Wednesday Apr 13, 2016

SHA Digest Encryption: SPARC T7-2 Beats x86 E5 v4

Oracle's cryptography benchmark measures security performance on important Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) functions. Oracle's SPARC M7 processor with its security software in silicon is faster than current and recent x86 servers. In this test, the performance of on-processor digest operations is measured for three sizes of plaintext inputs (64, 1024 and 8192 bytes) using three SHA2 digests (SHA512, SHA384, SHA256) and the older, weaker SHA1 digest. Multiple parallel threads are used to measure each processor's maximum throughput. Oracle's SPARC T7-2 server shows dramatically faster digest computation compared to current x86 two processor servers.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 10 times faster computing multiple parallel SHA512 digests of 8 KB inputs (in cache) than Cryptography for Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux (library) on Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v4 running Oracle Linux 7.2.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 10 times faster computing multiple parallel SHA256 digests of 8 KB inputs (in cache) than Cryptography for Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux (library) on Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v4 running Oracle Linux 7.2.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 3.6 times faster computing multiple parallel SHA1 digests of 8 KB inputs (in cache) than Cryptography for Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux (library) on Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v4 running Oracle Linux 7.2.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 17 times faster computing multiple parallel SHA512 digests of 8 KB inputs (in cache) than Cryptography for Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux (library) on Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v3 running Oracle Linux 6.5.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 14 times faster computing multiple parallel SHA256 digests of 8 KB inputs (in cache) than Cryptography for Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux (library) on Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v3 running Oracle Linux 6.5.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 4.8 times faster computing multiple parallel SHA1 digests of 8 KB inputs (in cache) than Cryptography for Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux (library) on Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v3 running Oracle Linux 6.5.

  • SHA1 and SHA2 operations are an integral part of Oracle Solaris, while on Linux they are performed using the add-on Cryptography for Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux (library).

Oracle has also measured AES (CFB, GCM, CCM, CBC) cryptographic performance on the SPARC M7 processor.

Performance Landscape

Presented below are results for computing SHA1, SHA256, SHA384 and SHA512 digests for input plaintext sizes of 64, 1024 and 8192 bytes. Results are presented as MB/sec (10**6). All SPARC M7 processor results were run as part of this benchmark effort. All other results were run during previous benchmark efforts.

Digest Performance – SHA512

Performance is presented for SHA512 digest. The digest was computed for 64, 1024 and 8192 bytes of pseudo-random input data (same data for each run).

Processors Performance (MB/sec)
64B input 1024B input 8192B input
2 x SPARC M7, 4.13 GHz 39,201 167,072 184,944
2 x SPARC T5, 3.6 GHz 18,717 73,810 78,997
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v4, 2.2 GHz 6,973 15,412 17,616
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v3, 2.3 GHz 3,949 9,214 10,681
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2697 v2, 2.7 GHz 2,681 6,631 7,701

Digest Performance – SHA384

Performance is presented for SHA384 digest. The digest was computed for 64, 1024 and 8192 bytes of pseudo-random input data (same data for each run).

Processors Performance (MB/sec)
64B input 1024B input 8192B input
2 x SPARC M7, 4.13 GHz 39,697 166,898 185,194
2 x SPARC T5, 3.6 GHz 18,814 73,770 78,997
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v4, 2.2 GHz 6,909 15,353 17,618
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v3, 2.3 GHz 4,061 9,263 10,678
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2697 v2, 2.7 GHz 2,774 6,669 7,706

Digest Performance – SHA256

Performance is presented for SHA256 digest. The digest was computed for 64, 1024 and 8192 bytes of pseudo-random input data (same data for each run).

Processors Performance (MB/sec)
64B input 1024B input 8192B input
2 x SPARC M7, 4.13 GHz 45,148 113,648 119,929
2 x SPARC T5, 3.6 GHz 21,140 49,483 51,114
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v4, 2.2 GHz 5,103 11,174 12,037
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v3, 2.3 GHz 3,446 7,785 8,463
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2697 v2, 2.7 GHz 2,404 5,570 6,037

Digest Performance – SHA1

Performance is presented for SHA1 digest. The digest was computed for 64, 1024 and 8192 bytes of pseudo-random input data (same data for each run).

Processors Performance (MB/sec)
64B input 1024B input 8192B input
2 x SPARC M7, 4.13 GHz 47,640 92,515 97,545
2 x SPARC T5, 3.6 GHz 21,052 40,107 41,584
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v4, 2.2 GHz 8,566 23,901 26,752
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v3, 2.3 GHz 6,677 18,165 20,405
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2697 v2, 2.7 GHz 4,649 13,245 14,842

Configuration Summary

SPARC T7-2 server
2 x SPARC M7 processor, 4.13 GHz
1 TB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.3

SPARC T5-2 server
2 x SPARC T5 processor, 3.60 GHz
512 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.2

Oracle Server X6-2L system
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v4, 2.20 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Linux 7.2
Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux, Version 9.0 (Update 2) 17 Feb 2016

Oracle Server X5-2 system
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v3, 2.30 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Linux 6.5
Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux, Version 8.2 (Update 1) 07 Nov 2014

Sun Server X4-2 system
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2697 v2, 2.70 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Linux 6.5
Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux, Version 8.2 (Update 1) 07 Nov 2014

Benchmark Description

The benchmark measures cryptographic capabilities in terms of general low-level encryption, in-cache and on-chip using various digests, including SHA1 and SHA2 (SHA256, SHA384, SHA512).

The benchmark results were obtained using tests created by Oracle which use various application interfaces to perform the various digests. They were run using optimized libraries for each platform to obtain the best possible performance. The encryption tests were run with pseudo-random data of sizes 64 bytes, 1024 bytes and 8192 bytes. The benchmark tests were designed to run out of cache, so memory bandwidth and latency are not the limitations.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of 4/13/2016.

AES Encryption: SPARC T7-2 Beats x86 E5 v4

Oracle's cryptography benchmark measures security performance on important AES security modes. Oracle's SPARC M7 processor with its software in silicon security is faster than x86 servers that have the AES-NI instructions. In this test, the performance of on-processor encryption operations is measured (32 KB encryptions). Multiple threads are used to measure each processor's maximum throughput. Oracle's SPARC T7-2 server shows dramatically faster encryption compared to current x86 two processor servers.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 3.3 times faster executing AES-CFB 256-bit key encryption (in cache) than the Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v4 (with AES-NI) running Oracle Linux 7.2.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 3.1 times faster executing AES-CFB 128-bit key encryption (in cache) than the Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v4 (with AES-NI) running Oracle Linux 7.2.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 4.0 times faster executing AES-CFB 256-bit key encryption (in cache) than Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v3 (with AES-NI) running Oracle Linux 6.5.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 3.7 times faster executing AES-CFB 128-bit key encryption (in cache) than Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v3 (with AES-NI) running Oracle Linux 6.5.

  • AES-CFB encryption is used by Oracle Database for Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) which provides security for database storage.

Oracle has also measured SHA digest performance on the SPARC M7 processor.

Performance Landscape

Presented below are results for running encryption using the AES cipher with the CFB, CBC, GCM and CCM modes for key sizes of 128, 192 and 256. Decryption performance was similar and is not presented. Results are presented as MB/sec (10**6). All SPARC M7 processor results were run as part of this benchmark effort. All other results were run during previous benchmark efforts.

Encryption Performance – AES-CFB (used by Oracle Database)

Performance is presented for in-cache AES-CFB128 mode encryption. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-CFB
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-CFB
SPARC M7 4.13 2 126,948 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 53,794 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2699 v4 2.20 2 39,034 Oracle Linux 7.2, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2699 v3 2.30 2 31,924 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 19,964 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-CFB
SPARC M7 4.13 2 144,299 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 60,736 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2699 v4 2.20 2 45,351 Oracle Linux 7.2, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2699 v3 2.30 2 37,157 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 23,218 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-CFB
SPARC M7 4.13 2 166,324 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 68,691 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2699 v4 2.20 2 54,179 Oracle Linux 7.2, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2699 v3 2.30 2 44,388 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 27,755 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI

Encryption Performance – AES-CBC

Performance is presented for in-cache AES-CBC mode encryption. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-CBC
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-CBC
SPARC M7 4.13 2 134,278 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 56,788 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2699 v4 2.20 2 38,943 Oracle Linux 7.2, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2699 v3 2.30 2 31,894 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 19,961 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-CBC
SPARC M7 4.13 2 152,961 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 63,937 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2699 v4 2.20 2 45,285 Oracle Linux 7.2, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2699 v3 2.30 2 37,021 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 23,224 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-CBC
SPARC M7 4.13 2 175,151 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 72,870 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2699 v4 2.20 2 54,076 Oracle Linux 7.2, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2699 v3 2.30 2 44,103 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 27,730 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI

Encryption Performance – AES-GCM (used by ZFS Filesystem)

Performance is presented for in-cache AES-GCM mode encryption with authentication. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption/authentication was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-GCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-GCM
SPARC M7 4.13 2 74,221 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 34,022 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 15,338 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
AES-192-GCM
SPARC M7 4.13 2 81,448 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 36,820 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 15,768 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
AES-128-GCM
SPARC M7 4.13 2 86,223 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 38,845 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 16,405 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem

Encryption Performance – AES-CCM (alternative used by ZFS Filesystem)

Performance is presented for in-cache AES-CCM mode encryption with authentication. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption/authentication was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-CCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-CCM
SPARC M7 4.13 2 67,669 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 28,909 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 19,447 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-CCM
SPARC M7 4.13 2 77,711 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 33,116 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 22,634 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-CCM
SPARC M7 4.13 2 90,729 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 38,529 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 26,951 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI

Configuration Summary

SPARC T7-2 server
2 x SPARC M7 processor, 4.13 GHz
1 TB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.3

SPARC T5-2 server
2 x SPARC T5 processor, 3.60 GHz
512 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.2

Oracle Server X6-2L system
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v4, 2.20 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Linux 7.2
Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux, Version 9.0 (Update 2) 17 Feb 2016

Oracle Server X5-2 system
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2699 v3, 2.30 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Linux 6.5
Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux, Version 8.2 (Update 1) 07 Nov 2014

Sun Server X4-2 system
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2697 v2, 2.70 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Linux 6.5
Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux, Version 8.2 (Update 1) 07 Nov 2014

Benchmark Description

The benchmark measures cryptographic capabilities in terms of general low-level encryption, in-cache and on-chip using various ciphers, including AES-128-CFB, AES-192-CFB, AES-256-CFB, AES-128-CBC, AES-192-CBC, AES-256-CBC, AES-128-CCM, AES-192-CCM, AES-256-CCM, AES-128-GCM, AES-192-GCM and AES-256-GCM.

The benchmark results were obtained using tests created by Oracle which use various application interfaces to perform the various ciphers. They were run using optimized libraries for each platform to obtain the best possible performance. The encryption tests were run with pseudo-random data of size 32 KB. The benchmark tests were designed to run out of cache, so memory bandwidth and latency are not the limitations.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of 4/13/2016.

Thursday Mar 24, 2016

PeopleSoft Human Capital Management 9.1 FP2: SPARC M7-8 Results Using Oracle Advances Security Transparent Data Encryption

Using Oracle Advanced Security Transparent Data Encryption (TDE), Oracle's SPARC M7-8 server using Oracle's SPARC M7 processor's software in silicon cryptography instructions produced results on Oracle's PeopleSoft Human Capital Management 9.1 FP2 Benchmark that were nearly identical to results run without TDE (clear-text runs). The benchmark consists of three different components, PeopleSoft HR Self-Service Online, PeopleSoft Payroll Batch, and the combined PeopleSoft HR Self-Service Online and PeopleSoft Payroll Batch. The benchmarks were run on a virtualized two-chip, 1 TB LDom of the SPARC M7-8 server.

Using TDE enforces data-at-rest encryption in the database layer. Applications and users authenticated to the database continue to have access to application data transparently (no application code or configuration changes are required), while attacks from OS users attempting to read sensitive data from tablespace files and attacks from thieves attempting to read information from acquired disks or backups are denied access to the clear-text data.

  • The PeopleSoft HR online-only and the PeopleSoft HR online combined with PeopleSoft Payroll batch showed similar Search/Save average response times using TDE compared to the corresponding clear-text runs.

  • The PeopleSoft Payroll batch-only run showed only around 4% degradation in batch throughput using TDE compared to the clear-text run.

  • The PeopleSoft HR online combined with PeopleSoft Payroll batch run showed less than 5% degradation in batch throughput (payments per hour) using TDE compared to the clear-text result.

  • On the combined benchmark, the virtualized two-chip LDom of the SPARC M7-8 server with TDE demonstrated around 5 times better Search and around 8 times better Save average response times running nearly double the number of online users for the online component compared to the ten-chip x86 clear-text database solution from Cisco.

  • On the PeopleSoft Payroll batch run and using only a single chip in the virtualized two-chip LDom on the SPARC M7-8 server, the TDE solution demonstrated 1.7 times better batch throughput compared to a four-chip Cisco UCSB460 M4 server with clear-text database.

  • On the PeopleSoft Payroll batch run and using only a single chip in the virtualized two-chip LDom on the SPARC M7-8 server, the TDE solution demonstrated around 2.3 times better batch throughput compared to a nine-chip IBM zEnterprise z196 server (EC 2817-709, 9-way, 8943 MIPS) with clear-text database.

  • On the combined benchmark, the two SPARC M7 processor LDom (in SPARC M7-8) can run the same number of online users with TDE as a dynamic domain (PDom) of eight SPARC M6 processors (in SPARC M6-32) with clear-text database with better online response times, batch elapsed times and batch throughput.

Performance Landscape

All results presented are taken from Oracle's PeopleSoft benchmark white papers.

The first table presents the combined results, running both the PeopleSoft HR Self-Service Online and Payroll Batch tests concurrently.

PeopleSoft HR Self-Service Online And Payroll Batch Using Oracle Database 11g
System
Processors
Chips
Used
Users Search/Save Batch Elapsed
Time
Batch Pay/Hr
SPARC M7-8
(Secure with TDE)
SPARC M7
2 35,000 0.55 sec/0.34 sec 23.72 min 1,265,969
SPARC M7-8
(Unsecure)
SPARC M7
2 35,000 0.67 sec/0.42 sec 22.71 min 1,322,272
SPARC M6-32
(Unsecure)
SPARC M6
8 35,000 1.80 sec/1.12 sec 29.2 min 1,029,440
Cisco 1 x B460 M4, 3 x B200 M3
(Unsecure)
Intel E7-4890 v2, Intel E5-2697 v2
10 18,000 2.70 sec/2.60 sec 21.70 min 1,383,816

The following results are running only the Peoplesoft HR Self-Service Online test.

PeopleSoft HR Self-Service Online Using Oracle Database 11g
System
Processors
Chips
Used
Users Search/Save
Avg Response Times
SPARC M7-8 (Secure with TDE)
SPARC M7
2 40,000 0.52 sec/0.31 sec
SPARC M7-8 (Unsecure)
SPARC M7
2 40,000 0.55 sec/0.33 sec
SPARC M6-32 (Unsecure)
SPARC M6
8 40,000 2.73 sec/1.33 sec
Cisco 1 x B460 M4, 3 x B200 M3 (Unsecure)
Intel E7-4890 v2, Intel E5-2697 v2
10 20,000 0.35 sec/0.17 sec

The following results are running only the Peoplesoft Payroll Batch test. For the SPARC M7-8 server results, only one of the processors was used per LDom. This was accomplished using processor sets to further restrict the test to a single SPARC M7 processor.

PeopleSoft Payroll Batch Using Oracle Database 11g
System
Processors
Chips
Used
Batch Elapsed
Time
Batch Pay/Hr
SPARC M7-8 (Secure with TDE)
SPARC M7
1 13.34 min 2,251,034
SPARC M7-8 (Unsecure)
SPARC M7
1 12.85 min 2,336,872
SPARC M6-32 (Unsecure)
SPARC M6
2 18.27 min 1,643,612
Cisco UCS B460 M4 (Unsecure)
Intel E7-4890 v2
4 23.02 min 1,304,655
IBM z196 (Unsecure)
zEnterprise (5.2 GHz, 8943 MIPS)
9 30.50 min 984,551

Configuration Summary

System Under Test:

SPARC M7-8 server with
8 x SPARC M7 processor (4.13 GHz)
4 TB memory
Virtualized as an Oracle VM Server for SPARC (LDom) with
2 x SPARC M7 processor (4.13 GHz)
1 TB memory

Storage Configuration:

2 x Oracle ZFS Storage ZS3-2 appliance (DB Data) each with
40 x 300 GB 10K RPM SAS-2 HDD,
8 x Write Flash Accelerator SSD and
2 x Read Flash Accelerator SSD 1.6TB SAS
2 x Oracle Server X5-2L as COMSTAR nodes (DB redo logs & App object cache) each with
2 x Intel Xeon Processor E5-2630 v3
32 GB memory
4 x 1.6 TB NVMe SSD

Software Configuration:

Oracle Solaris 11.3
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3.0)
PeopleSoft Human Capital Management 9.1 FP2
PeopleSoft PeopleTools 8.52.03
Oracle Java SE 6u32
Oracle Tuxedo, Version 10.3.0.0, 64-bit, Patch Level 043
Oracle WebLogic Server 11g (10.3.5)

Benchmark Description

The PeopleSoft Human Capital Management benchmark simulates thousands of online employees, managers and Human Resource administrators executing transactions typical of a Human Resources Self Service application for the Enterprise. Typical transactions are: viewing paychecks, promoting and hiring employees, updating employee profiles, etc. The database tier uses a database instance of about 500 GB in size, containing information for 500,480 employees. The application tier for this test includes web and application server instances, specifically Oracle WebLogic Server 11g, PeopleSoft Human Capital Management 9.1 FP2 and Oracle Java SE 6u32.

Key Points and Best Practices

In the HR online along with Payroll batch run, the LDom had one Oracle Solaris Zone of 7 cores containing the Web tier, two Oracle Solaris Zones of 16 cores each containing the Application tier and one Oracle Solaris Zone of 23 cores containing the Database tier. Two cores were dedicated to network and disk interrupt handling. In the HR online only run, the LDom had one Oracle Solaris Zone of 12 cores containing the Web tier, two Oracle Solaris Zones of 18 cores each containing the Application tier and one Oracle Solaris Zone of 14 cores containing the Database tier. 2 cores were dedicated to network and disk interrupt handling. In the Payroll batch only run, the LDom had one Oracle Solaris Zone of 31 cores containing the Database tier. 1 core was dedicated to disk interrupt handling.

All database data files, recovery files and Oracle Clusterware files for the PeopleSoft test were created with the Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) volume manager for the added benefit of the ease of management provided by Oracle ASM integrated storage management solution.

In the application tier on the LDom, 5 PeopleSoft application domains with 350 application servers (70 per domain) were hosted in two separate Oracle Solaris Zones for a total of 10 domains with 700 application server processes.

All PeopleSoft Application processes and the 32 Web Server JVM instances were executed in the Oracle Solaris FX scheduler class.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of March 24, 2016.

Monday Oct 26, 2015

AES Encryption: SPARC T7-2 Beats x86 E5 v3

Oracle's cryptography benchmark measures security performance on important AES security modes. Oracle's SPARC M7 processor with its software in silicon security is faster than x86 servers that have the AES-NI instructions. In this test, the performance of on-processor encryption operations is measured (32 KB encryptions). Multiple threads are used to measure each processor's maximum throughput. Oracle's SPARC T7-2 server shows dramatically faster encryption compared to current x86 two processor servers.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 4.0 times faster executing AES-CFB 256-bit key encryption (in cache) than Intel Xeon E5-2699 v3 processors (with AES-NI) running Oracle Linux 6.5.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 3.7 times faster executing AES-CFB 128-bit key encryption (in cache) than Intel Xeon E5-2699 v3 processors (with AES-NI) running Oracle Linux 6.5.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 6.4 times faster executing AES-CFB 256-bit key encryption (in cache) than the Intel Xeon E5-2697 v2 processors (with AES-NI) running Oracle Linux 6.5.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 6.0 times faster executing AES-CFB 128-bit key encryption (in cache) than the Intel Xeon E5-2697 v2 processors (with AES-NI) running Oracle Linux 6.5.

  • AES-CFB encryption is used by Oracle Database for Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) which provides security for database storage.

Oracle has also measured SHA digest performance on the SPARC M7 processor.

Performance Landscape

Presented below are results for running encryption using the AES cipher with the CFB, CBC, GCM and CCM modes for key sizes of 128, 192 and 256. Decryption performance was similar and is not presented. Results are presented as MB/sec (10**6). All SPARC M7 processor results were run as part of this benchmark effort. All other results were run during previous benchmark efforts.

Encryption Performance – AES-CFB (used by Oracle Database)

Performance is presented for in-cache AES-CFB128 mode encryption. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-CFB
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-CFB
SPARC M7 4.13 2 126,948 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 53,794 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2699 v3 2.30 2 31,924 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 19,964 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-CFB
SPARC M7 4.13 2 144,299 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 60,736 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2699 v3 2.30 2 37,157 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 23,218 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-CFB
SPARC M7 4.13 2 166,324 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 68,691 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2699 v3 2.30 2 44,388 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 27,755 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI

Encryption Performance – AES-CBC

Performance is presented for in-cache AES-CBC mode encryption. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-CBC
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-CBC
SPARC M7 4.13 2 134,278 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 56,788 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2699 v3 2.30 2 31,894 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 19,961 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-CBC
SPARC M7 4.13 2 152,961 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 63,937 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2699 v3 2.30 2 37,021 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 23,224 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-CBC
SPARC M7 4.13 2 175,151 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 72,870 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2699 v3 2.30 2 44,103 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 27,730 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI

Encryption Performance – AES-GCM (used by ZFS Filesystem)

Performance is presented for in-cache AES-GCM mode encryption with authentication. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption/authentication was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-GCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-GCM
SPARC M7 4.13 2 74,221 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 34,022 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 15,338 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
AES-192-GCM
SPARC M7 4.13 2 81,448 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 36,820 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 15,768 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
AES-128-GCM
SPARC M7 4.13 2 86,223 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 38,845 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 16,405 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem

Encryption Performance – AES-CCM (alternative used by ZFS Filesystem)

Performance is presented for in-cache AES-CCM mode encryption with authentication. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption/authentication was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-CCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-CCM
SPARC M7 4.13 2 67,669 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 28,909 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 19,447 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-CCM
SPARC M7 4.13 2 77,711 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 33,116 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 22,634 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-CCM
SPARC M7 4.13 2 90,729 Oracle Solaris 11.3, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T5 3.60 2 38,529 Oracle Solaris 11.2, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 26,951 Oracle Linux 6.5, IPP/AES-NI

Configuration Summary

SPARC T7-2 server
2 x SPARC M7 processor, 4.13 GHz
1 TB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.3

SPARC T5-2 server
2 x SPARC T5 processor, 3.60 GHz
512 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.2

Oracle Server X5-2 system
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2699 v3 processors, 2.30 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Linux 6.5

Sun Server X4-2 system
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2697 v2 processors, 2.70 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Linux 6.5

Benchmark Description

The benchmark measures cryptographic capabilities in terms of general low-level encryption, in-cache and on-chip using various ciphers, including AES-128-CFB, AES-192-CFB, AES-256-CFB, AES-128-CBC, AES-192-CBC, AES-256-CBC, AES-128-CCM, AES-192-CCM, AES-256-CCM, AES-128-GCM, AES-192-GCM and AES-256-GCM.

The benchmark results were obtained using tests created by Oracle which use various application interfaces to perform the various ciphers. They were run using optimized libraries for each platform to obtain the best possible performance. The encryption tests were run with pseudo-random data of size 32 KB. The benchmark tests were designed to run out of cache, so memory bandwidth and latency are not the limitations.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of 10/25/2015.

SHA Digest Encryption: SPARC T7-2 Beats x86 E5 v3

Oracle's cryptography benchmark measures security performance on important Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA) functions. Oracle's SPARC M7 processor with its security software in silicon is faster than current and recent x86 servers. In this test, the performance of on-processor digest operations is measured for three sizes of plaintext inputs (64, 1024 and 8192 bytes) using three SHA2 digests (SHA512, SHA384, SHA256) and the older, weaker SHA1 digest. Multiple parallel threads are used to measure each processor's maximum throughput. Oracle's SPARC T7-2 server shows dramatically faster digest computation compared to current x86 two processor servers.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 17 times faster computing multiple parallel SHA512 digests of 8 KB inputs (in cache) than Cryptography for Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux (library) on Intel Xeon E5-2699 v3 processors running Oracle Linux 6.5.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 14 times faster computing multiple parallel SHA256 digests of 8 KB inputs (in cache) than Cryptography for Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux (library) on Intel Xeon E5-2699 v3 processors running Oracle Linux 6.5.

  • SPARC M7 processors running Oracle Solaris 11.3 ran 4.8 times faster computing multiple parallel SHA1 digests of 8 KB inputs (in cache) than Cryptography for Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux (library) on Intel Xeon E5-2699 v3 processors running Oracle Linux 6.5.

  • SHA1 and SHA2 operations are an integral part of Oracle Solaris, while on Linux they are performed using the add-on Cryptography for Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux (library).

Oracle has also measured AES (CFB, GCM, CCM, CBC) cryptographic performance on the SPARC M7 processor.

Performance Landscape

Presented below are results for computing SHA1, SHA256, SHA384 and SHA512 digests for input plaintext sizes of 64, 1024 and 8192 bytes. Results are presented as MB/sec (10**6). All SPARC M7 processor results were run as part of this benchmark effort. All other results were run during previous benchmark efforts.

Digest Performance – SHA512

Performance is presented for SHA512 digest. The digest was computed for 64, 1024 and 8192 bytes of pseudo-random input data (same data for each run).

Processors Performance (MB/sec)
64B input 1024B input 8192B input
2 x SPARC M7, 4.13 GHz 39,201 167,072 184,944
2 x SPARC T5, 3.6 GHz 18,717 73,810 78,997
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2699 v3, 2.3 GHz 3,949 9,214 10,681
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2697 v2, 2.7 GHz 2,681 6,631 7,701

Digest Performance – SHA384

Performance is presented for SHA384 digest. The digest was computed for 64, 1024 and 8192 bytes of pseudo-random input data (same data for each run).

Processors Performance (MB/sec)
64B input 1024B input 8192B input
2 x SPARC M7, 4.13 GHz 39,697 166,898 185,194
2 x SPARC T5, 3.6 GHz 18,814 73,770 78,997
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2699 v3, 2.3 GHz 4,061 9,263 10,678
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2697 v2, 2.7 GHz 2,774 6,669 7,706

Digest Performance – SHA256

Performance is presented for SHA256 digest. The digest was computed for 64, 1024 and 8192 bytes of pseudo-random input data (same data for each run).

Processors Performance (MB/sec)
64B input 1024B input 8192B input
2 x SPARC M7, 4.13 GHz 45,148 113,648 119,929
2 x SPARC T5, 3.6 GHz 21,140 49,483 51,114
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2699 v3, 2.3 GHz 3,446 7,785 8,463
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2697 v2, 2.7 GHz 2,404 5,570 6,037

Digest Performance – SHA1

Performance is presented for SHA1 digest. The digest was computed for 64, 1024 and 8192 bytes of pseudo-random input data (same data for each run).

Processors Performance (MB/sec)
64B input 1024B input 8192B input
2 x SPARC M7, 4.13 GHz 47,640 92,515 97,545
2 x SPARC T5, 3.6 GHz 21,052 40,107 41,584
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2699 v3, 2.3 GHz 6,677 18,165 20,405
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2697 v2, 2.7 GHz 4,649 13,245 14,842

Configuration Summary

SPARC T7-2 server
2 x SPARC M7 processor, 4.13 GHz
1 TB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.3

SPARC T5-2 server
2 x SPARC T5 processor, 3.60 GHz
512 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.2

Oracle Server X5-2 system
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2699 v3 processors, 2.30 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Linux 6.5
Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux, Version 8.2 (Update 1) 07 Nov 2014

Sun Server X4-2 system
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2697 v2 processors, 2.70 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Linux 6.5
Intel Integrated Performance Primitives for Linux, Version 8.2 (Update 1) 07 Nov 2014

Benchmark Description

The benchmark measures cryptographic capabilities in terms of general low-level encryption, in-cache and on-chip using various digests, including SHA1 and SHA2 (SHA256, SHA384, SHA512).

The benchmark results were obtained using tests created by Oracle which use various application interfaces to perform the various digests. They were run using optimized libraries for each platform to obtain the best possible performance. The encryption tests were run with pseudo-random data of sizes 64 bytes, 1024 bytes and 8192 bytes. The benchmark tests were designed to run out of cache, so memory bandwidth and latency are not the limitations.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of 10/25/2015.

Thursday Sep 26, 2013

SPARC T5-2 Server Beats x86 Server on Oracle Database Transparent Data Encryption

Database security is becoming increasingly important. Oracle Database Advanced Security Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) stops would-be attackers from bypassing the database and reading sensitive information from storage by enforcing data-at-rest encryption in the database layer. Oracle's SPARC T5-2 server outperformed x86 systems when running Oracle Database 12c with Transparent Data Encryption.

  • The SPARC T5-2 server sustained more than 8.0 GB/sec of read bandwidth while decrypting using Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) in Oracle Database 12c. This was the bandwidth available on the system and matched the rate for querying the non-encrypted data.

  • The SPARC T5-2 server achieves about 1.5x higher decryption rate per socket using Oracle Database 12c with TDE than a Sun Server X4-2 system.

  • The SPARC T5-2 server achieves more than double the decryption rate per socket using Oracle Database 12c with TDE than a Sun Server X3-2 system.

Performance Landscape

Table of Size 250 GB Encrypted with AES-128-CFB
Full Table Scan with Degree of Parallelism 128
System Chips Table Data Format SPARC T5-2 Advantage
Clear Encrypted
SPARC T5-2 2 8.4 GB/sec 8.3 GB/sec 1.0
Sun Server X4-2L 2 8.2 GB/sec 5.6 GB/sec 1.5

SPARC T5-2 1 8.4 GB/sec 4.2 GB/sec 1.0
Sun Server X4-2L 1 8.2 GB/sec 2.8 GB/sec 1.5
Sun Server X3-2L 1 8.2 GB/sec 2.0 GB/sec 2.1

Configuration Summary

Systems Under Test:

SPARC T5-2
2 x SPARC T5 processors, 3.6 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.1
Oracle Database 12c

Sun Server X3-2L
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2690 processor, 2.90 GHz
64 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.1
Oracle Database 12c

Sun Server X4-2L
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2697 v2 processor, 2.70 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.1
Oracle Database 12c

Storage:

Flash Storage

Benchmark Description

The purpose of the benchmark is to show the query performance of a database using data encryption to keep the data secure. The benchmark creates a 250 GB table. It is loaded both into a clear text (no encryption) tablespace and an AES-128 encrypted tablespace. Full table scans of the tables were timed.

Key Points and Best Practices

The Oracle Database feature, Transparent Data Encryption (TDE), simplifies the encryption of data within datafiles, preventing unauthorized access to it from the operating system. Transparent Data Encryption allows encryption of the entire contents of a tablespace.

With hardware acceleration of the encryption routines, the SPARC T5-2 server can achieve nearly the same query rate whether the table is encrypted or not up to a limit of about 4 GB/sec per chip.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of 23 September 2013.

Wednesday Sep 25, 2013

SPARC T5 Encryption Performance Tops Intel E5-2600 v2 Processor

The cryptography benchmark suite was developed by Oracle to measure security performance on important AES security modes. Oracle's SPARC T5 processor with it security software in silicon is faster than x86 servers that have the AES-NI instructions. In this test, the performance of on-processor encryption operations is measured (32 KB encryptions). Multiple threads are used to measure each processors maximum throughput. The SPARC T5-8 shows dramatically faster encryption.

  • A SPARC T5 processor running Oracle Solaris 11.1 is 2.7 times faster executing AES-CFB 256-bit key encryption (in cache) than the Intel E5-2697 v2 processor (with AES-NI) running Oracle Linux 6.3. AES-CFB encryption is used by Oracle Database for Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) which provides security for database storage.

  • On the AES-CFB 128-bit key encryption, the SPARC T5 processor is 2.5 times faster than the Intel E5-2697 v2 processor (with AES-NI) running Oracle Linux 6.3 for in-cache encryption. AES-CFB mode is used by Oracle Database for Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) which provides security for database storage.

  • The IBM POWER7+ has three hardware security units for 8-core processors, but IBM has not publicly shown any measured performance results on AES-CFB or other encryption modes.

Performance Landscape

Presented below are results for running encryption using the AES cipher with the CFB, CBC, CCM and GCM modes for key sizes of 128, 192 and 256. Decryption performance was similar and is not presented. Results are presented as MB/sec (10**6).

Encryption Performance – AES-CFB

Performance is presented for in-cache AES-CFB128 mode encryption. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-CFB
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-CFB
SPARC T5 3.60 2 54,396 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 19,960 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 12,823 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-CFB
SPARC T5 3.60 2 61,000 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 23,217 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 14,928 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-CFB
SPARC T5 3.60 2 68,695 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 27,740 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 17,824 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI

Encryption Performance – AES-GCM

Performance is presented for in-cache AES-GCM mode encryption with authentication. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption/authentication was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-GCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-GCM
SPARC T5 3.60 2 34,101 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 15,338 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 13,520 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-GCM
SPARC T5 3.60 2 36,852 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 15,768 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 14,159 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-GCM
SPARC T5 3.60 2 39,003 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 16,405 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 14,877 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI

Encryption Performance – AES-CCM

Performance is presented for in-cache AES-CCM mode encryption with authentication. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption/authentication was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-CCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-CCM
SPARC T5 3.60 2 29,431 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 19,447 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 12,493 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-CCM
SPARC T5 3.60 2 33,715 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 22,634 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 14,507 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-CCM
SPARC T5 3.60 2 39,188 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 26,951 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 17,256 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI

Encryption Performance – AES-CBC

Performance is presented for in-cache AES-CBC mode encryption. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-CBC
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-CBC
SPARC T5 3.60 2 56,933 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 19,962 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 12,822 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-CBC
SPARC T5 3.60 2 63,767 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 23,224 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 14,915 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-CBC
SPARC T5 3.60 2 72,508 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2697 v2 2.70 2 27,733 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 17,823 Oracle Linux 6.3, IPP/AES-NI

Configuration Summary

SPARC T5-2 server
2 x SPARC T5 processor, 3.6 GHz
512 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.1 SRU 4.2

Sun Server X4-2L server
2 x E5-2697 v2 processors, 2.70 GHz
256 GB memory
Oracle Linux 6.3

Sun Server X3-2 server
2 x E5-2690 processors, 2.90 GHz
128 GB memory
Oracle Linux 6.3

Benchmark Description

The benchmark measures cryptographic capabilities in terms of general low-level encryption, in-cache (32 KB encryptions) and on-chip using various ciphers, including AES-128-CFB, AES-192-CFB, AES-256-CFB, AES-128-CBC, AES-192-CBC, AES-256-CBC, AES-128-CCM, AES-192-CCM, AES-256-CCM, AES-128-GCM, AES-192-GCM and AES-256-GCM.

The benchmark results were obtained using tests created by Oracle which use various application interfaces to perform the various ciphers. They were run using optimized libraries for each platform to obtain the best possible performance.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of 9/23/2013.

Friday Mar 29, 2013

SPARC T5 System Performance for Encryption Microbenchmark

The cryptography benchmark suite was internally developed by Oracle to measure the maximum throughput of in-memory, on-chip encryption operations that a system can perform. Multiple threads are used to achieve the maximum throughput. Systems powered by Oracle's SPARC T5 processor show outstanding performance on the tested encryption operations, beating Intel processor based systems.

  • A SPARC T5 processor running Oracle Solaris 11.1 runs from 2.4x to 4.4x faster on AES 256-bit key encryption than the Intel E5-2690 processor running in-memory encryption of 32 KB blocks using CFB128, CBC, CCM and GCM modes fully hardware subscribed.

  • AES CFB mode is used by the Oracle Database 11g for Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) which provides security to database storage.

Performance Landscape

Presented below are results for running encryption using the AES cipher with the CFB, CBC, CCM and GCM modes for key sizes of 128, 192 and 256. Decryption performance was similar and is not presented. Results are presented as MB/sec (10**6).

Encryption Performance – AES-CFB

Performance is presented for in-memory AES-CFB128 mode encryption. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-CFB
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-CFB
SPARC T5 3.60 2 54,396 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 12,823 IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-CFB
SPARC T5 3.60 2 61,000 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 14,928 IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-CFB
SPARC T5 3.60 2 68,695 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 17,824 IPP/AES-NI

Encryption Performance – AES-CBC

Performance is presented for in-memory AES-CBC mode encryption. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-CBC
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-CBC
SPARC T5 3.60 2 56,933 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 12,822 IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-CBC
SPARC T5 3.60 2 63,767 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 14,915 IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-CBC
SPARC T5 3.60 2 72,508 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
SPARC T4 2.85 2 31,085 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel X5690 3.47 2 20,721 IPP/AES-NI
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 17,823 IPP/AES-NI

Encryption Performance – AES-CCM

Performance is presented for in-memory AES-CCM mode encryption with authentication. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption/authentication was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-CCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-CCM
SPARC T5 3.60 2 29,431 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 12,493 IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-CCM
SPARC T5 3.60 2 33,715 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 14,507 IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-CCM
SPARC T5 3.60 2 39,188 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 17,256 IPP/AES-NI

Encryption Performance – AES-GCM

Performance is presented for in-memory AES-GCM mode encryption with authentication. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption/authentication was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-GCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Chips Performance Software Environment
AES-256-GCM
SPARC T5 3.60 2 34,101 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 13,520 IPP/AES-NI
AES-192-GCM
SPARC T5 3.60 2 36,852 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 14,159 IPP/AES-NI
AES-128-GCM
SPARC T5 3.60 2 39,003 Oracle Solaris 11.1, libsoftcrypto + libumem
Intel E5-2690 2.90 2 14,877 IPP/AES-NI

Configuration Summary

SPARC T5-2 server
2 x SPARC T5 processor, 3.6 GHz
512 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.1 SRU 4.2

Sun Server X3-2 server
2 x E5-2690 processors, 2.90 GHz
128 GB memory

Benchmark Description

The benchmark measures cryptographic capabilities in terms of general low-level encryption, in-memory and on-chip using various ciphers, including AES-128-CFB, AES-192-CFB, AES-256-CFB, AES-128-CBC, AES-192-CBC, AES-256-CBC, AES-128-CCM, AES-192-CCM, AES-256-CCM, AES-128-GCM, AES-192-GCM and AES-256-GCM.

The benchmark results were obtained using tests created by Oracle which use various application interfaces to perform the various ciphers. They were run using optimized libraries for each platform to obtain the best possible performance.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of 3/26/2013.

Tuesday Mar 26, 2013

SPARC T5-2 Achieves ZFS File System Encryption Benchmark World Record

Oracle continues to lead in enterprise security. Oracle's SPARC T5 processors combined with the Oracle Solaris ZFS file system demonstrate faster file system encryption than equivalent x86 systems using the Intel Xeon Processor E5-2600 Sequence chips which have AES-NI security instructions.

Encryption is the process where data is encoded for privacy and a key is needed by the data owner to access the encoded data.

  • The SPARC T5-2 server is 3.4x faster than a 2 processor Intel Xeon E5-2690 server running Oracle Solaris 11.1 that uses the AES-NI GCM security instructions for creating encrypted files.

  • The SPARC T5-2 server is 2.2x faster than a 2 processor Intel Xeon E5-2690 server running Oracle Solaris 11.1 that uses the AES-NI CCM security instructions for creating encrypted files.

  • The SPARC T5-2 server consumes a significantly less percentage of system resources as compared to a 2 processor Intel Xeon E5-2690 server.

Performance Landscape

Below are results running two different ciphers for ZFS encryption. Results are presented for runs without any cipher, labeled clear, and a variety of different key lengths. The results represent the maximum delivered values measured for 3 concurrent sequential write operations using 1M blocks. Performance is measured in MB/sec (bigger is better). System utilization is reported as %CPU as measured by iostat (smaller is better).

The results for the x86 server were obtained using Oracle Solaris 11.1 with performance bug fixes.

Encryption Using AES-GCM Ciphers

System GCM Encryption: 3 Concurrent Sequential Writes
Clear AES-256-GCM AES-192-GCM AES-128-GCM
MB/sec %CPU MB/sec %CPU MB/sec %CPU MB/sec %CPU
SPARC T5-2 server 3,918 7 3,653 14 3,676 15 3,628 14
SPARC T4-2 server 2,912 11 2,662 31 2,663 30 2,779 31
2-Socket Intel Xeon E5-2690 3,969 42 1,062 58 1,067 58 1,076 57
SPARC T5-2 vs x86 server 1.0x 3.4x 3.4x 3.4x

Encryption Using AES-CCM Ciphers

System CCM Encryption: 3 Concurrent Sequential Writes
Clear AES-256-CCM AES-192-CCM AES-128-CCM
MB/sec %CPU MB/sec %CPU MB/sec %CPU MB/sec %CPU
SPARC T5-2 server 3,862 7 3,665 15 3,622 14 3,707 12
SPARC T4-2 server 2,945 11 2,471 26 2,801 26 2,442 25
2-Socket Intel Xeon E5-2690 3,868 42 1,566 64 1,632 63 1,689 66
SPARC T5-2 vs x86 server 1.0x 2.3x 2.2x 2.2x

Configuration Summary

Storage Configuration:

Sun Storage 6780 array
4 CSM2 trays, each with 16 83GB 15K RPM drives
8x 8 GB/sec Fiber Channel ports per host
R0 Write cache enabled, controller mirroring off for peak write bandwidth
8 Drive R0 512K stripe pools mirrored via ZFS to storage

Sun Storage 6580 array
9 CSM2 trays, each with 16 136GB 15K RPM drives
8x 4 GB/sec Fiber Channel ports per host
R0 Write cache enabled, controller mirroring off for peak write bandwidth
4 Drive R0 512K stripe pools mirrored via ZFS to storage

Server Configuration:

SPARC T5-2 server
2 x SPARC T5 3.6 GHz processors
512 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.1

SPARC T4-2 server
2 x SPARC T4 2.85 GHz processors
256 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.1

Sun Server X3-2L server
2 x Intel Xeon E5-2690, 2.90 GHz processors
128 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11.1

Switch Configuration:

Brocade 5300 FC switch

Benchmark Description

This benchmark evaluates secure file system performance by measuring the rate at which encrypted data can be written. The Vdbench tool was used to generate the IO load. The test performed 3 concurrent sequential write operations using 1M blocks to 3 separate files.

Key Points and Best Practices

  • ZFS encryption is integrated with the ZFS command set. Like other ZFS operations, encryption operations such as key changes and re-key are performed online.

  • Data is encrypted using AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) with key lengths of 256, 192, and 128 in the CCM and GCM operation modes.

  • The flexibility of encrypting specific file systems is a key feature.

  • ZFS encryption is inheritable to descendent file systems. Key management can be delegated through ZFS delegated administration.

  • ZFS encryption uses the Oracle Solaris Cryptographic Framework which gives it access to SPARC T5 and Intel Xeon E5-2690 processor hardware acceleration or to optimized software implementations of the encryption algorithms automatically.

  • On modern computers with multiple threads per core, simple statistics like %utilization measured in tools like iostat and vmstat are not "hard" indications of the resources that might be available for other processing. For example, 90% idle may not mean that 10 times the work can be done. So drawing numerical conclusions must be done carefully.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of March 26, 2013.

Friday Sep 30, 2011

SPARC T4-2 Server Beats Intel (Westmere AES-NI) on ZFS Encryption Tests

Oracle continues to lead in enterprise security. Oracle's SPARC T4 processors combined with Oracle's Solaris ZFS file system demonstrate faster file system encryption than equivalent systems based on the Intel Xeon Processor 5600 Sequence chips which use AES-NI security instructions.

Encryption is the process where data is encoded for privacy and a key is needed by the data owner to access the encoded data. The benefits of using ZFS encryption are:

  • The SPARC T4 processor is 3.5x to 5.2x faster than the Intel Xeon Processor X5670 that has the AES-NI security instructions in creating encrypted files.

  • ZFS encryption is integrated with the ZFS command set. Like other ZFS operations, encryption operations such as key changes and re-key are performed online.

  • Data is encrypted using AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) with key lengths of 256, 192, and 128 in the CCM and GCM operation modes.

  • The flexibility of encrypting specific file systems is a key feature.

  • ZFS encryption is inheritable to descendent file systems. Key management can be delegated through ZFS delegated administration.

  • ZFS encryption uses the Oracle Solaris Cryptographic Framework which gives it access to SPARC T4 processor and Intel Xeon X5670 processor (Intel AES-NI) hardware acceleration or to optimized software implementations of the encryption algorithms automatically.

Performance Landscape

Below are results running two different ciphers for ZFS encryption. Results are presented for runs without any cipher, labeled clear, and a variety of different key lengths.

Encryption Using AES-CCM Ciphers

MB/sec – 5 File Create* Encryption
Clear AES-256-CCM AES-192-CCM AES-128-CCM
SPARC T4-2 server 3,803 3,167 3,335 3,225
SPARC T3-2 server 2,286 1,554 1,561 1,594
2-Socket 2.93 GHz Xeon X5670 3,325 750 764 773

Speedup T4-2 vs X5670 1.1x 4.2x 4.4x 4.2x
Speedup T4-2 vs T3-2 1.7x 2.0x 2.1x 2.0x

Encryption Using AES-GCM Ciphers

MB/sec – 5 File Create* Encryption
Clear AES-256-GCM AES-192-GCM AES-128-GCM
SPARC T4-2 server 3,618 3,929 3,164 2,613
SPARC T3-2 server 2,278 1,451 1,455 1,449
2-Socket 2.93 GHz Xeon X5670 3,299 749 748 753

Speedup T4-2 vs X5670 1.1x 5.2x 4.2x 3.5x
Speedup T4-2 vs T3-2 1.6x 2.7x 2.2x 1.8x

(*) Maximum Delivered values measured over 5 concurrent mkfile operations.

Configuration Summary

Storage Configuration:

Sun Storage 6780 array
16 x 15K RPM drives
Raid 0 pool
Write back cache enable
Controller cache mirroring disabled for maximum bandwidth for test
Eight 8 Gb/sec ports per host

Server Configuration:

SPARC T4-2 server
2 x SPARC T4 2.85 GHz processors
256 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11

SPARC T3-2 server
2 x SPARC T3 1.6 GHz processors
Oracle Solaris 11 Express 2010.11

Sun Fire X4270 M2 server
2 x Intel Xeon X5670, 2.93 GHz processors
Oracle Solaris 11

Benchmark Description

The benchmark ran the UNIX command mkfile (1M). Mkfile is a simple single threaded program to create a file of a specified size. The script ran 5 mkfile operations in the background and observed the peak bandwidth observed during the test.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of December 16, 2011.

SPARC T4 Processor Beats Intel (Westmere AES-NI) on AES Encryption Tests

The cryptography benchmark suite was internally developed by Oracle to measure the maximum throughput of in-memory, on-chip encryption operations that a system can perform. Multiple threads are used to achieve the maximum throughput.

  • Oracle's SPARC T4 processor running Oracle Solaris 11 is 1.5x faster on AES 256-bit key CFB mode encryption than the Intel Xeon X5690 processor running Oracle Linux 6.1 for in-memory encryption of 32 KB blocks.

  • The SPARC T4 processor running Oracle Solaris 11 is 1.7x faster on AES 256-bit key CBC mode encryption than the Intel Xeon X5690 processor running Oracle Linux 6.1 for in-memory encryption of 32 KB blocks.

  • The SPARC T4 processor running Oracle Solaris 11 is 3.6x faster on AES 256-bit key CCM mode encryption than the Intel Xeon X5690 processor running Oracle Linux 6.1 for in-memory encryption with authentication of 32 KB blocks.

  • The SPARC T4 processor running Oracle Solaris 11 is 1.4x faster on AES 256-bit key GCM mode encryption than the Intel Xeon X5690 processor running Oracle Linux 6.1 for in-memory encryption with authentication of 32 KB blocks.

  • The SPARC T4 processor running Oracle Solaris 11 is 9% faster on single-threaded AES 256-bit key CFB mode encryption than the Intel Xeon X5690 processor running Oracle Linux 6.1 for in-memory encryption of 32 KB blocks.

  • The SPARC T4 processor running Oracle Solaris 11 is 1.8x faster on AES 256-bit key CFB mode encryption than the SPARC T3 running Solaris 11 Express.

  • AES CFB mode is used by the Oracle Database 11g for Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) which provides security to database storage.

Performance Landscape

Encryption Performance – AES-CFB

Performance is presented for in-memory AES-CFB128 mode encryption. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-256-CFB
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Th Performance Software Environment
SPARC T4 2.85 64 10,963 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 7,526 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
SPARC T3 1.65 32 6,023 Oracle Solaris 11 Express, libpkcs11
Intel X5690 3.47 12 2,894 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
SPARC T4 2.85 1 712 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 653 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
Intel X5690 3.47 1 425 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
SPARC T3 1.65 1 331 Oracle Solaris 11 Express, libpkcs11

AES-192-CFB
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Th Performance Software Environment
SPARC T4 2.85 64 12,451 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 8,677 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
SPARC T3 1.65 32 6,175 Oracle Solaris 11 Express, libpkcs11
Intel X5690 3.47 12 2,976 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
SPARC T4 2.85 1 816 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 752 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
Intel X5690 3.47 1 461 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
SPARC T3 1.65 1 371 Oracle Solaris 11 Express, libpkcs11

AES-128-CFB
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Th Performance Software Environment
SPARC T4 2.85 64 14,388 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 10,214 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
SPARC T3 1.65 32 6,390 Oracle Solaris 11 Express, libpkcs11
Intel X5690 3.47 12 3,115 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
SPARC T4 2.85 1 953 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 886 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
Intel X5690 3.47 1 509 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
SPARC T3 1.65 1 395 Oracle Solaris 11 Express, libpkcs11

Encryption Performance – AES-CBC

Performance is presented for in-memory AES-CBC mode encryption. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-256-CBC
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Th Performance Software Environment
SPARC T4 2.85 64 11,588 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 7,171 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 6,704 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
SPARC T3 1.65 32 5,980 Oracle Solaris 11 Express, libpkcs11
SPARC T4 2.85 1 748 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 592 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
Intel X5690 3.47 1 569 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
SPARC T3 1.65 1 336 Oracle Solaris 11 Express, libpkcs11

AES-192-CBC
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Th Performance Software Environment
SPARC T4 2.85 64 13,216 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 8,211 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 7,588 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
SPARC T3 1.65 32 6,333 Oracle Solaris 11 Express, libpkcs11
SPARC T4 2.85 1 862 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 672 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
Intel X5690 3.47 1 643 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
SPARC T3 1.65 1 358 Oracle Solaris 11 Express, libpkcs11

AES-128-CBC
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Th Performance Software Environment
SPARC T4 2.85 64 15,323 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 9,785 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 8,746 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
SPARC T3 1.65 32 6,347 Oracle Solaris 11 Express, libpkcs11
SPARC T4 2.85 1 1,017 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 781 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
Intel X5690 3.47 1 739 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
SPARC T3 1.65 1 434 Oracle Solaris 11 Express, libpkcs11

Encryption Performance – AES-CCM

Performance is presented for in-memory AES-CCM mode encryption with authentication. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption/authentication was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-256-CCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Th Performance Software Environment
SPARC T4 2.85 64 5,850 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 1,860 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 1,613 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
SPARC T4 2.85 1 480 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 258 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 190 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI

AES-192-CCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Th Performance Software Environment
SPARC T4 2.85 64 6,709 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 1,930 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 1,715 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
SPARC T4 2.85 1 565 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 293 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 206 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI

AES-128-CCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Th Performance Software Environment
SPARC T4 2.85 64 7,856 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 2,031 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 1,838 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
SPARC T4 2.85 1 664 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 321 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 225 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI

Encryption Performance – AES-GCM

Performance is presented for in-memory AES-GCM mode encryption with authentication. Multiple key sizes of 256-bit, 192-bit and 128-bit are presented. The encryption/authentication was performance on 32 KB of pseudo-random data (same data for each run).

AES-256-GCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Th Performance Software Environment
SPARC T4 2.85 64 6,871 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 4,794 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
Intel X5690 3.47 12 1,685 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 691 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
SPARC T4 2.85 1 571 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 253 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto

AES-192-GCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Th Performance Software Environment
SPARC T4 2.85 64 7,450 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 5,054 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
Intel X5690 3.47 12 1,724 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 727 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
SPARC T4 2.85 1 618 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 268 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto

AES-128-GCM
Microbenchmark Performance (MB/sec)
Processor GHz Th Performance Software Environment
SPARC T4 2.85 64 7,987 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 12 5,315 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
Intel X5690 3.47 12 1,781 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 765 Oracle Linux 6.1, IPP/AES-NI
SPARC T4 2.85 1 655 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto
Intel X5690 3.47 1 281 Oracle Solaris 11, libsoftcrypto

Configuration Summary

SPARC T4-1 server
1 x SPARC T4 processor, 2.85 GHz
128 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11

SPARC T3-1 server
1 x SPARC T3 processor, 1.65 GHz
128 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11 Express

Sun Fire X4270 M2 server
2 x Intel Xeon X5690, 3.47 GHz
Hyper-Threading enabled
Turbo Boost enabled
24 GB memory
Oracle Linux 6.1

Sun Fire X4270 M2 server
2 x Intel Xeon X5690, 3.47 GHz
Hyper-Threading enabled
Turbo Boost enabled
24 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11 Express

Benchmark Description

The benchmark measures cryptographic capabilities in terms of general low-level encryption, in-memory and on-chip using various ciphers, including AES-128-CFB, AES-192-CFB, AES-256-CFB, AES-128-CBC, AES-192-CBC, AES-256-CBC, AES-128-CCM, AES-192-CCM, AES-256-CCM, AES-128-GCM, AES-192-GCM and AES-256-GCM.

The benchmark results were obtained using tests created by Oracle which use various application interfaces to perform the various ciphers. They were run using optimized libraries for each platform to obtain the best possible performance.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of 1/13/2012.

Thursday Sep 29, 2011

SPARC T4 Processor Outperforms IBM POWER7 and Intel (Westmere AES-NI) on OpenSSL AES Encryption Test

Oracle's SPARC T4 processor is faster than the Intel Xeon X5690 (with AES-NI) and the IBM POWER7.

  • On single-thread OpenSSL encryption, the 2.85 GHz SPARC T4 processor is 4.3 times faster than the 3.5 GHz IBM POWER7 processor.

  • On single-thread OpenSSL encryption, the 2.85 GHz SPARC T4 processor is 17% faster than the 3.46 GHz Intel Xeon X5690 processor.

The SPARC T4 processor has Encryption Instruction Accelerators for encryption and decryption for AES and many other ciphers. The Intel Xeon X5690 processor has AES-NI instructions which accelerate only AES ciphers. The IBM POWER7 does not have cryptographic instructions, but cryptographic coprocessors are available.

Performance Landscape

The table below shows results when running the OpenSSL speed command with the AES-256-CBC cipher. The reported results are for a message size of 8192 bytes. Results are reported for a single thread and for running on all available hardware threads (no over subscribing).

OpenSSL Performance with
AES-256-CBC Encryption
Processor Performance (MB/sec)
1 Thread Maximum Throughput
(at number of threads)
SPARC T4, 2.85 GHz 769 11,967 (64)
Intel Xeon X5690, 3.46 GHz 660 7,362 (12)
IBM POWER7, 3.5 GHz 179 2,860 (est*)

(est*) The performance of the IBM POWER7 is estimated at 16 times the rate of the single thread performance. The estimate is considered an upper bound on expected performance for this processor.

Configuration Summary

SPARC Configuration:

SPARC T4-1 server
1 x SPARC T4 processors, 2.85 GHz
64 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11

Intel Configuration:

Sun Fire X4270 M2 server
1 x Intel Xeon X5690 processors, 3.46 GHz
24 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11

Software Configuration:

OpenSSL 1.0.0.d
gcc 3.4.3

Benchmark Description

The in-memory SSL performance was measured with the openssl command. openssl has an option for measuring the speed of various ciphers and message sizes. The actual command used to measure the speed of AES-256-CBC was:

openssl speed -multi {number of threads} -evp aes-256-cbc

openssl runs for several minutes and measures the speed, in units of MB/sec, of the specified cipher for messages of sizes 16 bytes to 8192 bytes.

Key Points and Best Practices

  • The Encryption Instruction Accelerators are accessed through a platform independent API for cryptographic engines.
  • The OpenSSL libraries use the API. The default is to not use the Encryption Instruction Accelerators.
  • Cryptography is compute intensive. Using all available threads streams, both the SPARC T4 processor and the Intel Xeon processor were able to saturate the memory bandwidth of the respective systems.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of 9/26/2011.

SPARC T4-1 Server Outperforms Intel (Westmere AES-NI) on IPsec Encryption Tests

Oracle's SPARC T4 processor has significantly greater performance than the Intel Xeon X5690 processor when both are using Oracle Solaris 11 secure IP networking (IPsec). The SPARC T4 processor using IPsec AES-256-CCM mode achieves line speed over a 10 GbE network.

  • On IPsec, SPARC T4 processor is 23% faster than the 3.46 GHz Intel Xeon X5690 processor (Intel AES-NI).

  • The SPARC T4 processor is only at 23% utilization when running at its maximum throughput making it 3.6 times more efficient at secure networking than the 3.46 GHz Intel Xeon X5690 processor.

  • The 3.46 GHz Intel Xeon X5690 processor is nearly fully utilized at its maximum throughput leaving little CPU for application processing.

  • The SPARC T4 processor using IPsec AES-256-CCM mode achieves line speed over a 10 GbE network.

  • The SPARC T4 processor approaches line speed with fewer than one-quarter the number of IPsec streams required for the Intel Xeon X5690 processor to achieve its peak throughput. The SPARC T4 processor supports the additional streams with minimal extra CPU utilization.

IPsec provides general purpose networking security which is transparent to applications. This is ideal for supplying the capability to those networking applications that don't have cryptography built-in. IPsec provides for more than Virtual Private Networking (VPN) deployments where the technology is often first encountered.

Performance Landscape

Performance was measured using the AES-256-CCM cipher in megabits per second (Mb/sec) aggregate over sufficient numbers of TCP/IP streams to achieve line rate threshold (SPARC T4 processor) or drive a peak throughput (Intel Xeon X5690).

Processor GHz AES Decrypt AES Encrypt
B/W (Mb/sec) CPU Util Streams B/W (Mb/sec) CPU Util Streams
– Peak performance
SPARC T4 2.85 9,800 23% 96 9,800 20% 78
Intel Xeon X5690 3.46 8,000 83% 4,700 81%
– Load at which SPARC T4 processor performance crosses 9000 Mb/sec
SPARC T4 2.85 9,300 19% 17 9,200 15% 17
Intel Xeon X5690 3.46 4,700 41% 3,200 47%

Configuration Summary

SPARC Configuration:

SPARC T4-1 server
1 x SPARC T4 processor 2.85 GHz
128 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11
Single 10-Gigabit Ethernet XAUI Adapter

Intel Configuration:

Sun Fire X4270 M2
1 x Intel Xeon X5690 3.46 GHz, Hyper-Threading and Turbo Boost active
48 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11
Sun Dual Port 10GbE PCIe 2.0 Networking Card with Intel 82599 10GbE Controller

Driver Systems Configuration:

2 x Sun Blade 6000 chassis each with
1 x Sun Blade 6000 Virtualized Ethernet Switched Network Express Module 10GbE (NEM)
10 x Sun Blade X6270 M2 server modules each with
2 x Intel Xeon X5680 3.33 GHz, Hyper-Threading and Turbo Boost active
48 GB memory
Oracle Solaris 11
Dual 10-Gigabit Ethernet Fabric Expansion Module (FEM)

Benchmark Configuration:

Netperf 2.4.5 network benchmark adapted for testing bandwidth of multiple streams in aggregate.

Benchmark Description

The results here are derived from runs of the Netperf 2.4.5 benchmark. Netperf is a client/server benchmark measuring network performance providing a number of independent tests, including the TCP streaming bandwidth tests used here.

Netperf is, however, a single network stream benchmark and to demonstrate peak network bandwidth over a 10 GbE line under encryption requires many streams.

The Netperf documentation provides an example of using the software to drive multiple streams. The example is not sufficient to develop the workload because it does not scale beyond a single driver node which limits the processing power that can be applied. This subsequently limits how many full bandwidth streams can be supported. We chose to have a single server process on the target system (containing either the SPARC T4 processor or the Intel Xeon processor) and to spawn one or more Netperf client processes each across a cluster of the driver systems. The client processes are managed by the mpirun program of the Oracle Message Passing Toolkit.

Tabular results include aggregate bandwidth and CPU utilization. The aggregate bandwidth is computed by dividing the total traffic of the client processes by the overall runtime. CPU utilization on the target system is the average of that reported by all of the Netperf client processes.

IPsec is configured in the operating system of each participating server transparently to Netperf and applied to the dedicated network connecting the target system to the driver systems.

Key Points and Best Practices

  • Line speed is defined as data bandwidth within 10% of theoretical maximum bit rate of network line. For 10 GbE greater than 9000 Mb/sec bandwidth is defined as line speed.

  • IPsec provides network security that is configured completely in the operating system and is transparent to the application.

  • Peak bandwidths under IPsec are achieved only in aggregate with multiple client network streams to the target server.

  • Oracle Solaris receiver fanout must be increased from the default to support the large numbers of streams at quoted peak rates.

  • The ixgbe network driver relevant on servers with Intel 82599 10GbE controllers (driver systems and Intel Xeon target system) was limited to only a single receiver queue to maximize utilization of extra fanout.

  • IPsec is configured to make a unique security association (SA) for each connection to avoid a bottleneck over the large stream counts.

  • Jumbo frames are enabled (MTU of 9000) and network interrupt blanking (sometimes called interrupt coalescence) is disabled.

  • The TCP streaming bandwidth tests, which run continuously for minutes and multiple times to determine statistical significance, are configured to use message sizes of 1,048,576 bytes.

  • IPsec configuration defines that each SA is established through the use of a preshared key and Internet Key Exchange (IKE).

  • IPsec encryption uses the Solaris Cryptographic Framework which applies the appropriate accelerated provider on both the SPARC T4 processor and the Intel Xeon processor.

  • There is no need to configure a specific authentication algorithm for IPsec. With the Encapsulated Security Payload (ESP) security protocol and choosing AES-256-CCM for the encryption algorithm, the encapsulation is self-authenticating.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of 9/26/2011.

SPARC T4-2 Server Beats Intel (Westmere AES-NI) on SSL Network Tests

Oracle's SPARC T4 processor is faster and more efficient than the Intel Xeon X5690 processor (with AES-NI) when running network SSL thoughput tests.

  • The SPARC T4 processor at 2.85 GHz is 20% faster than the 3.46 GHz Intel Xeon X5690 processor on single stream network SSL encryption.

  • The SPARC T4 processor requires fewer streams to attain near-linespeed of a 10 GbE secure network and does this with 5 times less CPU resources compared to the Intel Xeon X5690 processor.

  • Oracle's SPARC T4-2 server using 8 threads achieves line speed over a 10 GbE network with only 9% CPU utilization.

  • Oracle's Sun Fire X4270 M2 with two Intel Xeon X5690 processors achieves line speed with 8 threads, but at 45% CPU utilization.

The SPARC T4 processor has hardware support via Encryption Instruction Accelerators for encryption and decryption for AES and many other ciphers. The Intel Xeon X5690 processor has AES-NI instructions which accelerate only AES ciphers.

Performance Landscape

The following table shows single stream results running encrypted (SSL Read) and unencrypted (Clear Text) messages of 1 MB in size. These tests were run with the uperf benchmark and used the AES-256-CBC cipher. They were run across a 10 GbE connection. Write messages saw similar performance.

Single Stream Network Communication with Uperf
Processor Performance (Mb/sec)
Clear Text SSL Read
SPARC T4, 2.85 GHz 4,194 1,678
Intel Xeon X5690, 3.46 GHz 5,591 1,398

The next table shows how many streams it takes to achieve 90% of the 10 GbE network bandwidth (9000 Mb/sec) for encrypted read messages of 1 MB in size. These tests were run with the uperf benchmark and used the AES-256-CBC cipher. Write messages saw similar performance.

Uperf SSL Read with AES-256-CBC
Processor Number of
Streams for 90%
Network Utilization
CPU Utilization
SPARC T4, 2.85 GHz 8 9%
Intel Xeon X5690, 3.46 GHz 12 45%

Configuration Summary

SPARC T4 Configuration:

2 x SPARC T4-2 servers each with
2 x SPARC T4 processors, 2.85 GHz
128 GB memory
1 x 10-Gigabit Ethernet XAUI Adapter
Oracle Solaris 11
Back-to-back 10 GbE connection

Intel Configuration:

2 x Sun Fire X4270 M2 servers each with
2 x Intel Xeon X5690 processors, 3.46 GHz
48 GB memory
1 x Sun Dual Port 10GbE PCIe 2.0 Networking Card with Intel 82599 10GbE Controller
Oracle Solaris 11
Back-to-back 10 GbE connection

Software Configuration:

OpenSSL 1.0.0.d
uperf 1.0.3
gcc 3.4.3

Benchmark Description

Uperf is an open source benchmark program for simulating and measuring network performance. Uperf is able to measure the performance of various protocols, including TCP, UDP, SCTP and SSL. The uperf benchmark uses an input-defined workload to test network performance. This input workload can be used to model complex situations or to isolate simple tasks. The workload used for these tests was simple network reads and simple network writes.

Key Points and Best Practices

  • The Encryption Instruction Accelerators are accessed through a platform independent API for cryptographic engines.
  • The OpenSSL libraries use the API. The default is to not use the Encryption Instruction Accelerators.
  • Cryptography is compute intensive. Using 8 streams, the SPARC T4 processor was able to match the bandwidth of the 10 GbE network with 8 threads.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of 9/26/2011.

Wednesday Sep 28, 2011

SPARC T4-2 Server Beats Intel (Westmere AES-NI) on Oracle Database Tablespace Encryption Queries

Oracle's SPARC T4 processor with Encryption Instruction Accelerators greatly improves performance over software implementations. This will greatly expand the use of TDE for many customers.

  • Oracle's SPARC T4-2 server is over 42% faster than Oracle's Sun Fire X4270 M2 (Intel AES-NI) when running DSS-style queries referencing an encrypted tablespace.

Oracle's Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) feature of the Oracle Database simplifies the encryption of data within datafiles preventing unauthorized access to it from the operating system. Tablespace encryption allows encryption of the entire contents of a tablespace.

TDE tablespace encryption has been certified with Siebel, PeopleSoft, and Oracle E-Business Suite applications

Performance Landscape

Total Query Time (time in seconds)
System GHz AES-128 AES-192 AES-256
SPARC T4-2 server 2.85 588 588 588
Sun Fire X4270 M2 (Intel X5690) 3.46 836 841 842
SPARC T4-2 Advantage
42% 43% 43%

Configuration Summary

SPARC Configuration:

SPARC T4-2 server
2 x SPARC T4 processors, 2.85 GHz
256 GB memory
2 x Sun Storage F5100 Flash Array
Oracle Solaris 11
Oracle Database 11g Release 2

Intel Configuration:

Sun Fire X4270 M2 server
2 x Intel Xeon X5690 processors, 3.46 GHz
48 GB memory
2 x Sun Storage F5100 Flash Array
Oracle Linux 5.7
Oracle Database 11g Release 2

Benchmark Description

To test the performance of TDE, a 1 TB database was created. To demonstrate secure transactions, four 25 GB tables emulating customer private data were created: clear text, encrypted AES-128, encrypted AES-192, and encrypted AES-256. Eight queries of varying complexity that join on the customer table were executed.

The time spent scanning the customer table during each query was measured and query plans analyzed to ensure a fair comparison, e.g. no broken queries. The total query time for all queries is reported.

Key Points and Best Practices

  • Oracle Database 11g Release 2 is required for SPARC T4 processor Encryption Instruction Accelerators support with TDE tablespaces.

  • TDE tablespaces support the SPARC T4 processor Encryption Instruction Accelerators for Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) only.

  • AES-CFB is the mode used in the Oracle database with TDE

  • Prior to using TDE tablespaces you must create a wallet and setup an encryption key. Here is one method to do that:

  • Create a wallet entry in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/sqlnet.ora.
    ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION=
    (SOURCE=(METHOD=FILE)(METHOD_DATA=
    (DIRECTORY=/oracle/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/dbhome_1/encryption_wallet)))
    
    Set an encryption key. This also opens the wallet.
    $ sqlplus / as sysdba
    SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET ENCRYPTION KEY IDENTIFIED BY "tDeDem0";
    
    On subsequent instance startup open the wallet.
    $ sqlplus / as sysdba
    SQL> STARTUP;
    SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET ENCRYPTION WALLET OPEN IDENTIFIED BY "tDeDem0";
    
  • TDE tablespace encryption and decryption occur on physical writes and reads of database blocks, respectively.

  • For parallel query using direct path reads decryption overhead varies inversely with the complexity of the query.

    For a simple full table scan query overhead can be reduced and performance improved by reducing the degree of parallelism (DOP) of the query.

See Also

Disclosure Statement

Copyright 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Results as of 9/26/2011.
About

BestPerf is the source of Oracle performance expertise. In this blog, Oracle's Strategic Applications Engineering group explores Oracle's performance results and shares best practices learned from working on Enterprise-wide Applications.

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