned by a previous operation

The addressable items for each are:


The new GET DIAGNOSTICS command provides a standard interface into the Diagnostics Area and can be used via the CLI or from within application code to easily retrieve and handle the results of the most recent statement execution.  An example of how it is used might be:

mysql> DROP TABLE test.no_such_table;
ERROR 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'test.no_such_table'
mysql> GET DIAGNOSTICS CONDITION 1
-> @p1 = RETURNED_SQLSTATE, @p2 = MESSAGE_TEXT;
mysql> SELECT @p1, @p2;
+-------+------------------------------------+
| @p1   | @p2                                |
+-------+------------------------------------+
| 42S02 | Unknown table 'test.no_such_table' |
+-------+------------------------------------+


Options for leveraging the MySQL Diagnotics Area and GET DIAGNOSTICS are detailed in the MySQL Docs.

While the above is a summary of some of the key developer enabling 5.6 features, it is by no means exhaustive. You can dig deeper into what MySQL 5.6 has to offer by reading this developer zone article or checking out "What's New in MySQL 5.6" in the MySQL docs.

BONUS ALERT!  If you are developing on Windows or are considering MySQL as an alternative to SQL Server for your next project, application or shipping product, you should check out the MySQL Installer for Windows.  The installer includes the MySQL 5.6 RC database, all drivers, Visual Studio and Excel plugins, tray monitor and development tools all a single download and GUI installer.  

So what are your next steps?

  • Register for Dec. 12 "MySQL Replication: Simplifying Scaling and HA with GTIDs" live web event to learn about the new Replication features in MySQL 5.6.
  • Register for Dec. 13 "MySQL 5.6: Building the Next Generation of Web-Based Applications and Services" live web event.  Hurry!  Seats are limited.
  • Download the MySQL 5.6 Release Candidate (look under the Development Releases tab)
  • Provide Feedback <link to http://bugs.mysql.com/>
  • Join the Developer discussion on the MySQL Forums
  • Explore all MySQL Products and Developer Tools

As always, thanks for your continued support of MySQL!

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